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US-/.Z? 




f&arbarlr College iLibrarg 

THE GIPT OF 

FREDERICK ATHEARN LANE, 
OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

(CloM Of 1S49). 




THE 



SURNAMES & PLACE-NAMES 



ISLE OF MAN. 



A. W. MOORE, M.A. 



SRitk an £ntr0l)ttrtion 

BY 

PROFESSOR RHYS. 



^Asnc impresses 0/ the past are so abiding^ so none^ when once 
attention has been atwakened to them^ are so self-evident as those 
which names preserrfe.'—T RKUCH (on * The Study of Words.') 



•^LONDON: 
ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C. 

1890. 



Ayyj^ ^^^^./J^ 



ii 

•? 






< 



PREFACE. 



I AM at a loss what excuse to make for thrusting my- 
self into the foreground of this work, except that I have 
found it too hard to say * nay ' to its author, whom I 
have known for years as a scholar who takes the 
keenest interest in all that relates to the history of his 
native Island of Man. Among other things I was aware 
that he had singular facilities for studying everything of 
the nature of documentary evidence bearing on Manx 
proper names. Those who happen to have been 
acquainted with the 'Manx Note Book/ edited with 
such ability and such excellent taste by Mr, Moore^ 
will agree with me in this reference to him. It 
always struck me as a pity that he should not place 
on record the fruits of his familiarity with the official 
records of the Island ; and the expression, on my part, 
of that feeling on sundry occasions, is the only possible 
merit to which I could lay claim in connexion with 
this volume. 

The ground to be covered by the work is defined by 
the geography of Man, and so far so good ; but on the 
other hand, proper names, whether of persons or of 



iv l^itsfairie* 

places, usually present the most dififtcult problems of 
glottology, which any country can suggest ; and such 
cannot help being especially the case with a people like 
the ManX; whose home has proved the meeting place 
for Ivernians, Goidels, Scandinavians and Englishmen. 
Manx names are therefore a compromise, and where 
one can fathom the history of a Manx name, it proves 
of great interest, not only in its relation to its home, 
but also in regard to the light shed by it on what may 
have happened in the prehistory of other lands. 

Mr. Moore has given the reader not only the results 
of his reading in Manx documents, but he has also 
added remarks and notes intended to help the general 
reader with regard to the etymology of the names dis- 
cussed. Celtic philology, however, has of late years 
been making such rapid progress that it is the fate of 
everyone who writes on Celtic subjects to have con- 
stantly to revise his views. As for me, I have had, alas I 
more of this experience than I should care to call to 
mind at the present moment ; and Mr. Moore must not 
be surprised if the same necessity should overtake him 
as regards some of his derivations : it is the inevitable 
condition of every man, except him who thinks that 
he has done learning. 

Apart from all points as to which difference of 
opinion may be expected, the book teems with sugges- 
tions which cannot help interesting the students of 
archaeology and anthropology. With regard to the 
former, I need only mention the pages which abound 
in allusions to tumuli, cromlechs, and cairns ; and as 
to the latter, I refer to such articles as that on Chibber 
Unjin, * Ash Well,* over which grew formerly a sacred 



ash-tree, adorned with the bits of rags usually to be met 
with on such trees. Special mention may also be made 
of the article on Chibber Undin, * Foundation Well,* 
apparently so-called from its position near the founda- 
tions of an old chapel, twenty-one feet long by twelve 
broad. *The water of this well,' Mr. Moore tells us, 
* is supposed to have curative properties. The patients 
who came to it, took a mouthful of water, retaining it 
in their mouths till they had twice walked round the 
well. They then took a piece of cloth from a garment 
which they had worn, wetted it with the water from 
the well, and hung it on the hawthorn-tree which grew 
there. When the cloth had rotted away the cure was 
supposed to be effected.' When I visited the place, a 
somewhat more elaborate ritual was mentioned to me ; 
but here, as in the case of other wells in the island, the 
patient is supposed to transmit his complaint to the 
rag, and as the rag rots the disease perishes. If he 
makes an offering it consists usually of a coin, which 
is dropped into the well. But why the folklore man 
chooses to speak of the accursed rag as the offering 
and to ignore the coin, is a question which I cannot 
answer. It may be, however, that he thinks coins are 
too modern for him ; but a few centuries, more or 
less, make very little difference in such matters, and 
the rags are no less a product of civilization than are 
the coins. 

It is, however, to the student of history and glotto- 
logy that the work appeals as a whole ; and one of the 
points of interest to both will be the traces of a sort of 
double tradition which some of the Manx names force 
upon their notice. This can be best explained by taking 



vi "J^vtifatt. 

an example. The mountain now called South Barrule 
was formerly called Wardfell, so that a portion of it is 
still known by that name, modified into Warfield. 
Thus the actual forms in use are Barrule and Warfield, 
and these can be shown to be two forms of one and the 
same Norse name Vor^fjcdl, meaning 'Beacon Fell/ 
Such a name is connected with the institution of 

* Watch and Ward,' which was constantly enjoined on 
the inhabitants. From the statutes respecting this 
duty one finds that each parish had its warden, who 
was responsible for * the dutifuU and carefuU observance 
of watch and ward/ and this went on till the year 1815. 
The day-watch came to his post at sunrise, and the 
night-watch at sunset; the former is supposed to be 
commemorated by the hill naitie Cronk'ny-arrey-Lhaa, 
believed to mean the * Hill of the Watch by Day.' 
Such were also, probably, the watch and ward held on the 
mountain-tops called South Barrule and North Barrule. 

But how, it will be asked, could such a word as 
VorSfjall become Barrule ? It went through a series 
of changes, the chief of which were the following: 
according to Goidelic tendency, the stress would be laid 
on the first syllable with the effect of curtailing the 
second, so that the name became approximately * Varfl.' 
Similarly Snj6Qall, which is now called Snaefell, mean- 
ing *Snow Mountain/ became, probably Snj6fl; and, 
as Sartel is supposed to represent a Norse Svartfjall, 

* Black Mountain,' here also a contraction to * Sartfl ' 
probably happened. Then a further change took 
place, resulting in *f' being represented in modem 
Manx by u, as in lout, 'a loft/ in carroo, a carp,' 
from Norse karf-i, and in Calloo, the islet called the 



Ij^rBfac^* vii 

Calf of Man. Thus the three names would arrive at 
the stage Varrul, Sn'oul, and Sartul respectively. Now 
Sn^oul remains practically the Manx pronunciation of 
the name at the present day, though, more exactly, I 
should say that it is Sn*aul,v/ith a German au; but, under 
the influence of Goidelic accentuation, Sartul could not 
well avoid becoming Sartl, which is, approximately, the 
actual pronunciation of Sartel. Similarly, Varrul might 
have been expected to yield Varl, but other influences 
came to play : thus no Goidelic word began with a v, 
which occurred initially as a mutation of b. So, accord- 
ing to a tendency well known in all Celtic languages, 
the name came to be regarded in Manx as Barrul, 
li?ible in certain positions to be mutated into Varrul. 
In other words, it would be regarded by a Goidelic 
Manxman as having no separate existence except as 
Barrul. Thqn popular etymology set in and found 
Barrul sounding like the words barr ooyl, meaning the 
' top of an apple ;' and this is the popular notion now 
current as to the origin and meaning of the name. 
That there should have been two mountains called 
' apple-tops,' in the island, though neither seems to 
resemble an apple, is not very easy to believe ; but this 
idea has had the effect of stamping the accentuation 
of the words barr ooyl on Barrul, which is pronounced 
Barrule, or Barrool, with the stress on the final syllable. 
That this was the history of the name is rendered 
highly probable by the occurrence of the form Varoolc 
in the registers, in the name of a man designated 
Villy Varoole, or * Willie of Barrule.' 

The Goidelic tradition by which VorSfjall came down 
as Barrule, requires, phonetically speaking, more expla- 



viii 1I^V[tfact. 

nation than that which made the same word into the 
treen-name Wardfell and Warfield; but, historically, the 
latter presents a greater difficulty calling for further 
investigation, as it suggests that Norse names became 
English without a break. In that case one would have 
to suppose that the Norse, once spoken in the island, 
was superseded, not by Manx, but by English. If 
so, it is to be compared with the transition from Norse 
to English in Orkney and the Shetlands. In any case 
the dual tradition is not confined to Barrule and 
Warfield ; there are many other instances, such as the 
Calf of Man, which is in Manx called the Calloo, and 
Peel, which was Holme-tpwn, called in Manx Purt-ny- 
Hinshey^ meaning the ' Town of the Island.' 

Even the same duality exists, after a fashion, between 
the word Tinwald, from the Norse ThingvoUr, ' a par- 
liament field,' and the House of Keys, where Keys is 
possibly a word of Goidelic origin. Dr. Vigfusson, 
taking this for a Norse word, has left his opinion on 
record that it meant a house of Keise, or * chosen' men. 
But shortly before his death — a loss, alas ! which his 
numerous friends still deplore — I had a talk with him, 
in the course of which I asked him about the word keise, 
and found from what he said, that there was a difficulty 
in establishing the existence of such a form. Then I 
referred him to the house being called in Manx the 
Ktare-as-Feed, and any member of it a man of the Kiare- 
as-Feed. Then I explained that this, though literally 
meaning the * Four and Twenty,' was used as a single 
word ; that the first two-thirds of it were pronounced 
approximately K*arus or Karus ; and, further, that, 
though I had not heard it pronounced without the r, 



f^Xit^QXt* ix 

the omission of that consonant was not at all un- 
common in Manx Gaelic. ' My friend at once saw 
that I was going to suggest that Keys was merely the 
English pronunciation of Ktare-as, and with his usual 
candour he admitted that he thought it right : at any 
rate, he regarded it as far more probable than the 
etymology he had himself suggested. On a later 
occasion he returned to the same question, and took 
for granted that such was the origin of the word. As 
for me, I do not consider it very satisfactory ; but it 
may, perhaps, be provisionally accepted, especially as 
the folk etymology current in the Island is, that the 
members of the House of Keys are the twenty-four keys 
with which his Excellency, the Lieutenant-Governor, 
unlocks the difficulties of the law. 

Many a tedious talk pitched in this key have I had to 
hear through in the Island, while inwardly burning with 
impatience to be better engaged in ascertaining the pro- 
nunciation of a particular word, the gender of a noun, 
the use of a verb, or something of interest to me con- 
cerning a language, which, alas ! is daily dying away. 
The same, however, is the case with Manx as with 
languages mpre living : the information one seeks can 
only be got copiously diluted with the informant's own 
meditations. But, all in all, my attempts to learn 
Manx proved predominantly pleasant to both the 
teacher arid the taught; and Mr. Moore's book has 
the effect of enabling me to live over again the happy 
hours I spelled away in Elian Vannin. 

JOHN RHYS. 
Oxford, 

May 22, 1890. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



My aim in the following pages is to give a complete 
account of the Personal Names and Place-Names of 
the Isle of Man. With regard to the former, I can 
confidently state that no names which have continued 
in the island for more than a very limited period have 
been omitted ; and with regard to the latter, which 
are more dififtcult to secure, as changes are going on 
every year, I believe that I have included all of any 
importance. No one has hitherto attempted to explain 
Manx Personal Names, though there have been several 
explorers into the Place-Names, among whom is 
Canon Taylor, who, in his most interesting book on 
* Words and Places,' has correctly translated a few of 
them. The others, not being equipped with his know- 
ledge, have made the most ludicrous blunders, some 
of which are so amusing as to be worth quoting: 
Ballaugh — bealach, 'a pass;' Cassnahowin — Cassi- 
velaunus (a British chief). The following are some 
of a number supplied by an enthusiastic Welshman : 
SuLBY — Sul'dydd/ Sundsy;' Bemahague — benw-haig, 'a 



xii %niftmC» f^xitXeooi* 



multitude of women ;' Ballig — beddgw, ' a hedgehog ;' 
BiBALOE—pibawl, ' squirting ;' Ballakermeen — Bala- 
coT'trefau, ' a rising college in a small town ;' Maughold 
— Machiadf * making secure an embankment ;' Lonan 
— llcm, * full ;' CoNCHAN — congyl, * a corner, an angle.' 
From such mistakes as these I have been delivered by 
having a knowledge of the topography of the island; 
but I am fully conscious that I also must have made 
many mistakes, though scarcely of so obvious a kind, 
in dealing with such a difficult subject and one in 
which ambiguities necessarily abound. I therefore 
cast myself upon the indulgence of my readers, and 
shall hope for their aid in pointing out any errors I 
may have fallen into. 

I have to record my thanks to the rectors and vicars 
of the country parishes for their courtesy in permitting 
me to take notes from the registers under their charge. 

I have also to thank the Commissioners of H.M. 
Woods and Forests for giving me access to the 
Manorial Rolls ; and to the Place-Names Committee 
of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society for the names collected by them. To Pro- 
fessor Rh^s I am deeply indebted for his valuable 
preface, and to him. Canon Taylor, Mr. Henry Bradley, 
Dr. Joyce, whose excellent book on Irish Place-Names 
I have freely quoted, and the late Dr. Vigfusson for 
advice and assistance on various points. 

A. W. MOORE. 

Cronkbourne, Isle of Man. 
/une, 189a 




CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER 

INTRODUCTION 



I'AGE 

I 



PART I.— SURNAMES. 

I. SURNAMES OF CELTIC ORIGIN DERIVED FROM PER- 
SONAL NAMES : . 

(PART L) biblical AND HAGIOLOGICAL NAMES 
(part IL) NAMES OF PURELY NATIVE ORIGIN - 
IL SURNAMES OF CELTIC ORIGIN FROM TRADES OR 
OCCUPATIONS ; FROM DESCRIPTIVE NICKNAMES ; 
FROM DESIGNATION OF BIRTHPLACE - 
IIL SURNAMES OF SCANDINAVIAN ORIGIN - 
IV. EXOTIC SURNAMES - - - . - 

V. NAMES OBSOLETE BEFORE WRITl^EN RECORDS 
APPENDIX A : OBSOLETE CHRISTIAN NAMES - 

„ B: NICKNAMES - - - - 



23 
.36 



71 

79 

93 

109 

116 

118 



PART 1 1.— PLACE-NAMES. 

A.^Celtic. 

GENERIC TERMS FOR TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES - 1 29 

(PART L) SIMPLE NAMES- - - - I30 

(PART IL) COMPOUND NAMES - - - I42 

(part III.) DIMINUTIVES - - - - 157 



xiv Curtrt^ttftf* 



PART ll.—FLACE'N AMES— continued. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

II. NAMES OF DIVISIONS OF LAND NOT TOPOGRAPHICAL - l6l 
III. DISTINCTIVE AFFIXES : 

(PART l) substantives - - - - l66 

(part II.) ADJECTIVES - - - - 23 1 

B. — Scandinavian. 

iv. generic terms for topographical features : 

(part l) simple names - - - - 250 

(part II.) COMPOUND NAMES - - - 253 

V. NAMES OF DIVISIONS OF LAND, NOT TOPOGRAPHICAL 268 
VI. DISTINCTIVE PREFIXES : 

(part I.) SUBSTANTIVES - - - - 272 

(PART II.) ADJECTIVES - - - - 300 

VII. ENGLISH NAMES - - - - - "303 

INDICES : 

OF CELTIC ROOT WORDS - - - - 319 

OF SCANDINAVIAN ROOT WORDS - - - 33° 

OF SURNAMES - - - - - "332 

OF PLACE-NAMES - - - - "336 




INTRODUCTION. 



It is now generally recognised that the study of 
personal nomenclature occupies an important place 
amongst the subsidiary sources of historical illustra- 
tion. In modern Europe it is to the surnames rather 
than to what we call the Christian names that this 
illustrative value principally belongs. A complete and 
accurate account of the family nomenclature of any 
European country — an account including the etymology 
of each individual surname, and the locality and ap- 
proximate date of its first appearance — would tell us 
not a little respecting the ethnological elements exist- 
ing in the population of the country, the proportions in 
which these elements were represented in different 
districts, and the habits and occupations of the in- 
habitants during the period in which surnames came 
into existence. In the case of any of the larger 
countries of Europe, however, it is scarcely necessary 
to state that no complete history of family names has 
ever been written ; indeed, we may venture to regard 
the accomplishment of such a task as an impossibility. 
Many writers have attempted to treat partially of the 



2 WHeatx $tntnamit« anb t^Iatne-Banre^ 

origin of the surnames of England and of other lands ; 
but, from the want of documentary evidence, or the 
difficulty of consulting it, their statements are in- 
evitably in great part conjectural ; and the incomplete 
character of these attempts necessarily renders the 
general inferences which may be based upon them 
more or less insecure. The surnames of the Isle of 
Man have not, as yet, been systematically studied, but 
the small extent of the island, its isolated position, the 
comparatively stationary character of its population 
(before the present century), and the abundance of 
documentary material, are all circumstances which are 
favourable to the investigation of the subject. In the 
following chapters it is proposed, as completely as the 
means at the writer's disposal permit, to examine the 
surnames which are, or have been, in use in the Isle of 
Man ; to determine their etymology, when practicable, 
by the aid of documentary forms ; and to indicate the 
districts in which the names appear to have had their 
origin. 

The study of place-names, generally speaking, affords 
even more pregnant historical illustrations than that of 
surnames ; but in the Isle of Man they have been, for 
the most part, written at such a comparatively recent 
date as to be less valuable in this respect. Till the 
sixteenth century, indeed, when the Manorial Rolls 
began, there are not more than a hundred names 
recorded. Even the Manorial Rolls contain only the 
names of the Treens, or larger land divisions, and some 
few names of mills, no quarterland names having been 
entered till early in the following century, when 
Hooper's Survey was made. The coast, mountain, and 



Jnlit0^ttctt0n« 



river names, when they do not describe taxable pro- 
perties — and this is usually the case — are rarely found 
till a still later date, as the maps of the island before 
the present century were on a very small scale, 
and consequently contained but few names. Not- 
withstanding these drawbacks, an attempt will be 
made to examine these names in the same way 
as the surnames, and to illustrate them from other 
sources. 

The general results yielded by the analysis of Manx 
family and place nomenclature are such as might be 
anticipated from a consideration of the history of the 
Island and of its geographical position. The history 
of the Isle of Man falls naturally into three periods. In 
the first of these the Island was inhabited exclusively 
by a Celtic* people, identical in race and language 
with the population of Ireland. The next period is 
marked by the Viking invasions, and the establishment 
of Scandinavian rule. The third period is that of the 
English dominion, when the Island became open to 
immigration from Great Britain. 

With regard to the first of these periods, the Celtic, 
it is well known that the Isle of Man has a share in the 
legends that take the place of history in Ireland before 
the Christian era, and perhaps for some time after 
it ; and it is clear that its inhabitants were of the same 
race as the Irish, for Orosius, who wrote early in the 
fifth century, stated that the inhabitants of both countries 
were Scott, or the people who in the Celtic languages 

♦ Whenever the word Celtic is used it is to be understood as 
referring to the Goidelic branch only, not to the Cymric. 

I — 2 



4 IDanx $ttitnatn^« anb ^leitt-Hamtm* 

would be called Gael and GwyddyL It is also certain 
that, from the fifth to the eighth centuries, Manxmen 
were mainly Christianized by Irish missionaries, as 
some of these missionaries have left their names to our 
ancient keeilk and churches.* There are also recorded 
in the same way a few names of missionaries belonging 
to the Gallwegian and Columban churches, which 
would tend to show a connection, though probably a 
much less intimate one, with Galloway and the Western 
Isles of Scotland. These Celtic influences, though 
weakened by the Norse incursions and settlement, did 
not entirely cease till the English connection was 
finally established under the Stanleys. So firmly, 
indeed, were they implanted, that as late as the end of 
the eighteenth century the majority of the inhabitants 
of the Isle of Man still spoke their native Celtic 
tongue. 

With regard to the second period, we know that 
a great emigration from Scandinavia began early 
in the ninth century. It took two directions, one, 
mainly Danish, to the north-east of England, and the 
other, mainly Norwegian, to the coasts of the Shet- 
lands, Orkneys, Northern Scotland, the Western Isles, 
Ireland, and the Isle of Man. The annals of Ulster 
tell us that the earliest incursion of the Vikings took 
place in a.d. 794, and that in 798 they burned Inis- 
PATRICK, probably identical with Peel. These visitors 
seem at first to have mainly used the Isle of Man as a 
convenient centre for their forays upon the adjacent 
coasts, and as a dep6t for storing their spoil till they 
conveyed it home before the winter set in ; but in the 
* See Chap. III. 



Jnfr0lrurfian. 



year 852 the Norse Viking, Olave the White, reached 
Ireland with a large fleet, and founded a Norse princi- 
pality at Dublin. At the same period the Isle of Man 
must also have received numerous Scandinavian 
colonists, but they do not seem to have been strong 
enough to subdue the native inhabitants till about the 
end of the ninth century. From this period till 1270, 
when the Isle of Man fell \inder the dominion of the 
Scotch, it was mainly ruled by the Norsemen of 
Dublin, though there were intervals of independence 
and also of close connection with Norway. These 
Dublin Norsemen were, as would appear from the 
local nomenclature of the east coast of Ireland, mainly 
of Norwegian rather than of Danish origin, though the 
latter formed a considerable minority. It must also be 
remembered, in judging of the influence of the sur- 
rounding nationahties on Man at this time, that there 
was a considerable Scandinavian colony in Cumber- 
land, in which the Norwegian preponderance was 
greater than in Ireland. This influence, however, 
would have come to an end soon after the Norman 
conquest. In Man, therefore, lying midway between 
Ireland and Cumberland, we should expect to find 
traces of both Norwegians and Danes, with a pre- 
ponderance of the former, an expectation which is 
justified by an examination of the test-words of each 
nationality. By is both Danish and Norwegian, and is 
very common. Thorpe, found only once in the Isle of 
Man, and which, though very common in Lincolnshire, 
is rarely found on the adjacent English coasts, is 
almost exclusively Danish*. Toft, also Danish, which 
is as rare as thorpe in Cumberland, Lancashire, and 



6 Vianx Stntnatn^s anb j|9lars-Bant^«. 

Westmoreland, is found twice. The Norwegian thwaite, 
so common in Cumberland, is not found, nor are beck, 
with, and tarn, which are more Norwegian than 
Danish. Haugh and dale, on the contrary, to which 
•the same description applies, are common ; so are the 
purely Norwegian fell, garth, and gill, while the equally 
Norwegian foss does not occur. All the above words 
probably imply permanent colonization on the part of 
their donors, and are therefore more valuable than 
such names as vik, vagr, and nes in determining the 
nationality of the colonists. From the above instances 
we are justified in concluding that the Manx-Scandi- 
navian nomenclature is one in which the test -words of 
the Dane and the Norwegian are intermingled more 
completely than in any other part of the British 
Islands. Less Danish than East Anglia and Eastern 
Ireland, the Isle of Man is considerably more so than 
Cumberland, Westmoreland, and the Western Isles of 
Scotland. 

With regard to the third period, the EngHsh, which, 
commencing in the thirteenth century, had excluded 
all other influences by the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, it is only necessary to mention the fact that 
English names are now rapidly increasing at the 
expense of both Celtic and Scandinavian. 

Each of these three historical periods, therefore, 
has left its traces in our surnames and place-names. 
Considering surnames first, we find, as might be 
expected, that those of Irish derivation form the 
largest class. The Scandinavian epoch is represented 
by a considerable number of surnames inherited firom 
the Vikings. It is noteworthy, however, that in nearly 



Jnhr0^tttfimu 



every case these Scandinavian names are Celticized 
in form — that is to say, they have received the Irish 
preiSx MaCy and have undergone the kind of phonetic 
corruption which was inevitable when they had to 
pass through Celtic-speaking lips. Nor is it diificult 
to show how this would take place; for the ancient 
records tell us that neither Danes nor Norwegians 
drove out the native Goidelic inhabitants they found 
in Man and the Sudreys, and as it was not likely 
that many Scandinavian women would accompany 
the men on their long and dangerous voyages, they 
would consequently marry native women. The mixed 
population thus formed was called gallgotdel, a name 
applied to goidelic people, who became subject to 
the galls, or strangers {i.e., the Norsemen), and con- 
formed to their customs. 

Of these two facts, viz, the continuance of the 
natives in the Island and the intermarriage of the 
Norsemen with the native women, we have ample con- 
firmation from the names preserved on our inscribed 
Runic crosses. The mixed Scandio-Gaelic composition 
of the Manx people has recently received a remarkable 
confirmation by the investigation into the physical 
anthropology of the Isle of Man by Dr. Beddoe,* who 
has pronounced that a very large majority of the 
present population distinctly bears this type. The 
language spoken by this mixed race was doubtless 
for the most part Gaelic, which in the Isle of Man 
gradually superseded Scandinavian, as in England the 
old Saxon tongue superseded the Norman, mainly, of 
course, in both cases, through the influence of the 
* Manx Note Book, No. 9, pp. 23-33. 



8 Manx 9nxnamti» axitf ^(atc-(Bamita. 

women, who would naturally teach their children their 
own tongue rather than that of their fathers. 

The English rule introduced into the Island many 
surnames from Great Britain, and this process is still 
going on. Some of the older of these imported names 
underwent translation into the native language. On 
the other hand, the use of the English language in the 
Island has led to the translation of certain native 
names into English ; and it appears that (as was the 
case also in Ireland) some families have been known 
both by their native Celtic surname and by its sup- 
posed English equivalent, the one or the other being 
adopted according as the language used was English or 
Manx. Amongst the indirect consequences of the 
English connection may be reckoned the partial 
colonization of the Isle of Man by the Anglo-Norman 
settlers in Ireland, which has given us the Hibernicized 
Norman surnames common in certain districts. The 
geographical separation of the Isle of Man from the 
mother-country, Ireland, caused the Manx dialect to 
become, in course of time, materially differentiated 
from the Irish speech with which it was originally 
identical. From the same cause many of the originally 
Irish surnames of the Island have undergone a degree 
of phonetic corruption that covers them with a disguise 
which can only be penetrated by a recourse to early 
documents. The prefix Mac has, in many cases, fallen 
away altogether ; in other cases it is represented only 
by its final consonant. This is the explanation of the 
many names beginning with C, K, or Q, such as 
Callister, Clague, Coole, Kelly, Killip, Keig, 
QuiGGiN, QuiLLiAM, QuALTROUGH, etc., the frequency 



Sxdvi^tnxxiixnu 



of which is so striking to any visitor to the Island- 
Where the syllable Mac was prefixed to personal names 
beginning with Giolla or Gutlley ('servant of), the 
initial syllables have been frequently contracted into 
Myley, the surname Mac Gilley Chreest or Mac 
Gilchrist, for instance, becoming Mylechreest or 
Mylchreest. Early in the sixteenth century the 
prefix Mac was almost universal ; a hundred years 
later it had almost disappeared. The old distich 
says: 

*Per Mac atque O, tu veros cognoscis Hibernos, 
His duobus demptis, nullus Hibernus adest/ 

i.e., 

* By Mac and O 
You'll always know 
True Irishmen, they say ; 
But if they lack 
Both O and Mac 
No Irishman are they.' 

O never took root in the Isle of Man, but Mac has left 
numerous traces of its existence. 

Women had the curious prefix ine, a shortened form 
of inney (' daughter ')* before their names. Thus, in 
1511, we find Donald Mac Cowley and Kathrin Ine 
Cowley. After the middle of the seventeenth century 
ine is not found, though Inney survived as a Christian 
name till about a century later. 

In Europe generally surnames may be divided, with 
regard to their derivation, into four classes : (i) Those 
derived firom the personal name of an ancestor ; (2) 
Those derived from trades and occupations ; (3) Those 

* Cf. Irish ntf a contraction of inghtn. 



lo OSanx SnxnamtB antr |9Iat^- Aitm«* 

which originally indicated place of birth or residence ; 
and (4) Those which were originally nicknames 
descriptive of a person's appearance in character, or 
residence, or containing an allusion to some fact in his 
history. The Celtic and Celto-Scandinavian surnames 
of the Isle of Man, however, belong almost exclusively 
to the first and second of these classes. The evidence 
of early documents shows that nearly all of them at one 
time contained the prefix Mac followed either by a 
Christian name or by a word denoting a trade or 
calling. 

The native portion of the nomenclature will, there- 
fore, here be discussed under two heads: surnames 
derived from Christian names, and surnames derived 
from words significant of occupations, nationality, and 
other personal characteristics. Although in the Isle 
of Man descriptive nicknames scarcely ever became 
hereditary, and therefore have contributed in very 
slight degree to our list of surnames, they have been 
and still are quite as largely used as in other countries 
as a means of distinguishing between namesakes. A 
considerable number of these distinguishing epithets 
may be found in our Parish Registers and other early 
documents, which, as they may be fairly regarded as 
so much unused raw material of family nomenclature, 
will be given in an appendix. 

It has already been stated that an attempt will be 
made in these pages to assign the etymology, so far as 
it can be ascertained, of the Celtic or Scandinavian 
names discussed. Many of these are derived from 
Biblical or Hagiological Christian names which are the 
common property of Europe. In these cases it will be 



Jntr^^u^imu " 



sufficient to give the ordinary English form of the 
Christian names in question. When surnames are 
derived from personal names of purely Celtic or Scandi- 
navian formation, the original forms of the personal 
names will be quoted from Irish or Icelandic docu- 
ments. To translate a compound name as if it formed 
a significant whole is generally a mistake; but the 
meaning of the roots from which the names are formed 
will usually be stated. Out of about 170 surnames 
which were in use in the Isle of Man at the beginning 
of the present century, about 100 or 65 per cent, are of 
Celtic origin, and about 30, or 175 percent., of Scandio- 
Celtic origin. The place-names of the Isle of Man, like 
the surnames, clearly demonstrate the Scandio-Celtic 
character of its population, with a strong preponder- 
ance of the latter element. For an analysis of these 
names shows that out of about 1,500 names in use in 
the Island at the present day, rather more than 1,000, 
or 68 per cent., are purely Celtic ; about 130, or 9 per 
cent., are purely Scandinavian; while about 90, or 6 
per cent., are of mixed Celtic and Scandinavian origin. 
There are about 80 English names, or 5*4 per cent. ; 
about 50 names, or 3*3 per cent., of mixed English and 
Celtic, and about 20, or i'3 per cent., of mixed English 
and Scandinavian names ; while the remaining 100 
names, or 7 per cent, can only be classed as of doubt- 
ful, though probably mainly Celtic, origin. It can be 
shown, too, that the distribution of the Celtic and 
Scandinavian names is remarkably regular throughout 
the Island. For, taking the treen and quarierland 
names, we find that there are 310 Celtic and 66 
Scandinavian names in the northern parishes, and 286 



12 Manx Surnamit* «n^ ^9la«-lEtamit«* 

Celtic and 70 Scandinavian in the southern — a very 
similar proportion. 

The origin of the place-names being, as stated above, 
for the most part comparatively recent, has had, with 
regard to the Celtic names, the effect of rendering them 
easily explainable, as they were understood till recently 
by most of the people who used them, and their forms 
are in accordance with the pronunciation of the present 
day. They resemble the Irish place-names more closely 
than the Scotch, though, owing to the later connection 
with Scotland, the Isle of Man having been under 
Scotch rule during the end of the thirteenth century, 
the language approaches more closely to Scotch than 
Irish. With regard to the Scandinavian names the 
case is very different, for, having been for centuries in 
the mouths of people speaking a totally different 
language, they became in many cases hopelessly 
corrupt. To show this we append an account of the 
* Limits of the church lands in the Isle of Man,' given 
in the Chronicon Mannice, which was probably written 
about the end of the fourteenth century. The spelling 
of both Johnstone's* (1786) translation and of Munch's 
(1874) are given, and the modern names, which, it 
will be observed, are mainly of Celtic origin, are 
also appended in brackets. 

I. This is the line that divides the king's lands from 
those belonging to the Monastery of RussiN : It runs 
along the wall and ditch which is between Castleton 
and the Monks' Lands ; it winds to the south between 
the Monks' Meadow and M'EwfEN's Farm or Mac- 
Akoen's Farm ; ascends the rivulet between Gylosen 
* Johnstone's names are given first 



Snfir02ntrti0iu 13 



or Gylozen (Glashen), and the Monks' Lands ; turns to 
Hentraeth, goes round Hentraeth (Rhenshent) and 
TROLLO-TOFTor TROLLA-TOFTHAR,(Slieu-ny-clagh) along 
the ditch and wall ; descends by the ditch and wall to the 
river near Oxwath ; turns up the same river to a rivulet 
between Ar-os-in or Aryeuzrin, and Staina or Stay- 
NARHEA ; goes down to the valley called Fanc (Nank) ; 
mounts up the ascent of the hill called Wardfell or 
Warzfel, (South Barrule) ; descends to the brook 
MouROU ; ascends from the brook Mourou along the old 
wall to RosFELL ; descends along the same wall between 
CoRNAMA (Cordeman) and Tot-man-by (Tosaby) ; de- 
scends obliquely along the same wall between Ox-raise- 
HERAD or OxRAYZER (Lhergy-clagh-Willey) and Tot- 
man-by (Tosaby) to the river called Corna. Corna is 
the boundary between the king and the monaster}^ in 
that quarter to the ford which lies in the highway 
between Thorkel's farm (Kerroo-kiel), otherwise Kirk 
Michael, and Herinstad or Herinstaze (Kerroo- 
moar) ; the line then passes along the wall which is the 
limit between the above-mentioned Thorkel's estate 
and Bally-sallach or Balesalazc (Ballasalla) ; it 
then descends obliquely along the same wall between 
Cross-Ivar-Builthan or Crosy-vor-Byulthan (Cros- 
sag or Balthane), and so surrounds Bally-sallach ; it 
then descends from Bally-sallach along the wall and 
ditch to the river of Russin or Russyn, as is well 
known to the inhabitants ; it then winds along the 
banks of that river in different directions to the above- 
mentioned wall and ditch, which is the limit between the 
abbey land and that belonging to the castle of Russin. 
2. This is the line that divides the lands of Kirker- 



14 Meinx $ttttnams« anlr jpiaw-iftam^0. 

cus or KiRKCUST (Kirkchrist Lezayre), from the abbey 
lands : It begins at the lake at Myreshaw or Myrosco 
(Ballamonagh), which is called Hesca-nappayse or 
Hescana-ap-payze (Glenduff) ; and goes up to the 
dry moor directly from the place called Monenyrsana 
Munenyrzana (Ballameanagh) ; along the wood to 
the place called Leabba-ankonathway or Leabbaas 
KoNATHAY ; it then ascends to Roselan or Rozelean 
(Claddagh), as far as the brook Gryseth (Kella) ; and 
so goes up to Glendrummy or Glennadroman, and 
proceeds up to the king's way and the rock called 
Carigeth or Karracheth, as far as the Deep- 
pool or DUPPOLLA (Nappin), and descends along the 
rivulet and Hatharyegorman or Hatharygegorman, 
and so descends along the river Sulaby to the wood of 
Myreshaw or Myresco ; it incloses three islands in the 
lake of Myreshaw (Ballamona) ; and descends along 
the did moor to Duf-loch, and so winds along and 
ends in the place called Hescanakeppage (Balla- 
karka). 

3. This is the line which divides the king's lands from 
those of the abbey towards Skemestor or Skynnescor 
(Skinscoe): It begins from the entrance of the port 
called Lax-a (Laxey); and goes up that river in a line 
under the mill to the glynn lying between St. Nicholas 
Chapel and the manor of Greta-stad or Greta-taz 
(Grettest) ; it then proceeds by the old wall, as is known 
to the inhabitants, along the winding declivities of the 
mountains, till it comes to the rivulet between Toftar- 
As-MUND (FoUit-e-Vanninn) and Ran-curlin or Ryn- 
KURLYN (Glyncoolieen) ; it then descends to the boun- 
daries of the manor called Orm's-house or Orumsouz 



JnttJOi^naimu 15 



and ToFTAR-AS-MUND (Brough-ny-soo), and, as is known 
to the country people, descends to the sea. 

It will be observed from the above that there has 
been a gradual process of substituting Celtic for 
Scandinavian names, which continued till the begin- 
ning of the present century. In the earliest manorial 
rolls there are 146 treen names, which can be definitely 
assigned to either the Goidelic or Scandinavian lan- 
guages ; and of these 83, or considerably more than one- 
half, are Scandinavian. During the sixteenth century, 
however, the Scandinavian predominance had com- 
pletely passed away, for early in the seventeenth century 
we find that of 585 quarterland names (the qimrterland 
being usually one fourth of the treen) which now appear 
for the first time, 533, or more than nine-tenths, were 
of Celtic origin. Yet, though many Scandinavian 
names have become corrupt, some have escaped this 
fate by having fallen out of popular use during the last 
three centuries, and a considerable number have re- 
mained practically unaltered in form to the present 
day, such as SNiEFELL, Fleshwick, Langness, 
Laxey, Grenaby, Trollaby, etc., and several Scandi- 
navian words, such as ghaw igja), sker, stack, how 
{Haugr), ooig {ogr), have been adopted into Manx. 
' And,' says Munch, * very remarkable is the fact, that 
although so early severed from Norway, and with a 
population more Gaelic than Norwegian, the Isle of 
Man has preserved until our days the outward form, at 
least, of the legislature peculiar to Norway in former 
times, and organized by the Norwegians wherever they 
formed settlements. Even the name of the place 
where the annual meeting is held, the Tinwald, is the 



i6 WBiaxtx $in^am» m^ ^(at]e-Bamit«« 

old Norwegian denomination of ]>ingvollr (field of the 
Thing, or Parliament), only slightly modified.'* 

In treating of this subject of Manx place-names, the 
writer has the advantage of an intimate personal know- 
ledge of the Isle of Man, without which the most 
learned etymologist would assuredly often go astray. 
He has in every case obtained the earliest recorded 
form of each name, and has interpreted it in accord- 
ance with the laws of phonetic change, tempered by a 
due regard for its applicability to the locality which it 
describes, and for the various causes of corruptions, 
such as ignorance of the language and carelessness in 
spelling. He has taken for granted that those who 
gave the names considered them to be accurate 
descriptions of the localities to which they dre applied, 
and that they are never mere arbitrary sounds, but 
have a rational significance. Acting, therefore, on 
these principles, he has carefully avoided etymological 
guesses, or, if in a few cases he has not done so, he has 
stated that they are not to be relied upon, and in order 
to substantiate the correctness of the words given, he 
has, in all cases where they could be discovered, quoted 
the corresponding words in cognate languages. With 
regard to the Celtic words, he has invariably called 
attention in doubtful cases as to whether they are (i) 
in common use, (2) used colloquially, (3) occur in Irish 
or Gaelic, (4) mentioned by one Manx lexicographer 
only, and, if not found in a Manx dictionary, proofs are, 
if possible, given of their genuineness. Scandinavian 
words not being in colloquial use could not receive 
identical treatment. 

* Introduction to Chron, AfannicBy Manx Society, Vol. XX I L, 
p. 31. 



MttitiOftKnctitfrL 17 



It remains to give an account of the documentary 
aids which have been employed in the present inquiry. 

First, with regard to the surnames : There are a few 
names found, before the time of written records, 
engraved on stones in the Ogam and Runic character, 
which will be discussed separately in Chapter VI. 

The earliest of the records is the Chronican Mannice 
(A.D. 1017-1376), kept by the Monks of Rushen Abbey. 
It contains but few names, and is, consequently, of but 
little use for our purpose. There is no record of sur- 
names worth mentioning till a.d. 1408, the date of the 
' Declaration of the Bishop, Abbot, and Clergy against 
the claim of Sir Stephen Lestrop.'* From 1417-1511 
our chief authority in the Statute Law Book of the 
Isle of Man, wherein * ensueth diverse ordinances, 
statutes, and customes, presented, reputed, and used 
for Laws in the Land of Mann, that were ratified, 
approved, and confirmed, as well by the honourable 
Sir John Stanley, Knight, King and Lord of the same 
Land, and diverse others his Predecessors, as by all 
Barrons, Deemsters, Officers, Tennants, Inhabitants, 
and Commons of the same Land.'f The Libri 

* Oliver's Monumenta, Vol. II., p. 247. — Manx Society, Vol. VII. 

t The Statutes of the Isle of Man, edited by J. Frederick Gill, 
1883, p. 3. The spelling of the personal names in this edition has 
been adhered to, except that the names in 141 7 have been taken 
from ^^ facsimile of the copy in the Rolls Office, given as frontis- 
piece to Vol. III. of the Manx Society's publications. The full 
lists of the ' Commons of Mann ' in 1429 and 1430, and the names 
of the members of the * Quest taken at the Castell of Rushene ' in 
1 521, and of the Jury in 1570, as they are not given in the Statute 
Law Book, have also been taken from the Acts in this volume, 
which have been printed from the MS. copy in the British 
Museum. 



i8 aHanx 9nvinams» atitf ^toc^-Bami^iff* 

Assedationis, and Libri Vastarum, or Manorial Rolls, 
which commence in 1511, and have been continued at 
intervals since that time to the present day, form the 
chief source of our information till the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, when we have the Parish Registers 
to refer to.* The earliest Parish Register, that of 
Ballaugh, commences in 1598. Our Registers are 
especially interesting from the way they show the dis- 
tribution of the various names. Thus, on the low 
sandy coast of Bride, Jurby, Ballaugh, and Michael, 
where the Vikings of old could easily run their flat- 
bottomed ships on shore, Scandinavian names are most 
common. On the south-west coast, adjacent to Ireland, 
we find a predominance of the Hibernicised Anglo- 
Norman names, borne by the descendants of the Mac 
Walters and the Mac Williams ; while in the centre 
and on the east coast the names which came from 
Ireland at an earlier date and those of purely native 
formation are most frequent. It is remarkable how 
very seldom people moved from parish to parish before 
the present century. Names quite common in one 
parish were hardly known in the next. 

The documentary aids employed for elucidating the 
place-names are the same as the above with the 
addition of a few ancient charters published by the 
Manx Society in their Volumes IV., VIL, IX., XXL, 
and XXII. Wood's Atlas and Gazetteer, Brown's 
Gazetteer, and the 25-inch Ordinance Maps have also 

* Ic must be remembered that the earlier records in the Isle of 
Mann are written in Latin, and that, consequently, many of the 
proper names are corrupted by being Latinised. In the Registers 
the different forms of a name frequently arise from careless spell> 
tng, as correct orthography is quite of a late date. 



Jnliti^utfimu 19 



been made use of;* and a considerable number of field- 
names have been rescued from oblivion.f 

Indices are given (i) of all the surnames, whether 
obsolete or not, the former being indicated by italics ; 
(2) of all place-names ; and there is also a glossary of 
Manx root-words with their cognates in Irish, Gaelic, 
Welsh, etc. 

Our information respecting old Irish personal names 
has been chiefly derived from the following sources : 
(i) The Annals of the Four Masters, edited by 
O' Donovan (Dublin, 1856), which were mainly com- 
piled by Michael O'Clery, a Franciscan Friar, between 
A.D. 1632-6, from the then existing Irish MSS. They 
extend from fabulous antiquity to a.d. 1616. (2) The 
Chronicon Scotorum^ a chronicle of Irish affairs from the 
earliest times to a.d. 1150, edited by W. M. Hennessy 
(London, 1866). (3) The Topographical Poems of 
O'Dubhagain and O'Huidhrin, edited by O'Donovan 
(Dublin, 1862). For the original forms of the Scandi- 
navian names to (i) The Landndma-bSc, which is a 
record of the colonization of Iceland {Clarendon Press, 
Oxford). (2) Cleasby and Vigfusson's great Icelandic 
Dictionary (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1874). (3) The 
Flateyjarboc (Copenhagen), the Sturlunga and other 
Sagas (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1878). For the ex- 
planation of the place-names, in addition to the above, 
and for purposes of illustration and comparison, refer- 

* The spelling of the names in each of these three last authori- 
ties, which are all of recent origin, is frequently very corrupt. 

t The field-names in the parishes of Braddan and Onchan have 
been collected by the writer, and in the parishes of Maughold, 
Lezayre, Ballaugh, and Michael by the Place- Names Committee of 
the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

2 — 2 



20 tnianx ivacaeawm an)r iptoce-Bami^s* 

ence has been made for Celtic names to (i) Kelly's 
Manx Grammar (Manx Society, Vol. II.) ; (2) Kelly's 
Triglot Dictionary, in MS. (1808) ; (3) The Manx 
Society's Dictionarj', edited by the Revs. W. Gill and 
J. T. Clarke, from Kelly's Triglot (1859) ; (4) Cregeen's 
Dictionary (1835). These Manx Dictionaries are all 
very incomplete and unsatisfactory: Cregeen's being 
the most trustworthy. (5) The Manx Bible (1772) ; 

(6) O'Reilly's Irish-English Dictionary (Dublin, 1877) ; 

(7) Macleod's andDewar's Gaelic Dictionary (Glasgow, 
1870) ; (8) Irish Names of Places, Joyce (4th edition, 
and 2nd series, Dublin, 1875) ; (9) Studies in the 
Topography of Galloway, Sir Herbert Maxwell (Edin- 
burgh, 1887) ; (10) A Glossary of Cornish Names, Dr. 
John Bannister (1869); (j^) Words and Places, Canon 
Isaac Taylor. For Scandinavian names to (i) Glossary 
of Shetland and Orkney Dialect, Thomas Edmonston 
(London, 1866) ; (2) Glossary of Scandinavian Names 
in the Hebrides, Capt. Thomas (Scottish Antiquarian 
Society); (3) Lincolnshire and the Danes, Streatfield 
(London, 1884) ; (4) Words and Places, Canon Taylor ; 
(5) Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary (Edinburgh, 1867), 
The information given about objects of antiquarian 
interest has been partly taken from the Report of the 
Archaological Commissioners of the Isle of Man, 1878, and 
from additional MS. notes appended thereto. 

Explanatory Note. 

The surnames are in small capitals and their derivations in 
italics. All words in any language but English are in italics. The 
dates in square brackets are the earliest, as far as can be ascer- 
tained, at which they are found in the insular records. The date 
(i 511) is to be considered to stand for both 151 1 and 1515 ; the 
-former being that of the earliest rent-roll of the sheadings of 



JxttxiXi^vul Ul lU 



Rushen, Middle, and Garff, and the latter that of the earliest rent- 
roll of the remaining three sheadings. No dates are given after 
the end of the eighteenth century. The following abbreviations 
are made use of in Part I. : vc, very common ; c, common ; u, un- 
common ; w, wanting, which refer to the comparative cystribution 
of the various names in the respective parishes before the present 
century. [For this purpose a careful analysis of all the parish 
registers (17) has been made.] 

O.N, — Old Norse, or Scandinavian. 

F'our Mast — For Annals of Four Masters. 

Chron. Scot, — For Chronicon Scotorum. 

O^Dubkagain and O^Huidhrin, — For the topographical poems 
by those authors. 

Cy Donovan JntroducHon. — For the introductory account of Irish 
surnames given by the editor of the above poems. 

All place-names are likewise in small capitals, except the 
Scandio-Celtic and Anglo-Celtic names in the Celtic text and 
in the index, the Scandinavian and English portions of which are 
indicated by italics. 

The following abbreviations are made use of in Part II. : £, 
English ; F, feminine ; C, Cregeen ; CI*, Clarke ; G, Gaelic ; Gi* 
Gill ; I, Irish ; K, Kelly ; M, masculine ; N, neuter ; Ob, obsolete ; 
S or O N, Old Norse, or Scandinavian ; W, Welsh ; ?, doubtful. 

* When CI and Gi are quoted it means that the word is given by 
them only. 



MANX SURNAMES. 



CHAPTER I. 

SURNAMES OF CELTIC ORIGIN DERIVED FROM PERSONAL 

NAMES. 

Part I. — Biblical and Hagiological Names. 

In treating of the surnames derived from personal or 

* Christian ' names, it will be convenient, though not 
quite in accordance with the order of historical se- 
quence, to begin with those which are formed from the 
Biblical and Hagiological names imported by the 
early Christian missionaries. These names were in 
very frequent use in Ireland and the Isle of Man. It 
is important to observe that while the names of saints 
were themselves given in baptism, they more frequently 
gave rise to secondary Christian names formed by 
prefixing the Irish word Giolla, * servant ' ; or, in the 
Isle of Man, the Manx form guilley.* Thus the name 

* Feminine Christian names were often formed in a correspond- 
ing manner by the use of the prefix cailleach^ *a nun, or female 
servant/ which is usually corrupted into calliy as Callivorry, 

* Mary's nun ;' Callichrist, * Christ's nun.' 



24 ntanx Snuffiamtist antf Ij^Uut-VLamviigu 

of John {Eoin) became a common Christian name 
amongst the Celts, but its derivative Giolla Eoin, 
* servant of St. John/ was still more generally used. 
Both these classes of names have contributed to the 
list of Manx Surnames. For instance, while the de- 
scendants of Eoin were called MacEoin, and ultimately 
Kewin, the descendants of Giolla-Eoin are known by 
the corrupted surnames Gelling and Lewin, and, as 
has been already stated in the introduction, the com- 
binations Macgiolla and Macguilley have been in many 
cases contracted into Myley. In other instances it has 
disappeared altogether, so that it is sometimes un- 
certain whether a particular surname is derived from 
a primary Christian name or from the secondary name 
formed upon it. In the following list we shall en- 
deavour, where documentary evidence is forthcoming, 
to distinguish between these two modes of derivation, 
and the family names formed from a secondary Christian 
name will be placed after those formed from the 
corresponding primary name. 
Lucas, the same name as Luke, was formerly common 

in the Isle of Mann, but since the middle of the 

seventeenth century it has been almost entirely 

superseded by Clucas. 
Lucas [1429]. 
Clucas, contracted from MacLucais, * Luke's son,* is a 

purely Manx name. 
MacLucas [1511], Clucas [1643], Clugas [1655]. 

Jurby, Marown (vc), Braddan, Maughold, Malew, Santon, 

Rushen (c), elsewhere (u). 

KissACK, contracted from Maclsaac, * Isaac's son,* is 

rarely found except in the Isle of Man. Gilbert 

McIssAK was one of the twenty-four " Keys of 



$ttmain» uf QTs^ttfr 0x\^\ru 25 

Mann " in 1417, and in 1422 Hawley M'Issacke 
" was arraigned for that he felloniously rose upon 
John Walton, Lieutenant of Mann, sitting in the 
Court of Kirk Michael!,"* Compare — (Gaelic) 
M'IsAAC, M'KissACK ; (English) Isaacs, Isaacson. 

McISSAK [1417], M'ISSACKE, McKlSSAG [1422] , 
MacKiSSAGE [1429], M'ISACKE, M'ISAACKE [1430], 
M'ISAACK [1504], KiSSAGE [1586], KiSSAK [1599], 
KySSAGGE [1601], KiSSAG, KiSSAIGE [1610], 

Kysaige [1629]. 

Santon (vc), Ballaugb, Lezayre, Michael, Braddan, 
Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 

Kewin, contracted from MacEotn, * John's son.' 

' In the province of Ulster the English family of 
Bissett, seated in the Glius,in the County of Antrim, 
assumed the Irish surname of MacEoin, MaKeon, 
from an ancestor Huan, or John, Bissett.'f 

Patrick McJon was one of the 24 ' Keys of Mann ' in 
1417. (This name is wrongly spelt McGon in the 
Statute Law Book.) 

In the Charter of the Bishopric of Man, a.d. 1505, 
we find ' Confirmation of Churches, Lands and 
Liberties, given, granted, and made by the most 
noble Lord Thomas, Earl of Derby, Lord Stanley, 
Lord of Mann and the Isles, to Huan, Bishop of 
Sodor and to his successors.*! Compare — (Irish) 
Keon, McKeon, McKeown, and McKeowin ; 
(Gaelic) McEwen; (Welsh) Bevan. 

McJoN [1417], McJoHN [1429], M'Kewne [1504], 
McKewn [1511], Kewyne [1540], Kewen [1609], 

* Statute Law Book, p. 21. t O'Donovan Introduction, p. 24. 
% Manx Society, Vol. IX., p. 27. 



26 teteinx $uitnam»« 

Kewn [1671], Kewne [1672], Kewin [1700], 
Keon [1715], Keoin [1732]. 

Jurby, Patrick, Andreas, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 
Gelling, contracted from GiollaEoin, * John's servant.' 

* Death of Niall,son of Gillan, after having been 
thirtyyears without food or drink.' A.D.856.* *Mag- 
Gelain, Bishop of Kildare,' a.d. i222.t Compare 
— (Gaelic and Irish) MacGillean, MacLean, and 
Macklin. It is a purely Manx name. Mac 
Gillany(?), MacGilleon, MacGilewne, Gellen 
[1511], Gellyne [1540], Gellin [1622], Gel- 
ling [1626]. 

Braddan, Onchan, Marown, Malew (vc), German (c), 
elsewhere (u). 

Lewin has precisely the same origin as Gelling, but 
the Giolla has only transferred ' 1 ' to eoin instead 
of Gill. It is a purely Manx name. McGilleon, 
MacGillewne [1511], Lewin [1627], Lewne 
[1628], Lewn [1629], Lewen [1698]. 
Braddan (vc), Onchan (c), elsewhere (u). 

QuANE, contracted from MacShane, ' Johnson,' * Mac- 
Shane,' A.D. 1542.J 

It may possibly be a contraction of MacGuane 
from Macdubhaine* 

* MacDubhaine who has spread stories over the 
bright fine Cinel-Euda.'§ It is a purely Manx 
name. 

Compare (Irish) Quain, (Gaelic) MacQueen. 
This latter is very common in Galloway. 
MacQuaine [1429], MacQuane, MacQuene [1511], 

* Chron. Scot., p. 155. t Four Mast, VoL III. 

t Four Mast., Vol. IV. § O'Dubhagain, p. 43. 



^ 

MacQuAYNE [1540], QUAINE [1629]^ GUANE 
[1680]. 

Andreas, Bride, Patrick, German (c), el5.ewhere (u). 

KiLLiP, contracted from MacPhiltp, ' Philip's son.' 

Compare (Gaelic and Irish) McKillop, (English) 

Phillips, Phipps. 
M'KiLLip [1430], McKiLLip [1511], McKillop, 

KiLLOP [1540], KiLLiP [1604]. 

Ballaugh, Lezayre^ Malew, German, Lonan (c), else- 
where (u). 

Quark, probably contracted from McMark^ though it 
may have been the same name as Quirk originally ; 
it was the commoner name in the Isle of Mann 
200 years ago, but now Quirk has almost entirely 
superseded it. 

Markeson [i4o8],McQuarke [i5ii],Quarke [1616], 
Quark [1649]. 

Cammaish and Comish, contracted from MacHamish, 
'James's son,' or possibly from MacHomasc, 
* Thomas's son.' Commaish looks more like the 
former, Comish the latter. Compare— (Irish) 
MacComas, (Gaelic) MacOmish. 

The form Commaish is more common in the 
North and Comish in the South of the Island, but 
the name is not so often met with as formerly. 
MacComish [1430], MacComis, MacComais 
[1511], Comish [1650], Camish [1676], Camaish 
[1704], Cammaish [1704]. 

Andreas, Bride, Maughold, Arbory (vc), Jurby, Santon, 
Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 

Shimmin, from McSim-een, ' little Simon's son.' * Der- 

mot MacSimon slain,' a.d. 1366.* 

* Four Mast., Vol. IIL, p. 633. 



38 WBtanx durnant^d* 

Fraser, Lord Lovat, who was born in 1666, was 
called MacShimi Baldu, ' the black-spotted son of 
Simon,' from a black spot on his upper lip. Except- 
ing Maughold the name is almost confined to the 
Southern parishes. 

Compare — (Gaelic) McSymon ; (English) Sy- 
MONDS, Simmons, Symons, Simpson,* Symondson, 
and Simpkinson which latter exactly corresponds 
with it. 
MacSheman and MacShemine [1430], Symyn, Hymyn, 
and McSymond [1511], Shimin [1614], Shimmin 

[1653]. 

Malew, German (vc), Maughold, Arbory, Santon^ Rushen 
(c), elsewhere (u). 

Knickell, contracted from MacNichol, * Nicholas's son.' 
It was formerly a common name in the Isle of 
Man, but has now almost disappeared. Compare 
— (Gaelic) McNichol; (English) Nicholson, 

NiCHOLLS. 

MacKnaykyll [1429], McNaykill, McNakill, Mc- 
Naikell [1430], Knacle [1648], Knickell 
[1650], Knickall [1653], Kneacle [1674], 
Kneakil [1730], Knackle [1757] , Knicol [1758], 
NicoL [1771]. 

Formerly, Patrick (vc), German, Lezayre, Maughold, 
Malew, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

Martin, originally MacGiolla Martin, *the son of 

Martin's servant.' 
St. Martin of Tours was St. Patrick's uncle. He died 

a.d. 448.f 
MacMartyn [1429], MacGilmartyn, MacMartyn, 

♦ Four Mast, VoL III., p. 633. t Four Mast., Vol. I., p. 129. 



MacMarten [i5ii],Martinsone [1521], Martin 

[1668], Martee [1672]. 

Andreas (vc), Lezayre, Patrick, Santon (c), Bride, Jurby 
(u). Hardly found elsewhere. 

CosTAiN and Costean contracted from MacAusieyn, a 
shortened form of MacAugustin, ' Augustin's son.' 
(Aug^stin is the diminutive of Augustus.) The 
fame of Augustinus of Hippo, and his namesake, 
the missionary of the English, would cause this 
name to be a favourite among Christian converts. 
Magnus Barfod, King of Norway, who died a.d. 
1 103, had a son Osteen and a grandson, son of 
Harold Gyllie, Osteen. 

CosTAiN and Costean are purely Manx names. 

Costeane [1507] , MacCoisten, MacCosten, Coisten, . 

COSTEN [15 11], CaUSTEEN [1687], COSTAIN [1715], 

Costean [1747]. 

Maughold (vc), Rushen, Arbory, Santon, Lonan (c), 
elsewhere (u). 

Stephen and Stephenson, from the protomartyr, are, 
in the Isle of Mann, very frequently the transla- 
tions of CosTAiN, which, however, has quite a 
different origin (see above). 

Stean, which has now disappeared, if not a shortened 
form of Stephen, may be from (O N) Steinn, * stone.* 
Compare — (Dutch) Steen. 

In A.D. 1334, Gilbert MakStephan was one of the 
commissioners appointed by Edward III.* ' to 
seize the aforesaid Island (Mann), with its 
appurtenances into our hands.' 

MakStephan [1334], Stephen [1408], Stevenson 
[1417], Stephan [1598], Stephenson [1643], 
* Manx Society, Vol. VII., p. 181. 



30 flSanx Suttnamit^. 

Steven [1676], Steane [1598], Stean [1640], 
Stai [1665], Steen [1722], Steon [1726]. 

Stephen— Ballaugh (vc), Jurby, Lezayre (c), else- 
where (u). 

Stephenson — Arbory, German (c), elsewhere (u). 

Stean— Ballaugh, Jurby, Braddan, formerly (c), now 
extinct. 

Mylechreest and Mylchreest, contracted from 
MacGiolla or MacGuilley Chreest, *the son of 
Christ's servant/ 
' Giolla, especially among the ancients, signified a 
youth, but now generally a servant, and hence it 
happened that families who were devoted to certain 
saints, took care to call their sons after them, prefixing 
the word GioUa, intimating that they were to be the 
servants or devotees of those saints. Shortly after the 
introduction of Christianity, we meet many names of 
men formed by prefixing the word Giolla to the names 
of the celebrated saints of the first age of the Irish 
Church, as Giolla - Ailbhe, Giolla - Phatraig, 
Giolla-Chiasain. . . . And it will be found that there 
were very few saints of celebrity, from whose names 
those of men were not formed by the prefixing of 
Giolla. . . . This word was not only prefixed to the 
names of saints, but also to the name of God, Christ, 
the Trinity, the Virgin Mary. . . .'* In the Isle of 
Mann, however, the earlier form is invariably MacGil 
or MacGille, so it is probable that most of our 
Mylchreests are derived from Macguilley. The process 
of change is probably as follows : Macguilley becomes 
Maccuilley or Magguilley; the a of mac being unaccented 
disappears with the consonants, leaving M^utlley, which 
* Four Mast, Vol. III., pp. 2-3 (note). 



Sttrnamt0 uf dutHt l^itlgin* 31 

then becomes Myley, pronounced Mully. Mylchreest, 
as the name is now generally spelled, is invariably pro- 
nounced MULLEYCHREEST Of MOLLEYCHREEST by old 

Manx people. This name, and all those commencing 
with * Mylc ' are purely Manx. 

' Gillacrist, son of Niall . . . slain,' a.d. 1014.* 
MacGilchreest [1511], MacGilleychreest [1540], 

Maulchrist [1663] , Maclechrist [1683] , 

M^YILCHRIST [1713], M^YLCHREEST [1714], MULLE- 
CHREES [1722], MyLECHREEST [1717], MYL- 
CHREEST [1739], MoLLECHREEST [1741]. 
Marown, German (c), elsewhere (u). 

MacVorrey, (obsolete) ' Mary's son,' has now univer- 
sally become Morrison. The Anglicised forms 
MoRisoNE and Moreson are found as early as 
1430. The latest date at which MacVorrey occurs 
is 1624. It appears in the Manorial Roll of 15 ii. 

MoRREYand Vorrey (obsolete), found in Jurby in 1613, 
became Murray before the end of the century. 

Mylvorrey, contracted from MacGuilley vorrey, 'the 
son of Mary's servant,' is also Anglicised into 
Morrison, but the original name still survives, 
though it is not so common as formerly.t A cross 
at Kirk Michael was erected to the memory of a 
lady named Mael-Muru, which is clearly identi- 
cal with Mylvorrey. Mael prefixed to a woman's 
name is certainly unusual ; but we find Mel-corca, 
the name of an Irish princess in the Landn4mab6c.t 
The spelling of this name has proved a great puzzle 
to the keepers of the Parish Registers, as will be 
seen from the great variety of forms following : 

* Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 783. 

t See Manx Note Book, No. 9, pp. 5-7. 



32 Maxtx SntnemttB. 

Yluorry [1507], MacGilvorry [1511], MacIlvory 
[1570], Illuorrey, Macylworrey [1598], Ille- 
voRRY [161 1], Macylvorrey [1625], *Malevorrey 
[1628], Macylevorrey [1644], Macillvery [1683], 
*Mollyvorrey [1685], Maclevory [1695], 

MyLEVOREY [1713], *MOLLYVERREY [1717], 

*molleyboirey [1721], *mollevory [1725], 
Macylvoirey [1730], Mylwoirey[i737],*Molle- 
borry [1740], mickleworrey [1742], m^ylvorrey 
[1744], Mylevoirey [1762], Mylvorrey [1763], 
Mylvorey [1782], Mylevoirrey [1786]. 
* These forms are perhaps derived from Maol- 
vorrey (the word Maol or Mael, meaning ' bald, shorn, 
or tonsured,* being anciently prefixed to the names of 
saints to form proper names), and the old pronunciation 
MoLLEWORREH would Seem to point to the same con- 
clusion, though both they and such forms as Molle- 
CHREESE and Mullechreest can be satisfactorily 
obtained from MacGuilley. *The Irish name Maol- 
MAiRE, or Maolmuire, signifies servant of the Virgin 
Mary/* (See Mylchreest.) 

Jurby (vc), Ballaugh, Maughold, Bride, German (c), else- 
where (u). 
CooBRAGH (obsolete) from MacGiolla Cobraght (Cuth- 
bert), *The son of Cuthbert's servant.' 'St. 
Cuthbert, Bishop of Fearna, in England, died,* 
A.D. 686.t St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne was a 
favourite saint among Celts as well as Saxons, 
c.f. Kirkcudbright 
M^GlLCGBRAGHT and GiLGOBRAGHT [15I1], CoOBRAGH 
[1606], COOBRIGH [1649] . 

* Four Mast., Vol. III., p. 6 (note), 
t Idid.f Vol. I., p. 293. 



SimumtM 0f €^tttt l^viighu 33 



It is only found in the Parish of Jurby, and after 
1649 it does not occur. 

MacFaden [1511] (obsolete), from Mac Paidin, 
*Paidins, or little Patrick's son/ also Faden 
[1611]. 

Compare — (Irish) Mac Fadden, which was the 
name taken by the Baretts of Munster. 

McGiLPEDER and Gilpeder [151 i] (obsolete). * The 
son of Peter's servant,' and ' Peter's servant.' 

Andrew [1408], M^Andras [1417], MacGylandere 
[1429], Mac Gillandras, M^Gillander [1430], 
Mac Gilandrew, Gilandrew [1511] (obso- 
lete). 

M^iLPATRiCK and Gilpatrick [151 i] (obsolete). 
Found as late as 1645 in Marown. 

' Gilla-Padraig, son of Imhar,' a.d. 981.* Com- 
pare— (Irish) FiTz Patrick. 

GiLBEALL and MacGilbeall [1511] (obsolete), per- 
haps a corruption of Gill Phail, ' Paul's servant.' 

Mc Mychel [1511], (obsolete), ' Michael's son.' St. 
Michael was the Christian Warrior's Patron. 
' Donn Mac Gilla-Michil, Chief of Clann Cong- 
haile,' a.d. isio.f We find Ballavitchal in our 
local nomenclature. 

Mac Adde [1511] (obsolete). A Scotch diminutive of 
Mac Adam. 

Fayle, originally Mac Giolla Phoil, ' the son of Paul's 
servant.' 
' Mag Gillaphoil of the fair seat.'} 
Bishop Phihps, in his MS. version of the Manx 

* Chron. Scot., p. 229. t Four Mast., Vol. III., p. 497. 

% CHuidhriD, p. 133. 



34 IDanx $mmasttt«* 

Prayer Book, written about 1625, gives the form 
Payl for Paul. 
Compare — (Irish) Gilfoyle, Kilfoil. 
Mac Falle [1408], Mac Faile [1429], Mac Faile 
[1430], MTayle [1504], Fail [151 i], Mac Fayll 
[1521], Fayle [1608], Ffayle [1623], Faile 

[1713]. 

Fell, not found before 1750, may be either a 
corruption of the above, or from the Scandinavian 
fjall^ which in the British Islands has become /?//. 
It is a common name in Cumberland, whence it 
may have been imported into the Isle of Man. 
(Mac Felis, found in 1511, may have some con- 
nection with it.) 

Braddan, Marown (vc), Santon, Jurby, Lezayre (c), else- 
where (u). 

Sayle is possibly a corruption of Fayle. It is almost 
entirely confined to the north of the island. 

Mac Sale [1511], Sall [1601], Sayle [1624], Saile 
[1701], Sail [1709]. 
Andreas (vc), Jurby, Bride, Maughold (c), elsewhere (u). 

QuAYLE, contracted from Mac Phail, 'Paul's Son.' 
Phail is anglicised from Maelfabhaill. ' Mael- 
FABHAILL, SOU of Muircheartach, slain by the 
Norsemen.'* 

This is one of the most widely distributed names 
in the island. 

Mac Fayle [1511]. Mac Quayle, Quayle [1540], 

QUAYLLE, QuALL [i6oi], QuALE [1602], QUAILE 

[1604], Quail [1656]. 

Malew, Onchan (vc), Rushen, Arbory, Santon, German, 
Braddan, Ballaugh, Lezayre, Maughold (c), elsewhere (u). 

♦ Four Mast, Vol. I., p. 537. 



$ttntattt» 0f Ctttit fM^Uu 35 

Callister and Collister,* contracted from Mac 

A lister, * Alexander's son.' The Greek name A lex- 

andros was adopted by the Scotch, as the Latin 

Magnus by the Scandinavians. Several of the 

Scotch Kings were called Alexander. 

*Eisht haink ayn Ollister mooar Mac Rec Albcy.'f 
^Then came great Ollister, son of the King of Scotland' 

It is found chiefly on our northern coast, the 
nearest to Scotland. 
Mac Alisandre [1417], Mac Alexander [1429], Cal- 
lister [1606], Collister [1799]. 

Collister is quite a late form, and is not nearly 
so common as Callister. 

Compare (Gaelic) Mac Allister. 

Jurby, Michael (vc), Lezayre, Ballaugh, German, Malew 
(c), elsewhere (u). 

Mac Gilacosse [1430] (obsolete), possibly from Mac 
Guilley losa, * Jesus' servant's son.' 

Mac Gillaws [1430] (obsolete), possibly a corruption of 
Mac Guilley Aedha, ' Aedh's servant's son.' Aedh 
was an early Irish saint. 

Mac Gilcolum [1430] (obsolete) is a corruption of 
Mac Guilley Columbay ' Columba's servant's son.' 
St. Columba, the famous Irish missionary, has a 
keeill in Arbory dedicated to him. This name is 
now found in the form ' Malcolm,' in Scotland. 

* This name is not, strictly speaking, hagiological, but as a non- 
Celtic name, introduced through Roman influence, it belongs in 
substance to the same class, 
r t Traditionary Ballad ; Train, p. 52. 



3—2 



36 jBdtix ^vccnam^'it* 

Part II. — Surnames derived from Personal Names of 
p^rely Native Origin. 

We now come to the Celtic patronymics formed 
from personal names of purely native origin. As many 
of these are capable of being translated, being originally 
significant of personal qualities, it is often difficult to 
distinguish between the regular names and the mere 
nicknames, whose derivatives in family nomenclature 
are discussed in the following chapter. In making 
this distinction our guide must be the old Irish records, 
which give us some of these words as regular names, 
while others appear only as descriptive epithets 
appended to the names. Several of these native 
names were borne by persons who attained the 
honours of saintship, and thus, like other hagiological 
names, give rise to secondary formations with the 
prefix Giolla. 
Crow, or Crowe, is a translation of Mac Fiachain, 

'Fiachan's son,* the personal name Fiachan 

meaning ' Crow.' 

* Fiachan, Lord of Conaille . . . died A.D. 787.** 

On the inscribed crosses we find Fiac, ufaac 
or o'faac, i.e., probably, ua feic, *the descen- 
dants of Fiac and (Ma)lfiaac, possibly McU-fiachyf 
* prince raven ' (Fiachan being the diminutive of 
Fiac). 

The Mac Fiachains were one of the minor fami- 
lies of the English Pale who complied with the 
Statute 5 Edward IV., by which it was enacted 

♦ Four Mast, Vol I., p. 395. 

t Mdl is more probable in this context than Afael. 



'that every Irishman that dwells betwixt or amongst 
Englishmen .... shall take to him an English 
surname.' ' In obedience to this law,' says Harris 
(works of Sir James Ware, Vol II., p. 58), * the 
Shanachs took the name of Foxes ; the Mac-an- 
Gabhans, of Smiths ; . . . . and many others ; 
the said words being only literal translations from 
the Irish into the English language.' 
Crowe [1582], Crow [1629]. 

Maughold, Bride, Lonan, Andreas, Lezayre, Onchan (c) , 
elsewhere (u). 

Fargher, or Faragher, contracted from Mac Fearg- 

hoir, ' Fearghoir's son.' This name Fearghoir, 

which occurs in the Tale of Diarmid and Grainne, 

is derived from the root ferg, ' brave ' or * violent.' 

'Fearchoir, son of Muireadhach, Abbot of Lannleire . . . 
died A.D. 848.'* 

Compare (Gaelic) Farquhar, Farquharson. 

Fayrhare [1343] , Mac KARHEREf and Mac Karhare 

[1422], John Farker, Abbot of Rushen [1504], 

Mac Fargher, Fargher [1511], Fergher[i54o], 

Farghere [1570], Farhar [1626], Faragher 

[1649], Pharagher [1735]- 

Marown, Malew (vc), Andreas, Arbory, German, Rushen, 
Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

Mc Fergus [1422] (extinct), from the same root ferg, 
with guSf ' strength.' 

Kaighan, or Kaighin, contracted from Mac Eachain, 
' Eachan's son.' The name Eachan means * horse- 
man ' or ' knight.' * Don of Eachan.' 
The surname Kaighan may possibly be the 

♦ Four Mast, Vol I., p. 479. 

t This is in the British Museum copy of the Statutes only. 



38 WHemx 9xtxnamt9* 

same name originally as Keigeen, as a contraction 
of Mac Taidhgin or Mac Mdhagain (see Keigeen), 
or even from Mac Cahain (see Cain). It is remark- 
able that Kaighan is confined to the north of the 
island, and Keigeen to the south, the former 
being of much earlier occurrence than the latter. 

Compare (Gaelic) Mac Eachan, Mc Gaghan. 

These are common names on the adjacent coast 

of Galloway. 

Mac Haughan (?) [1417], Mac Caighen [1422], 

McCaghen [1511], Kaighin [1611], Caighan 

[1643], Kaighan [1667], Caighin [1745]. 

Michael, German (vc), Bride (c), Ballaugh (u), else- 
where (w). 

Keig, or Kegg, contracted firom Mac Taidhg, *Tadg*s 
son.' Tadg (modernised as Teague) should be 
regarded as a proper name, although its meaning 
seems to be ' poet' In Ireland the name is irra- 
tionally considered equivalent to Timothy. 

* Mac Taidhg who is lasting in battle front/* 

* Muircheartach Mac Taidhg slain A.D. 1159.'! 

* Ballyheige, in Kerry, has its name from the 
family of OTeige, its full Irish name being Baile- 
ui-Thadg.'J 

Compare (Irish) Mac Teige, Mac Keague, 

Mac Kaige, Mac Keag, (Gaelic) Mac Caig. 

Mac Kyg [1408], Mac Keg, Mac Coag [1511], Keage 

[1623], Kegg [1630], Keige [1653], Keigg [1684], 

Keig [1697]. 

Jurby, Lezayre, Malew, Santon, Rushen (c), ebewhere (u). 

Keigeen, or Kegeen, contracted from Mac Taidhgin. 

* 0*Dubhagain, p. 12. f Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 11 34. 

X Joyce, 4th edition, p. 349. 




The name Taidhgin, 'little Tadhg*s son/ being a 

diminutive of Tadhg. 

Keigeen may perhaps be contracted from Mac Egan, 

which is itself a contraction of Mac Mdhagain. 

The name ^dhagan, a diminutive of ^dh, may 

be rendered *the little fiery warrior.' (See 

Kaighan.) 

The name AjfACAN, i.e., ^dhacan or ^dagan 

occurs on a cross at Kirk Michael, the legend on 

which Dr. Vigfusson translates : ' Mai Bricti the 

Smith, son of A|^acan (^dhagan) raised this 

cross for his own soul.' 

' Moelisa Roe Mac Egan, the most learned man in 
Ireland, in Law and Judicature, died A.D. 1317.*^ 

Mageoghan,in his version of the Annals of Clon- 
macnoise, gives this entry : 

' Moeleissa Roe Mac Keigan, the best learned in Ireland 
in the Brehon Lawe.' 

The Mac Egans were hereditary Brehons and 
professors of the old Irish laws. They compiled 
the vellum MS. called Leabhar Breac, or ' Speckled 
Book,' the most remarkable repertory of ancient 
Irish ecclesiastical affairs. 

Compare (Irish) Keegan. 
Kegeen [1697], Keigeen [1715]. 

Rushen (c), Malew, Patrick (u), elsewhere (w). 

The names Quiggin, and its later and more un- 
common form QuAGGiN, are also probably contrac- 
tions either of Mac Taidhgin or Mac ^dhagain, but 
no intermediate form has been found. Mac Quig 
and Mac Keag, names found in Ireland at the 
present day, have a common origin. 
* Four Mast., Vol. III., p. 517. 



40 flhinx Stmtanotf* 



Quarry, contracted from Mac Guaire, * Guaire's son.' 

'GUAIRE fled' at 'the battle of Cam Conaill, fought on Whit- 
Sunday, A.D. 646.** 

Compare (Gaelic) Mac Quarrie. 

It is a very uncommon name in the Isle of Mann. 

Mac Quarres [1504], Mac Wharres [151 i]. Quarry 

[1684]. 

QuiNE, contracted from Mac Coinn, or Mac Cuinn, 

' Conn's son ' {Conn, ' counsel '). * Conn, of the 

hundred fights,' was one of Ireland's greatest 

legendary heroes. 

* Mac Cuinn, son of Donnghaile, royal heir of Teathbha, 
died A.D. io27.'t 

A.D. 1403, *The king, to all, to whom, etc., 
greeting. Know that we have conceded of our 
especial grace to Luke Mac Quyn of the Island 
of Mann, scholar, certain alms called particles in 
the Island aforesaid, and which were given, con- 
firmed, and conceded perpetually to the scholars by 
our predecessors, former Kings of England. . . .'J 
Compare (Irish) QuiN, O'QuiN. 
Mac Quyn [1403], Quine [1504], Quyn [1511]. 

Braddan, Marown, Maughold, German, Lonan (c), else- 
where (u). 

QuiNNEY, contracted from Mac * Connaidh, Connaidh's 
son.* (Cannaidh, * crafty,' is the adjectival form of 

Co»».)§ 

Compare (Gaelic) Mac Whinnie, (Irish) 
Mc Weeny. 

-* Chron. Scot, p. 91. 
t Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 814. 
X Manx Society, Vol. VII., p. 223. 

§ By Manx-speaking people this name is pronounced as if spelt 
Kunyah. 



I 



QuiNNYE [1429], MacInay(?) [1511] , Mac Quinye 

[1529], QUINEY [1652], QUINNEY [1692]. 
Santon (vc), Arbory (c), elsewhere (u). 
Cain, or Caine, contracted from Mac Cathain, ' Catban's 
son.' This name may be rendered * warrior ' {cath, 
'a battle'). 

The O'Cathains, now O'Kanes, were of the 
race of Eoghan, who was son of Niall of the Nine 
Hostages, Monarch of Ireland, who died a.d. 406. 

^ The race of Eogman of valiant arms, 
Who have obtained the palm for greatness without fraud, 

The acm^ of the nobility of Erin.** 
' Eoghan Ua Cathain, abbot . . . died a.d. 980.'! 

Compare (Irish) Kane and O'Kane. 

Mc Kane [1408], Mac Cann [1430], Mac Cane [1511], 
Cain [1586], Cane [1601], Caine [1609], Cayne 
[1610]. 

Jurby,!German (vc), Michael, Ballaugh, Braddan, Marown, 
Lezayre, Malew, Santon (c), elsewhere (u). 

Callin, contracted from Mac Cathalain, ' Cathalans' 
son ' {caihal, ' valour '). Mac Cathalain is cor- 
rupted into C AH ALLAN aiid C ALLAN in Ireland, the 
latter being now the usual form. 

' Maelcraeibhe Ua Cathalain.)J 
Compare (Irish) Callan. 

In some cases it may possibly be a contraction 
of Mac Allen, ' Allen's son.' 
M^Aleyn [1511], Callyne [1601], Callin [1623]. 

German, Maughold, Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 

Kermode and Cormode, contracted from Mac Dermot, 

* O'Dubhagain, p. 21. f Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 713. 

t Four Mast, VoL I., p. 565. 



42 Manx iwcneantsu 

a shortened form of Mac Diarmid, ' biarmaid's 
son/ 

* The fifth year of Diarmaid, a.d. 544.'* 
' Cathal Mac Dermot, the son of Teige, Lord of Moy- 
lurg, and tower of the glory of Connaught, died a.d. I2i5.'t 

The Mac Diarmida or Mac Dermots were 
princes of Moylurg in Co. Roscommon. They 
split into three families, ' the head of whom was 
styled the Mac Dermot, and the other two, who 
were tributary to him, were called Mac Dermot 
Ruadh, the Red, and Mac Dermot Gall, or the 
anglicised.'} It has been supposed that the Scan- 
dinavian J>ormo«r is an accommodation of Diar- 
MAiD. It may, however, be a distinct Scandinavian 
name containing the usual prefix J>or, though, as it 
is not found in the Sagas, probably not. We find in 
the History of Olave the Black, King of Mann, 
from the Flateyan MS., under date a.d. 1229, that 
' when Ottar SnakhoU, Paul Balkaison, and Ungi 
Paulson heard this, they sailed southwards to Sky, 
and found in Westerfiord Thorkel Thomodson, 
whom they fought and killed, with two of his sons, 
but his third son Thormod escaped by leaping into 
a boat, which floated alongside of a vessel, and 
fled to Scotland, but was lost on the passage.*§ It 
seems probable that, considering the forms which 
Kermode has always taken in the Isle of Man, 
that it came to us through the Scandinavians, 
though originally of Celtic origin. 

Compare (Gaehc and Irish) Mac Dermot. 

Kermode is much commoner than Cormode. 

♦ Four Mast., VoL I., p. 183. f Four Mast, Vol. III., p. 185. 

t O'Donovan, Introduction, p. 20. [§,Manx Society, VoL IV.,p.!44. 



Surname nf ftafita^ i^itigin* 43 

Mac Kermott [1430], Mac Cormot, Mac Germot, 
[1511], Kermod [1586], Kyrmod, Cormod [1601], 
CoRMODE [1656], Kermott [161 i], Kermode 
[1694]. 

Andrease (vc), Jurby, German, Ballaugh, Lezayre, Marown, 
Rushen, Lonan (c),''elsewhere (u). 

Connelly, contracted from Mac Conghalaigh, 'Con- 
gh?ilad*s son ' {Congal, ' a conflict '). 

<Donnchadh,son of Donnchadh Ua Conghalaigh, royal 
heir of Ireland, was slain a.d. 1016.'* 

It is a very common name in Ireland, but is 
scarcely found in the Isle of Man now, though 
formerly common in Jurby. 
Cannell, from Mac Conailh ' Conall's son,' though it 
may sometimes be a contraction of Mac Domhnaill, 
* Dombnall's son.' * Domnhall is a diminutive of 
the root dom = dominus, *' a lord or master." The 
" d " by aspiration is often omitted in sound, 
which has given rise to the family name Mac Con- 
NELL, now. common in ULSTER.'t The confusion 
between Mac Connell and Mac Donnell may 
have been promoted by the fact that Connall was 
actually the name of an ancestor of the O'Donnell 
family, 

'Connall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages 
(from whom are descended the Cinel-Conaill), was slain.'^ 

The Scotch clan of Mac Donald derive their 
name from Donald, eldest son of Reginald, second 
son of the celebrated Somerled of Argyle, and King 
of the Isles. 

* Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 791. 
t MS. letter from Dr. Joyce. % Four Mast, Vol. L, p. 147. 



44 IKtUWC iUCtlAUVttU 

Compare (Irish) Connell, (Gaelic) Mac 
Donald, Mc Whannel, 

The name Cannell is peculiar to the Isle of 
Man. 
Mac Connell [1511], Cannell [1606], Cannel [1615], 
CoNNiL [1623], Cannal [1655], 

Michael, German (vc), Jurby, Braddan, Ballaugh, Marown, 
Andreas, Rushen, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

CoNiLT and Conill (extinct), probably merely forms of 
Cannell. 

CONYLT, M'CONYLT, HONYLT, M^^HONYLT, and M^GlL 
HONYLT [15II], COWNILT [1649], COONYLT [1652], 
CONILT [1659], CONILL [1660], QUOONILL [1654], 
COONILL [1661]. 

It was formerly common in Maughold, but dis- 
appeared early in the eighteenth century.^ 
Kennaugh, contracted from Mac Cainneach, * Cain- 
neach's son ' (Cainneach, ' devout ' or ' chaste *). 

'Cainnech, of Achadh Bo, born A.D. 516.'* 

He was a saint who died a.d. 598. 

This name is peculiar to the Isle of Man. 

Compare (Irish) M®Kenna. 
Mac Kenneagh, Keneagh, Mac Kenag(?) and 
Kenag(?) [1511], Keneaigh [1636], Kennaugh 
[1668], Kennagh [1676], Kenniagh [1697], 
Kenagh [1714]. 

It is almost confined to the parish of German. 

German (vc), Michael, Santon (u). Scarcely found else- 
where. 

Kaneen, contracted from Mac Cianain, ' Cianan's son.' 
* Chron. Scot, p. 539. 



{Cianan is a diminutive of CiaHf which is itself a 
diminutive of c», * to weep/) 

' Cianan, Bishop of Doimhliag, died a.d. 488.'* 
Compare (Irish) Keenan, (Gaelic) Mac Kinnon. 
Kynyne [1422], Keneen [1666], Kenen [1676], Caneen 
[1729], Kaneen [1740], Kenan [1783]. 
A purely Manx name. 

It is almost confined to the parishes of Andreas 
and Jurby. 

Andreas (vc), Jurby (c), elsewhere (u). 
Kneen, probably also a contraction of Mac Cianatn. In 
our early documents it seems to be confused with 
Nevyn or Nevyne. Andrew John Nevyn is one 
of the 24 Keys in 1417, while Jenkin M'Nyne in 
1429 is called Jenkine Mac Nevyne in 1430. If 
it is a corruption of Nevyn, which is common in 
Scotland at the present day in the form Niven, it 
will have quite a different origin: from (Gaelic) 
Naomh, ' a saint.' 

It is a purely Manx name. 
Mac Nyne [1429], Kneene [1504], Kneen [1598]. 

Bride (vc), Ballaugh, Marown, Andreas, Lezayre, German, 
Santon, Rushen (c), elsewhere'(u). 

Dougherty, originally O'DocJiartaigh, ^ Dochartach's 
descendant ' {Dochartach, ' stern '). 

' Donnall O'Dochartaigh, lord of the territory of Kinel- 
Enda and Ard Mire, died a.d. i i iQ-'f 

The name is almost confined to the parishes of 

Andreas and Jurby, and is now very uncommon 

eversrwhere in the Isle of Man. In Ireland it is 

very common. 

* Fonr Mast, Vol. I., p. 153. f Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 1009. 



46 Manx $trcnam»* 

Daugherdy [1630], Dougherty [1666]. 
AndreaS) Jurby (formerly c). 

Kneal and Kneale, contracted from Mac Niall 
* Niall's son.' This is a name of Celtic origin, mean- 
ing ' champion/ but it was adopted by the Scandi- 
navians at a very early period, and largely used by 
them. * NjAll, m. a pr. name (from the Gaelic), 
Landndmab6c.** 

It has been a famous name in Celtic history 
from the time of Niall of the Nine Hostages, who 
reigned over Ireland from 384 to 41 1 a.d., to that 
of Hugh O'Neil, Earl of Tyrone, in Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign. The Egilla Saga says that one Nial, 
or Neil, was King of Man in a.d. 914. The 
Flateyan MS. mentions 'Thorkel, the son of Neil,' 
in 1229. 

Compare (Irish and Gaelic) M*^Niel and 
M^Neal. (Scandinavian) Nielsen and Nilsson. 
(English) Nelson (which see). 

M*Nelle [1408], Mac Neyll [1430], Mac Nele [1511], 
Mac Nealle [1521], Kneal [1598], Kneale 
[1666]. 

It is much commoner in the north than in the 
south of the island. 

Andreas, Bride (vc), Jurby, Maughold, Lonan, Patrick, 
Baliaugh, Lezayre, German, *Santon, Michael (c), else- 
where (u). 

Nelson is probably, in the Isle of Man, a translation 
of Mac Nial. It is found chiefly in the southern 
parishes, where Kneale is uncommon. 

Nealson [1430], Nelsson [151 i], Nelson [1653]. 

Rushen, Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 

* Cleasby and Vigfasson, p. 456. 



Kelly, contracted from Mac Ceallaigh^ 'Ceallach's 
son • {ceallachy * war, strife '). 

'Death of Ceallach, son of Maelcobba in the Brugb) a.d. 654.^ 

* Ceallach, Joint Monarch of Ireland, died A.D. 656.'t 

The name is as common in the Isle of Man as 
it is in Ireland. Connell Mageoghan, who translated 
the Annals of Clonmacnoise, in 1627, gives the 
following account of the O'Kellys, under a.d. 778: 

* Though the O'Kellys are so common every- 
where that it is unknown whether the dispersed 
parties in Ireland of them be of the families of 
O'Kelly, of Connaught, or Brey, .... so as 
scarce there is a few parishes in the Kingdom, but 
hath some one or other of these Kellys/J 

M^Helly [1417], M*^Kelly [1429], Mac Hellie [1430], 
Kellye [1601], Kelly [1605], Kelley [1628]. 

Braddan, Marown, Michael, German (vc) ; elsewhere (c), 
except in Maughold and Lezayre. 

Killey, originally Mac Gilla Ceallaighy anglicised in 
Ireland into Mac Killey Kelly and Killy Kelly. The 
Mac and the Kelly have been dropped, leaving 
Killey, which is identical in meaning with Gill 
(see Gill). (Gaelic, Guilley ; Irish, Giolla, * a ser- 
vant/) Indeed, in the Isle of Man, formerly, the 
same person was called Gill and Killey indif- 
ferently. 
* The Clan of Mac Gilla Ceallaigh, the honourable.'^ 

The name is of late introduction, and is purely 
Manx. 

* Chron. Scot., p. 95. f Four Mast, Vol. L, p. 269. 

J CDonovan, Notes, pp. 2, 3. § O'Dubhagain, p. 67. 



4^ WtUittx SintitdtttM* 



KiLLIE [1610], KiLLEY flSSl]* KiLLY [1704]. 

Maughold, Lonan, Onchan, Malew, Gennan (c), else- 
where (u). 

QuiLLiN, contracted from Mac Cuilen, ' Cuilen's son ' 
( CuiUann, ' a whelp *)• 

' CuiLEN, son of Cearbhatt, slain A,D. 884.* 
* Adhuc Mac Guillin was slain a.d. i355.'t 
' The Mac Quillans of the Ronte, Co. Antrim, 
are said to have been originally Welsh or Anglo- 
Normans, quasi, Mac or ap Llewellin,*J but 
this does not appear likely. 
Mac Willine [1429], O'Quyllan and Quelen [1511], 

QUILLINE [1654], QUEILIN [1657L QuiLLIN [1659], 
QUILLEN [1682]. 

It was formerly common in. the parish of Arbory, 
but is now rare. 
Moore, contracted from 0*Mordha, ' Mordha's descen* 
dant.' (Mordha is derived from m6r^ * great.*) 
' AiMERGiN Ua Mordha, a.d. io26.'§ 
0*MoRDHA is anglicised O'More and More, which has 
now usually become Moore. The O'Mores were 
a powerful sept in Ireland. 

' JENKIN Moore, Deemster, a.d. i499.'|| 
Moore [i499]i More [1511]. 

More is the usual form till the end of the i6th 
century. It is a common name in Ireland, Scot- 
land, and the North of England, as well as in the 
Isle of Man. ' 

Braddan, Santon, Malew, Arbory (vc), Ballaugh, Marown, 
Maughold, German, Bride, Kushen, Lonan, Patrick, Onchan 
(c), Michael, Andreas, Jurby (u). 

♦ Four Mast., Vol. I., p. 537. f Four Mast., Vol III., p. 609. 
t O'DoQOvan, p. 23. § Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 811. 

II Statue Law Book, p. 6. This date, though given as 1419, is 
probably 1499. 



KiNLEY, contracted bom MacCin/aolaidh, * Cinfaoladh's 
son/ a name which may be translated * wolfhead ' 
(uany ' head ' ; fool, * wolf). 

'The first year of Ceannfaoladh, son of Blathmac, 
in the Sovereignty of Ireland, a.d. 67a'* 

Compare (Irish) M^KiNEELEY,f M^Kinley, 
M*GiNLEY, Kineeley, and Kenealey; (Gaelic) 

M^KlNLAY. 

Kinley [1604]. 

Baliaugh, Marown, Andreas, Lezayre, Malew, Santon, 
Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

DuGGAN, contracted from 0*Dubhagatn (Dubhagan's 
descendant'). Dubhagan is a derivative of Di^iA, 
'black,' O'DuBHAGAiN was the chief poet of 
O'Kelly of Ibh Maine, and was the author of the 
topographical poem called after him. He died in 
1372. 

DOGAN [1540], DUCKAN [1649], DUCCAN [1675], 
DUGGAN [1723]. 

This name is almost confined to the parish of 
Malew, where, at one time, it was very common. 
It is scarcely found anywhere now in the Isle of 
Man, though a common name in Ireland. 
DowAN [1680] (obsolete) is of similar origin to Duggan, 
being from Dubhan, a diminutive of Dubh, 
' black.' St. Dowan's Day was celebrated on the 
4th of February in Ireland. Compare (Irish) 

DUANE, DOWNES, DOAN. 

This name lingered in Andreas till the middle of 

the eighteenth century. 

CoRKAN, contracted from Mac Carcrain, a corrupted 

♦ Four Mast., Vol. I., p. 281. 

t In Four Mast., Vol. I., p. 18, is given a full account ofthe curious 
legend of Mac Kineeley, and his famous cow called GlasgaivUn. 

4 



50 WBtAttx $inttuitnt0* 



form of Mac Corcurain, * Corcuran's son * {corcur, 
'purple')- 

• The Clan Ruainne, of the flowery roads, 
A sweet, clear, smooth-streamed territory, 
Mag Corcrain is of this well peopled cantred 
Of the white-breasted brink of banquets.* 

* Cathasach Ua Corcrain,* a.d. 1045.'! 

Donagh Mac Corcrane was one of O'CarroU's 
freeholders in 1576, when O'CarroU made his sub- 
mission to Queen Elizabeth. 

Compare (Irish) Corcoran, Corkan. 

CORCAN [1511], CoRKINE [1521], CORKAN [1611], 

Corchan [1720]. 

It was never a very common name in the Isle of 
Man. 

Marown, German, Michael (c), elsewhere (u). 
Allen, probably from Alainn, 'handsome.' 

* Killing of Dor, son of Aedh Allan,*J a.d. 624. 

The Stuarts were descended from the great 
Norman family of Fitz Alan. 

Allan, according to Train, was Governor of the 
Isle of Man in a.d. 1274. 

'Alan of Wygeton has letters of presentation to the 
Church of St. Carber in Mann, vacant, and in the King's 
gift,'§ A.D. 129L 

Allen is not a common name in the Isle of 

Man, being chiefly confined to the parishes of 

Maughold, Andreas, and Bride. Many of those 

bearing the name are probably descendants of the 

five successive vicars of Maughold, the first of 

whom came from Norfolk. 

♦ O'Huidhrin, p. 133. t Four Mast., Vol. IL, p. 849. 

J Chron. Scot., p. 79. § Manx Society, VoL VII., p. 113. 



Sutturam 0f Aftittri^ i0tt0ttt« 51 

Aleyn [151 i]» Alayne [1540], Allen [1648]. 
Caveen, contracted from Mac Caemhain, ' Caemhin's 
son * {caeimh, * beautiful ')• 

'And the privilege of first drinking [at the banquet] was 
given to 0*Ca£MHA1N by O'Dowdha, and O'Caemhain was 
not to drink until he had first presented it [the drink] to the 
poet, that is, to Mac Firbis.** 

* O'Kevan of Ui-Fiachrach flourished ' A.D. 876.t 

Compare (Irish) Keevan. 

It is an uncommon name in the Isle of Man, 

being confined to the parishes of Malew and Arbory. 

Caveene [1649], Caveen [1662]. 

CowiN and Cowen, contracted from Mac Eoghain^ 

which has been corrupted into Mac Owen. The 

name Eoghan is glossed by Cornac as meaning 

'well-born/ and suggests the Latin (originally 

Greek) Eugenius. 

The celebrated Owen More was King of Munster, 

in the time of Conn of the hundred battles, whom 

he obliged to divide the whole of Ireland equally 

with him. 

* Mac Gilla Cowan and a few of O'Connor's people were 
slain *A.D. 13304 

It is much commoner in the Isle of Man than 

in Ireland and Scotland. 

M^COWYN [1408], M'OWEN [1422], M'COWEN [1429], 
M^'COWNE [15II], CoWIN [1611], COWN [1651], 
CoWEN [1685]. 

Bride, Lonan (vc), Braddan, German, Andreas, Malew, 

Patrick (c), elsewhere (u). 

1 1 III < III 

♦ Chron. Scot, Introduction, p. 13, being an extract from 
Tribes and Customs of Hy. Fiachrach, p. 440. 
t Annals of Ulster. 
J Four Mast., Vol. III., p. 547. 

4—2 



52 Ittanx $itmdm»« 

Quirk, contracted from Mac Cuirc, * Core's son.' CoRC 

was King of Munster early in the fifth century. 

' Ceinnedigh O'Cuirc, Lord of Muscraighe, was slain * 
A.D. 1043.* 

It is a common name in the south of Ireland. 

M^QUYRKE, QUYRKE [15I1], QUEERKE [1601], QuiRK 

[1641]. 

Patrick (vc), Ballaugh, Malew, Braddan, Andreas, Maug- 
hold, Arbory, Santon, Rushen, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

CoRRiN and Corran, contracted from Mac Odhrain, 
(contracted Oran), * Odhran's son/ {Odar^ * pale- 
faced*). St. Patrick's charioteer was called St. 
Odhran. 
' Odhran, his charioteer, without blemish/ A.D. 447.t 
Compare (Gaelic) Mac Oran. 

M'CORRANE [1422], M'CORRIN, CORRIN [1504], M®COR- 

RYN, M^CORYN [1511], COREAN [1611], CORRAN 

[1627], CORINE [1629]. 

Malew, Braddan, German (vc), Santon, Rushen, Arbory 
(c), elsewhere (u). 

CoROOiN (pronounced Corrune), probably contracted 

from O'Ciarduhhaifiy ^ Ciardubhan's son.' {Dubhan 

means ' little dark (man),' and as Ctar also means 

'dark-coloured* — vide Karran — it had probably 

lost its significance before dubhan was added.) 

'Maenacb Ua Cirdubhain, successor of Mochta of 
Lughmadh, died.^ 

The Annals of Ulster in the same year call him 

O'ClERUVAN. 

CiARDUBHAN has in Ireland been contracted into 

KiRWAN. 

♦ Four Mast., Vol. I., p. 139. t Four Mast., Vol. I., p. 139. 
X Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 849. 



StxtmmtB vf Battte f^i^igtm 53 

CoROOiN may possibly be a contraction of Mac 
Carrghamha. * This name is anglicised Caron by 
O'Flaherty, in his Ogygia, part iii., c. 85, and Mac 
Carrhon by Connell Mageoghan, who knew the 
tribe well. The name is now anglicised Mac 
Caroon.'* 

' Mag Carrghamha is over their battalions of the stout 
and lordly chiefis.'t 

CORROWANE [1430], CaROWNE [1632], CaROONE [1644], 
CaRROWNE [1646], COROIN [1651], CURUIN [1665], 
KeEROWNE [1669], CaRROOIN [1709], COROOIN 

[1740]. 

Malew, Braddan, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

Karran, Carran, Carine, a contraction of il/acC»ara»», 
* Ciaran*s son.' The name Ciaran {Ciary mouse- 
coloured) was borne by one of the twelve great 
saints of Ireland, after whom a large number of 
Irish children were formerly named. 

* St. Ciaran, son of the artificer, abbot of Quain-mic- 
Nois, died on the ninth day of September, A.D. 548.'! 

' Mac Ciarain, airchinneach of Sord,' a.d. 1136.S 

This name may possibly be derived from Mac 
Carrghamha. (See Corooin.) 

It is probable that Karran has come to us 
through the Scandinavians, though, of course, they 
originally imported it from Ireland. Kjaran and 
Kvarran are not uncommon in Iceland, and Scan- 
dinavians in Ireland took the name Cuaran, — 

♦ Four Mast., Note, Vol. III., p. 55. 
t O'Dubhagain, p. 13. 
X Four Mast., Vol. I., p. 185. 
§/^V£,Vol. II.,p.'io53. 



54 IDanx $uitnatni^0. 

hence its different form to Mylchrain and Grain, 

which see. 

*"TheBookof Leinster" says that Gormlaith was like- 
wise mother of the Norwegian- Irish King Amlaff Cuaran 
(Olaf KVARAN) ; whilst the Irish chronicler, Dugald Mac 
Firbis, mentions this same Olaf Kvaran as married to 
Sadhbh (Save), a daughter of Brian Boru.** 

Compare (Irish) M*^Carron, M^Caroon, Ker- 
RiNS, (Gaelic) M^'Kerron. 
M^Garrane [1430], M^'Garren [1504], Kerron [1507], 
M*»Kerron [151X], M^Karron [1540], M^Kerran 
[1540], M^Karran [1570], Karran [171 i], Garran 
[1648], Gharran [1680], Garron [1691], Garine 
[1729]. 

This last formis found chiefly in the parishes of 
Marown, Arbory, and Malewj and is not common. 

German, Marown (vc), Jurby, Malew, Arbory, Patrick, 
Lonan, Maughold (c), elsewhere (u). 

Mylchraine and Mylecharane (pronounced Molle- 
CARANE or Mulcrane), contracted from Mac guilley 
Ciaraifiy * the son of Giaran's servant.' (See Karran 
and Graine.) 

' Maclmuire MAC Gillachiarain,' a.d. 11 SSA 
Mylecharaine, the miser of the Gurragh, is the 
subject of one of the most popular ballads in the 
Manx language. The name is now less common 
than formerly, and is still chiefly found in the 
Gurragh district. 

M'GlLCRAYNE [151 1], MaCYLERAN [1673], M^YLREAN 
[1688], M^YLKIARRAINE [1689], M^YLCARRANE 

♦ Worsaae — The Danes and Northmen, p. 323. 
t Four Mast., VoL 1 1., p. 1098. 



Bvttnamuk 0f Baiito f^itt^ttt* 55 

[1696], Mylecharaine [1740], Mylchraine [1766], 

Mylcharane [1782]. 

Jurby, Andreas, Lezayre, Ballaugh (c), elsewhere (u). 
Grain and Craine^ contracted from Mac Ciarain, 

* Ciaran's son.' (See Karran and Mylchraine.) 
It seems to be a purely Manx name, not being 

found elsewhere, except in the form Crane, which 

has probably quite a different origin. 
M^Croyn [1408], M^Croyne [1417], M^Craine [1422], 

MacCarrane [1422], M^'Crayne [1504], Craine 

[1586], Grain [1607], Grayne [1638], Crane [1736]. 

German (vc), Jurby, Braddan, Andreas, Santon^ BaUaughp 
Lezayre (c), elsewhere (u). 

Quiddie, MacQuiddie [1511], Guddie [1653] (obso- 
lete), probably from Mac Guill^ Cuddy, a shortened 
form of Mac Guilley Mochuda, ' St. Mochuda's ser- 
vant's son.' 

' St. Mochuda, Bishop of Lismore and Abbot of Raithin, 
died,* A.D. 636* 

Guddie is found as late as 1680. 
Bridson, contracted from Bridgetson, the anglicised 
form of Mac Brighde. The original name was 
Mac Giolla Brighde, ' Bridget's servant's son,' 
but the Giolla dropped out at a comparatively 
early date, St. Bridget, Abbess of Kildare, born 
about A.D. 450, was the most highly venerated of 
the Irish female saints, and, consequently, many 
were named after her. 

'Sa^nt Brighit, virgin, Abbess of Cill-dara, died* 

A.D. 525.t 
' GlOLLA-BRlGHDE, son of Dubhdara, chief of Muintir 
Golais, was wounded' A.D. 11464 

♦ Four Mast., Vol. I,, p. 255. t Four Mast., VoL I. p. 171. 
X Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 1081. 



56 Memx Sui^namiesu 

Another form of this name, Maelbrighde, is 
much commoner in Ireland from the ninth to the 
eleventh century, than Mac Giollabrighde, and 
in the Isle of Man we find it on the Runic Stone in 
Kirk Michael Churchyard, on the southern side of 
the gate : Mail: Brigdi : Sunr : Athakus : Smith : 
raisti : crus, etc. * Maelbrigd, the son of Ath- 
kaus, the smith, raised this cross/ This name 
has, however, recently been read ' Mal Bricti,* by 
Dr. Vigfusson. 

* Maelbrighde, son of Spealan, Lord of Conaill/ A.D. 867.* 

Maelbrighde, * Bridget's tonsured servant/t 
has become obsolete both in Ireland and the Isle of 
Man. There is a St. Maelbrighde. 

Compare (Irish) Kilbride, (Gaelic) M^Bride. 

The name Bridson appears to be peculiar to the 

Isle of Man. 

M^GiLBRiD [1511], Bridson [1609], Brideson [1628]. 

Marown, .Malew, Santon (vc), Braddan, Maughold, 
Arbory (c), elsewhere (u). 

MouGHTON and Mughtin, possibly derived from a 
diminutive of Mochta, but no authority can be given 
for this. 

St. Mochta was a disciple of St. Patrick. 
' Mochta, after him his priest '{ 
MouGHTON [1673], Mughtin [1714], Moughtin [1742]. 
The name is now very uncommon. It is so 
unintelligible to strangers that some of those bear- 
ing it have changed it to Morton. 

Jurby (vc), Ballaugh (c), formerly elsewhere (u). 

♦ Four Mast., Vol. L, p. 511. 

t See note on Maoi under Mylvorrey. 

X Four Mast, Vol. I., p. 129. 



Smtmrtttts 0f Bafite i^rlgtn* 57 

CuRPHEY, contracted from Mac Murchadha, ' Murchad's 
son ' (muir, * sea,' caihaide, ' warrior '). Murchad 
was formerly anglicised Murchoe, now Murphy. 
' Domhnall Dall Ua Murchada, chief sage of 
Leinster/ a.d. 1127.* (This would now be angli- 
cised * Blind Daniel Murphy.') 

*Diannid Mac Murchada, King of Leinster,' a.d. iijy.f 

Mac Murchada is sometimes anglicised 
Murray. 

It has been suggested that Curghey, the earlier 
form of the name in the Isle of Man, is a contrac- 
tion of CuRRAGHEY (belonging to the Curragh). It 
is certainly true that the name is much more 
common in the Curragh district than elsewhere, 
but still this derivation appears more apt than 
likely. It- is a purely Manx name. Some of the 
Curpheys themselves hold that the name was 
originally Curry, that it became Curghey in 
Manx lips, and that it was brought back into 
English as Curphey. There is a Finlo Mac 
Curry mentioned in the Statute Law Book, under 
date 1504. (See Mac Curry, p. 69.) 

M*Curghey [1422], Courghey, Churgie [i6oi], 
Curghey [1609], Curphey [1643]. 

Curghey is the usual form till the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 

Kinnish and Kennish, contracted from Mac Aenghuis, 
' Aenghus's son ' (aen, * one,* gus, * strength '). 
* Duneath MoAonguis,' a.d. 62at 

♦ Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 1027. t Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 1057. 
X Annals of Ulster. 



58 WHe^nx Smtnamtd* 

*Domhnall MacAENGHUSA, Lord of Ui-Elhach/ A.D. 957.* 
(This would now be anglicised Daniel Magennis, 
Lord of Iveagh.) 

'The river called Banthelasse issuing out of the desert 
mountaines of Mourne, passeth the country of Eaugh, which 
belongeth to the family of Mac GYNNlS.'t 

Compare (Irish) M^Guiness, (Gaelic) M^Ginnis. 
M^Inesh (?) [1511], Kynnishe [1601], Kinnish [1626], 
Kenish [1649], Keanish [1734], Kennish [1732]. 
Maughold, San ton (vc), Braddan, Marown, Lonan, 
Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 

Carnaghan, contracted from O'Cemachain, * Cerna- 
chan's descendant ' (Cethernach, ' a foot-soldier,' a 
' kern '). 

* Two other chieftains, it is certain 10 you, 
Are over the victorious Tuatli-Bladhach ; 
Of them is O'Cernachain of valour.'J 

Compare (Irish) Kernaghan. 

This name was formerly almost confined to the 
parish of Maughold, and is now scarcely found 
anywhere. 
Cashin and Cashen, contracted from Mac Caisin, 
*Caisin's son' {caisin is a diminutive of cos, 
'crooked '). The name Caisin must originally have 
meant a crooked-eyed, crooked-legged, or meta- 
phorically stupid, person. 

Caisin was the son of Cas, the descendant of 
Cormac, who was the younger son of OlioU Oluim, 
King of Munster. 

* Caisin, scribe of Lusca,' a.d. 695. § 

Cashen is found in Ireland. 

♦ Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 677. t Dubhagain, p. 45. 

t Camden, Ireland, p. 109. § Four Mast, VoL I., p. 299. 



M«Cash, M^Cashen [i5ii],M*»Cashe [1540], Cashen 
[1641], Cashin [1677], Cassin [1687]. 
Braddan, Lezayre (c), elsewhere (u). 
Caley, contracted from Mac Caolaidhe, 'Caoladh's 
son ' (cool, * slender *). 

' To O'Caolaidhe the territory is fair/* 
Compare (Irish) O'Cayley, Cayley, Kyly, 
Kyely, Kiely, (Gaelic) M^Alley. 
M^Caley [1511], M^'Calle [1521], Cally [1605], 
Callie [1617], Caley [1642], Calley [1676]. 
Lezayre (vc), Michael, Ballaugh (c), elsewhere (u). 
CoRTEEN, from Mac Cruitin, * Cruitin's son * (cruit, a 
'hump'). Cruitin becomes Curtin by meta- 
thesis. 

'Ceallach Mac Curtin, historian of Thomond,' 
A.D. I376.t 
CORTIN [1652], CORTEEN [1659] , CORTEENE [1686] . 

It is almost confined to the parish of Maughold» 
and is a purely Manx name. 

CoTTEEN is probably merely a corruption of Corteen. 
It was formerly common in the parish of Malew, 
but is now scarcely found. Edward Cotteen was 
a member of the House of Keys in 1813. 

Cotteene [1653], Cotteen [1654]. 

COGEEN contracted from Mac Cagadhain (corrupted 
into Mac Cogan), ' Cagadhan's son ' (caghad, ' just ')• 

' Mac Cagadhain .... 
is over the noble Clann Fearmatghe.'^ 

Compare (Irish) Cogan, Mac Cogan. 

It is very uncommon in the Isle of Man. 

* CHuidhrin, p. 87. t Four Mast., Vol. IV. 

% O'Dubhagain, p. 57. 



6o 92anx Sniinsim^au 

The name Cregeen, is frequently softened into 
CoGEEN in conversation. 

COTGEEN [1737], COJEEN [1771], COGEEN [1785] . 

Callow, contracted from Mac Calbach, ' Calbach's son.' 

Calbach is pronounced Calwagh, which is 

easily softened into Callow. It seems to mean 

* bald/ cognate with the Latin calvuf, a word which 
was adopted into the Teutonic languages at an 
early date, so that we have old English Calugh, 
Calewe, Anglo-Saxon Calu, ' bald.* Milton speaks 
of * callow young,' * callow ' here referring to the 
condition of the young unfledged bird. ' Richard 
le Calewe' is in the Parliamentary writs for 
A.D. 1313. Allow and Aloe are met with as 
Christian names in the Isle of Man till the middle 
of the seventeenth century, which points to the 
possibility of another derivation. 

Calowe, Calo [1511], Callow, M*Aloe [1586], 
Calow [161 i]. 

Maughold, Bride (vc), Jurby, Braddan, Lezayre, Malew, 
Arbory, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

Kermeen, perhaps contracted from Mac Heretnon, 

* Heremon's son.' Heremon was the seventh in 
descent from Milesius, and became Monarch of all 
Ireland. 

Compare (Irish) Harmon, Erwin, Irwin, Kir- 
wan, (English) CuRWEN. 

Mac Ermyn [1429] , Mac Erymyn, and Mac Kermayne 
[1511], Mac Cormyn [1521], Kermeen [1630], 

KeRMEN [1642], KiRMEENE [l668]. 

This name is now uncommon everywhere. Formerly, 
Maughold (vc), Braddan, German (c), elsewhere (u). 



CoLViN and Calvin (obsolete) may be derived from 
Calbhin, a diminutive of Calb, *bald' (see Callow). 

CoLBiN [1610], Calvin [1650], Colvin [1668]. 

CowELL and Cowle contracted from Mac Cathmaoil 
(corrupted into Mac Cawell), * Cathmaol's son.' 
The personal name Cathmaol has been explained 
as meaning 'battle-heap.' On a cross at Kirk 
Bride the name Caj>muil or Ca|>maoil is given 
to a woman, which is very unusual. 

* ClONAIDH UA CaTHMHAOIL/ A-D. <)67.* 
'Conor Mac Cawell, chief of Kind Fcrady,* A.D. I252.t 

They were the ancient chiefs of Kinel Ferady, 
and were famous in Ireland for their learning, and 
the numerous dignitaries they supplied to the 
Church. 

Cowell and Cowle are purely Manx names. 

M*GilCowle, M^Cowle, M'Cowell, Cowle [1511] 

Cowell [1690], Cowel [1700], Cowill [1711], 

Cowl [1728], Cowel [1737], Cowil [1777]. 

Bride, Andreas (vc), Marown, German, Lezayre, Patrick, 
Malew, Santon (c), elsewhere (u). 

CooLE and Cooil, contracted from Mac Cumhail, 
' Cumhall's son ' (comhal, ' courageous '). Finn 
Mac Cumhail, or Finn Mac Coole, the Fingal of 
Ossian, was the hero of many beautiful legends. 
Compare (Irish) Coyle. 

M^Coil, M^^Cole [1511], CooLE [1666], COOILE, 

M^COILE [17II], COOIL [1731]- 

Andreas, German, Rushen (c), elsewhere (u). 
QuiLL, contracted from Mac Cuill, * Coil's son.' One 
of the three first traditionary rulers of the Milesian 
♦ Four Mast, Vol. II. t Four Mast., Vol. III., pp. 3-5. 



62 BSmtx Stntnam^su 



colony was called Mac Cuill. According to an 
ancient Irish poem he was so called because he 
worshipped the hazel-tree (coll).* 

'Ceaunfaeladh ua Cuill,' a.d. 1048.! 
Quill is found in Ireland. It is very uncom- 
mon in the Isle of Man. 
M'CuiLL [1511], Quill [1624]. 

Maughold, Malew, Bride, Lonan (u), elsewhere (w). 
Kay, Key, Kie, Kee, contracted from Mac Aedha, 
' Aedh's son.' 

* Cucail Mac Aedha,' a.d. 1098. J 

* Aedh (ay, pronounced like the ay in say), geni- 
tive Aedha, is interpreted by Cormac Mac Cul- 
lenan, Colgan, and other writers, to mean fire. . . . 
This name has been in use in Ireland from the 
most remote antiquity. ... It was the name of a 
great many of our ancient kings; and the Irish 
ecclesiastics named Aedh are almost innumerable. 
. •^. The usual modernised form oi Mac Aedha is 
Magee, which is correct, or M^Gee, not so correct, 
or Mac Kay, which would be correct if it were 
accentuated on the last syllable, which it generally 
is not.'§ 

The form Kee may possibly be a contraction of 
Mac Caoch, * the dim-sighted (man's) son.' 

Compare (Irish and Gaelic) M^Kie, M**Key, 
M*^Kee, Magee, M*^Gee, M*^Ghie, M^'Ghee, 
M«Kay. 

None of these names are common in the Isle of 

♦ Four Mast, Vol. L, pp. 24, 25. 
t/^/V/.,Vol. IL,p. 853. 
t/^V/.,VoLIL,p.96i. 

§ Joyce — Irish Names of Places, 2nd Series, p. 147. 



Sttntam» 0f Aaf tt» l^itigiiu 63 

Man, Kay being almost confined to the parish of 

Michael, and Kie, Key, and Kee to Jurby, Andreas, 

and Patrick. 
M^^Kee [1408], M«Key [1429], M«Kay[i43o], M'Kye 

and M^Kie [1511], Kee [1610], Key [1616], Kay 

[1617], Kie [1618], Keay [1637]. 

Michael, Jurby, Andreas, Patrick (c), elsewhere (u). 
Quay, probably contracted from Mac Kay. It is a 

purely Manx name, and much commoner than Kay, 

Kie, Key, or Kee. 
Mac Quay [1429], Mac Qua [1511], Quay [1628]. 

Maughold, Santon, Malew, German, Michael, Patrick (c), 
elsewhere (u). 

Kew, contracted from Mac Hugh, the anglicised form 
of Mac Aedha. 

In translations from the Irish MSS., Aedh is 
always made Hugh, which is a Teutonic name 
with an altogether different meaning. 

'Brian Mc Hugh Oge, Mac Mahon, and Ever Mac 
Cowley came in with those their complaints.'* 

M«Kewe [1511], Kew [1649]- 

It was always an uncommon name, and is now 
scarcely found. 
Kearey (obsolete), from 0*Ctardha, usually anglicised 

Carey. 

' Aedh Ua Ciardha/ a.d. 999.! 
Formerly common in Braddan. 
Kearie [1629], Kery [1698], Kearey [1703]. 
Croghan, contracted from Mac Ruadhagain (corrupted 
into Mac Rogan), ' Ruadhagan's son.' Ruadhagan 
is a diminutive of ruad, * red.' 

* Murchadh Donn O'Ruadhagain/ ad. 1103.! 

♦ Camden (Ireland), p. 123. f Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 743. 
J Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 973. 



64 WBtanx Sntnam^B. 

Croghan may possibly have the same origin as 
Cregeen. It is not a common name in the Isle 
of Man. 
Croghan [1511], Croughan [1618]. 

Jurby, German, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 
Cregeen, contracted from O'Criocain, *Criocan's 
son.' 

A.D. 1022, * Cathal O'Criocain/* 

Cregeen may possibly be contracted from Mac 
Riaghain (corrupted into Mac Regan). Riaghan is 
a diminutive of riach, 'gray,' or sometimes 
* swarthy.' 
Compare (Irish) Creighan, Cregan. 
Crigene [1649], Credgeen [1654], Credjeen [1708], 
Gregeen [1722]. 

Jurby, German, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 
Creen (obsolete), contracted from Mac Braein, now 
Mac Breen, * Breen's son.' 

'Diarmaid Ua Braein,' a.D. 1170. 
Compare (Irish) Breen and Mac Breen. 
Creene [1601], Creen [1719], Crin [1727]. 

It is not found after the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. 
GiLLOWYE, Mac Gillowye, Lowey (obsolete). Per- 
haps the descendants of Luigh or Lewey, a name 
borne by the son of Cormac Gaileng. The name 
LuGHAiDH was anglicised Loway in Ireland. 

Gillowye and Mac Gillowye are only found 
in 151 1, but LowEY survives as late as 1734, and 
was at one time common in several parishes. 
* Four Mast, VoL II., p. 803. 



Surnames irf Baftm f^rt^in* 65 

LowEY [1609], LowiE [1611], Lewie [1629], Loweay 
[1670], LowY [1707], LowAY [1734]. 

Formerly Maughold (vc), Jurby, Rushen (c), elsewhere (u). 

Mylrea seems to be contracted from Mac Guilley rea 
(ray). Its meaning presents considerable diffi- 
culties, as the ordinary derivation from ree, 
'king/ is disposed of by the pronunciation ray. 
Both Professors Mackinnon and Rhys, whose 
opinions have been asked, incline to a connection 
with the Gaelic Gilray, but will not commit them- 
selves to an explanation of either Mylrea or 
Gilray. 
Compare (Irish and Gaelic) Gilray, Gilivray. 

Mac Gilrea [1511], Illerea [1598], Illirea [1599], 
Maclerea [1601], Maccillrea [1603], Illeray 

[1618], MoLERIE* [1631], M^YLLERIAH [1650] 
M'^TLREA [1654], IlLYREAH [1660], MaLLEREAY* 

[1684], Mollereigh*[i69o], Mallereigh* [1691], 
Mallery*[i693], Mylreey[i754], Mylrea [1750], 
and many other forms. 

Jurby, Ballaugh, Braddan, Malew (c) ; elsewhere (u). 

Mylroi and Mylroie, contracted from Mac Gilrqy, a 
corrupted form of Mac Giolla-ruaidhf 'GioUa- 
ruadh's son,' or *the red-haired youth's son.' 
* When an adjective, signifying a colour or quality 
of the mind or body, is postfixed to Giolla, then it 
has its ancient signification — namely, a youth, a 
boy, or a man in his bloom ; GioUa-ruadh, i.e., the 

* These forms look as if they might be derived from MaoL 
See note on Mylvorrev. Mcylrea is the commonest form 
during the eighteenth century. 

S 



66 " ISanx $uitttamt0* 



red-haired youth; Giolla-riabhach, the swarthy 
youth ; GioUa-buidhe, the yellow youth, etc.'* 
* Baethan Mac Gilroy,' a.d. 1408 .f 
Compare (Gaelic) M^'Ilrgy. 

MeLROIE [1601], M*^YLEROIJ [1612], MOLLEROY [1631], 

Mylrioiye [1718], Mylroij [1724], M*'ylroy[i73o], 
Myleroi [1744], Mylroi [1759], Mylreoi [1762], 
Mylroie [1782]. 

It is almost confined to the parish of Lonan. 

Lonan (c) ; Braddan, Ballaugh (u) ; elsewhere (w). 

Looney, contracted from O'Luinigh, 'Luinigh's de- 
scendant ' (luinneach, * armed ')• 

* Gillacrist 0*LuiNlGH, Lord of Cinel Moen,* A.D. 10904 
The O'LooNEYS were chiefs of Muintir Loney, 

in Tyrone. 
Compare (Irish) O'Looney, Looney. 

M'Lawney [1504], Lownye [1540], LowENY [1602], 

LowNiE [1623], Lewney [1626], Looney [1644], 

Loney [1681]. 

Jurby (vc), Marown, Lezayre, Malew, Santon, Onchan^ 
Lonaa (c), elsewhere (u). 

HowLAN, from O'Hualaghain, or O'h'Uallachain, 
' Hualagan's descendant.' 

' Oonnell O'Hualaghain, Archbishop of Munster/ A.D. 1 182. 
In Ireland this name has been anglicised Nolan 
and Holland. 

HowLAN [1696], Rowland [1702]. 

Found in Bride formerly, now very uncommon. 

♦ Four Mast., Vol. II L, p. 2 (O'Donovan's note), 
t I^id,, Vol. IV. 

t Ibid,, Vol. II., p. 939. 



Boyd, probably from Mac Giolla Buidhe, 'GioUa- 
bhuide's son/ or the * yellow-haired youth's son.' 
(See note on Giolla, under Mylroi). 

* Conn MacGillabhuidhe, Abbot of Mangairid/ a.d. iioa* 

Makaboy was Archdeacon and Rector of 
Andreas, a.d. 1270. 

MacGilla Buidhe, in Ireland, is corrupted 
into MacGilla Boy, and then into M**Avoy, 
M^EvoY, MacBoyd, and Boyd, though M*^Avoy 
and M°Ev0Y are strictly speaking contractions of 
MacAedha Buidhe. *Aedh, the Yellow's son,' 
where Buidhe is a mere nickname. The name 
BoDDAGH (extinct), which is probably the same 
name originally, as Boyd, had, by the middle of 
the eighteenth century, been in every case 
changed into Boyd, which latter name is still pro- 
nounced BoDDAGH by a few old Manx people. 
BoDDAGH may, however, be derived from Buadach, 
' victorious,' or from the nickname Bodach, mean- 
ing ' churl.' 
M^Oboy, M*^Booy, M*»Bowye, Bedagh [1511], Boy 

[1611], BOID [1617], BODDAUGH [1671], BOIY 
[1680], BODAUGH [1682], BODDAGH [1701], BOYD 
[1742]. 

Boyd is not such a common name now as 
formerly. 

Ballaugh, Michael (vc), German, Lezayre (c), else- 
where (u). 

Cannon and Cannan, contracted from Mac Cannanain, 

* Cannanan's son ' {Ceann-fhionn, * white head '). 

' CANANNANySon of Ceallach Tanist of Ui Ceinnsealaigh, 

A.D. 95o,t 
'From the family of O'Cannanain, of Tirconnell, 

* Four Mast^ Vol. IL, p. 965. t Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 667. 

5—2 



68 WBtdttx SuiiiAUi(0» 

LETTER-KENNy, in Donegal, received its name, which is a 
shortened form of Letter-Cannanan, the O'Cannanan's 
hill-slope.** 

Compare (English) Canning. 

MacCannon [1511], Cannan [1638], Cannon [1676]. 
Jurby, Maughold, German, Marown (c), elsewhere (u). 

CONROY, contracted from O'Mulconry, ' Mulconry's de- 
scendant.' 

* Maline Bodhar O'Mulconry took Cluain Bolcain,* 
a.d. I I32.t 

This name was always uncommon in the Isle of 
Man, and is now scarcely found. 

CoNRAI [1605], CONROI [1617], CUNRIE [1618], CONROY 

[1670]. 

In Ireland it is frequently anglicised King. 

CuDD, contracted from McHud. 

M^HuD [1675], M^^HooD [1711], CuDD [1750]. 

It is found in the parishes of Patrick and 
Lezayre, but is very uncommon. 

Kellag, MacKellag [1511] (obsolete), possibly con- 
nected with kellagh, * a cock ' (see Kennaugh). 

MacArthure [151 i] (obsolete). The MacArthurs are 
said to be descended from Cormac Cas. 

MacClaghelen [151 i] (obsolete), possibly a corrup- 
tion of MacLoughlin. It is found as late as 
A.D. 1616. 

*Conchobar MacLochlainn,' a.d. ii22.t 
[Loughlann, the land of lakes, is the name given by the 
Irish to Norway.] 

♦ Joyce, VoL I., p. 140. f Four Mast., Vol III., p. 265. 

% Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 10 15. 



MacCorry and MacCurry [1504] (obsolete), contracted 
from MacComraidhe, * Comrad's son.* 

* Ui Mac Uais the most festive here 
Have O'COMHRAIDHE at their head.** 

The name O'Comhraidhe is still extant, but for many 
centuries reduced to obscurity and poverty. In the six- 
teenth century it was anglicised Cowry. It is now more 
usually CORRY and CURRY.'t 

MacN AMEER (obsolete), from MacNamara, the anglicised 
form of MacCantnara, * Cumara's son ' (cw-wara, 
'sea-hound'). 

' Royal dynast of fine incursions 
Is MacConmara, of Mag Adhair. 
The territories of wealth are his country.' J 
* MacConmara was defeated,' a.d. 131 i.§ 
This family derives its name from its ancestor 
CuMARA, son of Domhnall, who was the 22nd in 
descent from Cormac Cas. 

MacNamara [1511], M^'Nameer [1610], M^Namear 
[1793], after which date it is not found. 

The name Meare [1607], Meere [1621], 
M^Meer [1698], is probably a further corruption. 
It was formerly common in the parish of Jurby. 
The name Monier, which was found in the parish 
of Lezayre in the last century, is also said to 
have been a corruption of M^Nameer. 

Mac Namee [1511] (obsolete), a corrupted form of Mac 
Contneadha. 

'Amhlaeibe, the son of MacConm£ADHA.'|| 
It is found as late as 1698. It was always 
uncommon. 

* O'Dubhagain, p. 13. f 0*Donovan, p. 43. 

J O'Donovan, p. 127. § Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 499. 

II Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 951. 



70 WKteinx Surname 

MacRory [1511] (obsolete), anglicised from Mac 
Ruaidhri, * Ruadhri's son ' {ruadh ' red ' ; righ, 
king'). 

*. • . . MacRuaidhri, gentle, 
Over Teallach Ainbith, the formidable.** 

In Ireland MacRuaidhri is now usually angli- 
cised Rogers. 

INNOW [1408], IVENOWE [14I7], YVENS [1429], YVENE 

[1430] (obsolete), probably connected with Ywain, 
Owen, Eoghan. 

♦ O'Dubhagain, p. 55. 



CHAPTER II. 

CELTIC SURNAMES FROM TRADES OR OCCUPATIONS; 
FROM DESCRIPTIVE NICKNAMES ; FROM DESIGNA- 
TION OF BIRTHPLACE. 

The Celtic surnames of the Isle of Man, which are 
derived from the profession or trade of an ancestor, or 
from some epithet indicating his personal charac- 
teristics or his local origin, are for the most part 
patronymic in form, having in their original documen- 
tary shape the prefix Mac. In the first place we shall 
enumerate the surnames which indicate the profession 
or rank in life of the ancestor of the family by which 
they are borne, 

JouGHiN, from Macjaghin, * Deacon^s son/ 

*' The priests sonnes that follow not ihelt studies prove for 
the most part notorious theeves. For they that carry the 
name of MacDecan, MacPherson, and MacOSpac, that 
is the deane's or deacon's son, the parson's son^ and the 
bishop's son, are the strongest theeves that be.'^ 

JouGHiN is a purely Manx name. It is almost 
confined to the northern parishes. 

* Camden : Account of Ireland, p. 145. 



72 Manx $uitnant«eu 

M^'JOYCHENE,* M^JOYENE* [1422], M'JOUGHIN [1430], 
MacJoGHENE [1570], JOUGHIN [1657], JOGHIN 

[1673]. 

Maughold, Bride, Andreas (c), elsewhere (u). 

MacPerson [1430], M*^Pherson [1511] (obsolete), 
*The parson's son.' It is a common name in 
Scotland. 

Taggart (sometimes pronounced Taggard), contracted 
from Mac-an-t-sagart, * The priest's son.* 

In 15 1 1, Otes MacTagart is entered for the 
Mill of Doway. It was afterwards called Mullen 
Gates, now Union Mills, in the parish of Braddan. 
Compare (Gaelic and Irish) MacTaggart, Mac 
Entaggart. 
MacTaggart [1430], Taghertt [1540], Taggart 
[1614], Tagert [1660], Taggard [1681]. 

Malew (vc), Ballaugh, Braddan, Marown, Onchan, 
Maughold, Santon (c), elsewhere (u). 

Ward, originally Mac-an-bhaird, * The bard's son.* 
* The sons of MAC-AN-BAlRD.'f 

M^Ward [151 i]. Ward [1660]. 

Very uncommon. 

Mac y Chlery, * The clerk's son,' has, in the Isle of 
Man, been almost universally written in the Eng- 
lish form of Clark, Clarke, or Clerk, but, though 
rare, the Manx form existed. 

Compare (Irish) Ua Cleirigh, which became 
O'Clery. 

Clerk is derived from the Latin clerict^, the 

* These names are in the British Museum copy only, 
f Four Mast., Vol. 1., p. 609. 



9ntnamtm i^nVin'tf fvima Cratree, ttt. 73 

name formerly given to those who possessed the 
accomplishments of reading and writing. 

'Conchobar Ua Cleirigh, lecior of Cill-dara,' A.D. ii26.» 
John Clerk was ' Judge of Mann/ in 1417. 
*Gubon M'Cubon Clearke, commissary to Bishop 
Pulley, Bishop of Sodor/ A.D. I430.t 

Clerk [1417], Clearke [1430], M'Cleary [1521], 
M'Cleare [1532], Clarke [1586], Mac y Chlery 
[1617], Clark [1621]. 

Jurby, Andreas, Lezayre, Bride, German, Malew, Arbor}' 
(c), elsewhere (u). 

Skelly, contracted from 0*Scolaidhe, the *>tory-teller*s 

descendant' (sceulaidhe). The * story-teller ' was 

a regular official at the courts of the old Irish 

kings. 

* O'SCOLAIDHE of sweet stories.*t 

•Gilla-Isa-MAC-AN-SKEALY,' A.D. I237.§ 

'After the English Invasioa the family of O'Scolaidhe 
or O'ScOLAiGHE, now Scully, were driven into the county 
of Tipperary.'ll 

Compare (Irish) Scully, Skelly, Skally, and 

SCALLY. 

M^ScALY [1408], Skellie [1630], Skealley [1631], 
Skally [1640], Skelly [1677], Skaly [1715]. 

It was formerly a common name in the parish 
of Jurby, but is now scarcely found anywhere. 
Kewish (pronounced Kegush), contracted from Mac- 
Uais, ' The noble's son/ 

Colla Uais is said to have been the 121st 
Milesian Monarch of Ireland. 

Kewish [1618], Kevish [1653], Kewsh [1683]. 

Jurby (vc), Bride, Ballaugh, Malew (u), elsewhere (w). 

* Four Mast., Vol. IL, p. 996. t Statute Law Book, p. 24. 

J O'Dubhagain, p. 12. § Four Mast, Vol. IIL, p. 291. 

II O'Donovan, p. 25. 



r 



74 Manx 9nxnecm^jeu 



QuiLLEASH, possibly a contraction of Mac Cuilhiais, 
' The noble Coil's son.'* 

CUILLEASH [1624], QUILLEISH [163T], C0LLEASH[i672], 
QuiLLEASH [1694]. 

Brew, contracted from MacVriw, * The judge's son.' 
The 'Briw,* now the Deemster, the Scandinavian 
term having superseded the Celtic, gave * Breast 
laws ' to the people. He was identical with the 
Irish. Brehon. It is possible that Brew may be 
contracted from MacBrugaidh, * The farmer's son.' 
Brew is a purely Manx name. 
Compare (Irish) MacBrehon, now universally 
translated Judge. 
M**Brow [1408], M*»Brewe [1417], Brew [i6i6], Briew 
[1648], Brew [1660]. 

Andreas, Lonan, Santon (vc), Ballaugh, Maughold, 
Lezayre, Malew, Onchan (c), elsewhere (u). 

Gill and Cell, contracted from Giolla, or guilley, a 
* young man ' (see Mylchreest, Killey), are 
almost certainly the same name originally, the 
former being the earlier form. They are now used 
indiscriminately. 

' Very little doubt can exist of the Irish having had, in 
early times, the word Gii/a for a youth, servant-boy, or 
lackey ; and the name of Gilla or Gildas, uncompounded, 
is certainly more ancient than the Danish invasions.'t 

After King Magnus Barfod fell in battle in Ulster, in 
A.D. 1 103, * An Irishman named Harald Gille came for- 
ward and passed himself off for a son of that Monarch by 
an Irishwoman ; and, after proving his descent by walking 
over a red-hot iron, actually became King of Norway.* J 

Gill was Prior of Furness in a.d. 1134. 
Compare (Irish) Gill, (Gaelic) MacGill and 
MacKill. 
♦ See Quill (an/e). t 0*Donovan, p. 55. J Worsaae, p. 346. 



9vtt^$ivxtsi tftvVsfth ftmtt QTtdln^ cft« 75 

Gill [1134], MacGylle [1430], M^Gell [1504], 
M^^GiLL, Gell [151 i]. 

Gill.— Santon, German, Lezayre (c), elsewhere (u). 
Gell. — Rushen (vc). Marown, Malew, Patrick, Santon (c), 
elsewhere (u). 

Tear and Teare, contracted from Mac-an-t'Saoir, * The 
carpenter's son/ 

*Ciaran Mac-an-tsair/ a.d. 990* 
* The importance attached by the Act, 5 Ed. IV. (srfe intro- 
ductory chapter) to the bearing of an English surname, soon 
induced many of the less distinguished Irish families, of the 
English Pale, and its vicinity, to translate or disguise their 
Irish names, so as to make them appear English ; thus 
Mac-an-t-saor was altered to CARPENTER.'t 

Compare (Gaelic) MacIntyre, MacTier, (Irish) 
MacEntire, Macateer, Mateer, Teer, Tier. 

Mactyr [i372],{ MTeare, MTerre [1504], MacTere 
[1511], Teare [1599], Tear [1611], Tere [1688]. 

The curious name, MacTereboy, found in 151 1, 
now obsolete, would seem to be the above name, 
with buidhc, * yellow,* added. 

It is much commoner in the north of the Island 
than the south. 

Ballaugh, Jurby (vc), Maughold, Andreas, Bride, Lezayre 
(c), elsewhere (u). 

Gawn and Gawne, contracted from Mac-an-Gabhain, 
* The smith's son.' 

The smith, in olden times, was a very important 
personage, as being the maker of armour and 
weapons, and as this trade, like others in that day, 
descended from father to son, its designation 
would soon become used as a surname. 

MacFirbis states in his book of Genealogies that 

♦ Chron. Scot, p. 233. f 0*Donovan. Introduction, p. 26. 
X Manx Society, Vol. XXIII., p. 392. 



1^ !Rlanx $ttitnant^«. 

the Mac-an-Ghobhan were historians to the 
O'Kennedys of Ormond. 

*Maelbrighde Mac-an-Ghobhann/ A.D. 1061.* 

Henry Gawen was * Atturney ' in 1517. 

Compare (Irish) M*^Gowan, Gowan, Gavan, 
(Gaelic) M^Gavin, (English) Smithson. 

MacGawne+ [1422], M'Gawen, M'Gawn [1430], 
Gawen [1517], Gawne [1586], Gawn [1599], Gown 
[1601]. 

Malew, Rushen (vc), Jurby, Ballaugh, Arbory (c), else- 
where (u). 

MacCray [1511], Cry [1611], Crye [1623], is possibly 
from MacCraith, * The weaver's son.' In Ireland 
and Scotland this name is now found in the form 
Macrae. 

NiDERAGH [1611], NiDRAUGH and Nedraugh [1623] 
(extinct), has possibly some connection with the 
Manx word fidderagh, ' weaving.' 
Clague and Cleg, contracted from MacLiaigh, * The 
leech's son ' {Ltagh, * leech '). 

' In the Tain B^o Cuai/n^e^ a Fdth-Laigy or Prophet- 
Leech, heals the wounds of C&chulaindy after his fight with 
Ferdiad, It is probable, therefore, that in Pagan times the 
Uag (leech) belonged to the order which may be conven- 
tionally called Druidic, and that charms and incantations 
formed part of the means of cure. The position assigned to 
the Leech by the laws in the middle ages was a very high 
one. He ranked with the smith and the Cerdy or artist in 
gold and silver ; and the Ollamh^ or doctor in leech-craft, 
ranked with an Aire Ard, /.^., one of the highest grades of 
lord. He had also a distinguished place at assemblies, and 
at the table of the king. Leech-craft became hereditary in 
certain families, some of whose names indicate their profes- 
sion, as 0*Le£, i>., O'Liaigh.'J 

* Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 881. 1 1" the British Museum copy only. 
X Ency. Brit. art. on Celtic Literature. 



On a stone at the Friary, Arbory, Professor Rhjs has 
recently discovered the name Mac Leog, in the Ogam 
character. This late form would seem to show that Ogam 
writing lingered in the Isle of Man till the ninth century. 
* MacLiag, Chief Poet of Erinn/ a.d. 1014 * 
' Gilla MacLiag (Gelasius), the son of Rory, the successor 
of St Patrick, and Primate of Armagh and of all Ireland 
.... died A.D. Ii73.'t 

In 1405, Gilbert Cleg received letters of protec- 
tion from Henry IV. to come to the Isle of Man. J 
It is possible, but not probable, that the forms 
Cleg and Clegg may be derived from (O.N.) 
kleggi, * a horse-fly.' The word Cleg is used in the 
Isle of Man, as well as in Scotland and the north 
of England, to designate this insect. Clague is 
now the commonest form, but did not become so 
till early in the eighteenth century. 
Cleg [1405], MacClewage, MacCluag [i5ii];Clev- 
AGE [1521], Cloagge, Cloage [i6oi], Claige 
[1622], Clogue [1625], Cleage [1644], Clauge 
[1652], Clague [1655], Cloauge [1660], Cluage 
[1673], Cloiage [1674], Cluag [i676'|, Claig [1696], 
Claigue [1702], Cloag [1719], Clage [1775], 
Clegg [1790]. 

Marown, Santon (vc), Malew, Michael, Jurby, Lezayre, 
Ballaiigh, Braddan, Lonan, Maughold, Rushen (c), else- 
where (u). 

Kerd and Mac Kerd [15 ii] (obsolete), from Ceard, * an 
artificer, artist-mechanic' 

KiNViG and Kinred seem to have been originally nick- 
names, which became surnames at a comparatively 
recent date. The prefix kin is the genitive oikione 
' head,' which would preclude their being simply 

* Chron. Scot., p. 257. f Four Mast., Vol. III., p. 13. 

X Manx Society, Vol. VII., p. 231. 



7^ Mecnx Stnttmm^su 

appellations from a personal peculiarity, as kione- 
beg, ' little head/ and so we must suppose that the 
Christian names were appended to the original 
forms, as Juan-y-kin-vig, 'John of little-head,* 
Steen-y-kin-raad, * Stephen of road-end,' where 
these titles refer to Juan's and Steen's abodes, and 
that their sons would be Mac Kinvig and Mac 
KiNRAADE, the Mac being soon omitted. 
Kinvig [1641], Kinred [1611], Kinrade [1622], 
Kindred [1644]. 

There are only two names denoting nationality : 

Cretney [1611], a contraction of Mac Bretnagh, 

' Welshman's son ' ; and Mac Finloe and Fynlo 

[1511] (obsolete), * Dane's son,' and ' Dane,' but 

this latter derivation is very doubtful. 

Note. — ^The still existing, though very uncommon, 
name Creetch [1698] , which was found in the forms 
Crech [1621], and Creech [164 i]; and the following 
obsolete names, all probably of Celtic origin, which 
are found in our early documents, are very obscure. 
Possibly some of them are incorrectly transcribed. 

Mac Dowytt, Mac Essas (possibly from Esaias) [1408], 
Mac Knalytt [1417], Mac Crowton, Mac Howe 
[1422], Mac Effe, Mac Kimbe, Mac Quantie 
[1430], Mac Caure, Mac Cure, Cundre (which 
survived till quite recently), and Mac Cundre, 
GiLHAST and Mac Gilhast, Mac Clenerent, 
Mac Crave, Mac Kym, Mac Lynean, Mac Lolan 
(possibly for MacLellan), Mac Quartag, Quate 
and QuoTT [1511], Mac Vrimyn [1532]. 



CHAPTER III. 

NAMES OF SCANDINAVIAN ORIGIN. 

Most of the Scandinavian names in the Isle of Man 
have had the Celtic ' Mac ' prefixed, the contraction of 
which has very much altered their form. These names 
are not so common now as they were in the sixteenth 
century. 

AscouGH [1511] (obsolete), from ask-ulfr, ' ash wolf.' 

Casement, contracted from Mac-ds-Mundr. The 
(O. N.) is is equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon ds, i.e. 
semideus, which we find in such names as Oswald 
and OswY. 

*Mundr was the sum the bridegroom had to pay for his 
bride as agreed on at the espousals. It is used as the latter 
part of several proper names.** 

Compare (O.N.) As-Mundr found in the Land- 
ndmabdc and Flateyjarboc, 

MacCasmonde [1429], MacCasmund [151 i], Casymound 
Casmyn [1540], Casmond [1601], Casement [1612], 

COSTMINT [1624], CaISMENT [1679]. 

It is almost confined to the northern parishes. 
It is not so common now as formerly. 

Maughold, Lezayre (vc) formerly, Jurby, Ballaugh, Andreas 
(c), elsewhere (u). 

* Cleasby and Vigfusson— Icelandic Dictionary, p. 437. 



So WHeimc $urnatnie0* 

Castell and Caistelx, contracted from Mac-as-Ketill.* 
• " Ketill is equivalent to the English * kettle.' In 
the Icelandic poets of the tenth century the un- 
contracted form was used, but in the eleventh it 
began to be contracted into KeL Its frequent 
occurrence in nomenclature doubtless arises from 
the use of the V6-kell, or * Holy Kettle/ at sacri- 
fices. Gumming reads *OsKETiL't on the frag- 
ment of a cross in the Museum at Distington, 
which was formerly at Kirk Michael, but Dr. Vig- 
fusson makes this name * Roscil ' ;{ and Worsaae 
speaks of 'the well-known Scandinavian name 
AsKETiL * being * found on the remaihs of a runic 
inscription in the Museum at Douglas ' ;§ but this 
refers to the same stone, as * Douglas ' is an error 
for ' Distington.' 

AsKELL is found in the Flateyjarboc ; Oscytyl 
was Abbot of Croyland in a.d. 992, and Askel, 
king of Dublin, in a.d. 1159. 

* Our beloved and faithful Gilbert Macaskel.' || 
*To Gilbert Makaskill, Keeper of the Isle of Man.'T 

Compare (O.N.) Asketil, Askell, (English) 

AsKETiL, AsKETEL (found in the Hundred Rolls), 

Kettle, Castle, (Gaelic) Gaskell. 

MacAskel [131 i], Makaskill [1312], Caskell and 

MacCaskell[i5ii], Caistil[i699], Caistell [1725], 

Castil [1733], Castell [1750], Castle [1789]. 

It is now hardly found anywhere, though for- 
merly common in Bride, to which parish it was 
almost confined. 

* For asy sec Casement. 

t Cumming, Runic Remains. 

1 Manx Note Book, No. 9, pp. 18-19. 

I Worsaae, The Danes and Northmen, p. 283. 

jj Manx Society, Vol. VI L, p. 153. 

^/did.,p, 154. 



Cottier and Cotter (pronounced Cotchier), con- 
tracted from MacOttarr, * Ottar's son.' The Nerse 
name, Ottarr, seems to be formed from Otta, 
'twilight,' and the ending hart, which prob- 
ably means * sword.' In Anglo-Saxon spelling it 
is Ohthere. The voyages of a Norseman so 
named are related in King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon 
version of Orosius. At Kirk Braddan there is a 
cross read by Dr. Vigfusson as follows : — Utr : 
RiSTi : Crus : pONO : Aft : Froca .... ' Odd 
raised this cross to the memory of Froca . . . .' 
and he remarks ' Ut probably represents the Ice- 
landic Odd, though this is not certain.'* Under 
A.D. 1098, we find in the Chronicon Mannia, that 
*A battle was fought between the Manxmen at 
Santwat, and those of the North obtained the 
victory. In this engagement were slain the Earl 
Other and Macmaras, leaders of the respective 
parties.'t 

* MacOtiir, one of the people of Insi Gall (the Hebrides),' 
A.D. 1 1424 

Ottar was king of Dublin, a.d. 1147. 

Ottarr is common in the FlateyjarbSc. 

Cotter is the usual form to the middle of the 
eighteenth centurj^ when it was generally sup- 
planted by Cottier, which is now almost invari- 
ably the form used. Tradition has it that two 
Huguenot families, called Cottier, escaped from 
France at the time of the massacre of St. Bartho- 
lomew, 1572, and that their descendants settled in 

* Manx Note Book, No. 9, p. 16. 

t Chronicon Manniae, Manx Society, Vol. XXII., p. 58. 

t Four Mast., Vol. II., p. 169. 

6 



32 manx Surname 



the parish of Lezayre. The name Cottier, how- 
ever, or rather MacCottier, was found here before 
that date, but still it is possible that its origin 
may not be the same as that of Cotter. 

Oxer, Other [1098], MacOti* (?) [1417], MacCotter 
and Mac Cottier [1504], Cotiier [1616], Cotier 
[1625], Cottar [1647]. 

Lezayre (vc), Ballaugh, Marown, Braddan, Maughold, 
Rushen, Onchan, Malew, Arbory, German, Santon, Bride, 
Michael (c), elsewhere (u). 

Corkhill, contracted from Mac-pSr-KetilL* porr, the 
God of thunder, the keeper of the hammer, the 
destroyer of evil spirits, the son of mother earth, 
was the favourite Deity of the North. Cumming 
reads pURKETiL on a cross in Kirk Braddan, but 
Dr. Vigfusson makes it pURLiBR.f 

In the annals of Roger de Hoveden we read 
under date a.d. 1044 that * the noble Matron Gun- 
hilda . . . with her two sons, Hemming and 
Turkill, was expelled from England.'J 

Bishop Thorgil took part in Haco's expedition 
in A.D. 1263. 

Both pORKELL and pORGiLS are common in the 
Landndmaboc and the Flateyjarboc. 

' Donald MacCorkyll was Rector of the Church of St 
Mary of Balylagh, in i4o8,*§ and ' Edward CORKHiLL one 
of the Deemsters of Mann,' in 1532.II 

Compare (Gaelic) MacTorquil, MacCorquo- 

DALE. 

MacCorkyll [1408], MacCorkill [1430], M^Crokell, 



♦ See Castell. t Manx Note Book, No. 9, p. 16. 

fManx Society, Vol IV., p. 37. § Manx Society, Vol. IV., p. 247. 
Statute Law Book, p. 29. 



tiamtfi JDf SranMna0{an 0xi^iru 83 

CORKELL [151 1], CORKHILL [1532], CURKELL [1632], 
CORKILL [1650], CORKIL [1652]. 

Ballaugh, Maughold, German, Lezayre, Michael, Santon, 
Andreas (c), elsewhere (u). 

CoRLETT (sometimes pronounced Curleod), is from 

the (O.N.) personal name porljStr (the initial c 

representing the Celtic prefix Mac). The word 

Ijotr means 'deformed,' or 'ugly/ but that can 

scarcely be its meaning in this compound. Dr. 

Vigfusson thinks that Ijot is the same as the old 

Teutonic ledd, ' people.' It is not found by itself 

in the LandndtnabSc, though, in combination with 

p6rr it is common there. In the FlateyjarbSc, 

written two centuries later, this compound name 

occurs twice. Ljotr is found on the cross in the 

old churchyard at Ballaugh in combination with 

Liut, as LiUTWOLF.* 

' The name TAor has always been thought to sound well, 
and is much used in proper names. Yorljoir is found in 
many runic stones in Denmark. The MacLeods, in Scot- 
land, have always claimed a Scandinavian origin, and their 
name is probably from Mac IjStr, the J>or not having been 
inserted.'t *The MacLeods of CadboU, and the Mac- 
Leods of Lewis, not only quarter the Manx trie cassyn (three 
legs), but use the same motto, quocunquejeceris stabit; which, 
I think, clearly points out that the chiefs of that name are 
descendants from the Norwegian sovereigns of Mann and 
the Isles, or some other Manx connexion.']: 

In the parishes of Ballaugh and Lezayre nearly 

one-fourth part of the population are Corletts. 

Compare (Welsh) Lloyd. 

Corlett [1504], MacCorleot [151 i], MacCorleat 
[1521], Curleod [i6oo], Corlod [1629], Curlet 

* Manx Note Book, No. 9, pp. 11, 12. 

t Cleasby and Vigfusson, p. 743. 

X Oswald, in Manx Society, Vol. V., p. 7. 

6—2 



84 Btanx Sttitnant^tf. 



[1666], CORLEOD [1677], CORLOT [1678], CORLET 
[1618]. 

Ballaugh, Lezayre, Bride, Andreas (vc), Jurby, Malew, 
Rushen, German, Michael, Braddan, Lonan (c), elsewhere 
(u). 

Cowley, and Kewley (pronounced Cowlah and 
Keolah), contracted from MacAiday, the shortened 
form o{ MacAnthlaibh, ' AnlaPs or Olafs son.' 

The Scandinavian name Anleifr, Alefer, 
6lAfr was rendered by AnlAf in the Saxon 
Chronicle, and by Amhlabh in the Irish 
Chroniclers ; thus Righ Amhlab was King Olave 
the White in Dublin. We have it in the form 
Aulafir* on the cross at Kirk Michael, and on 
the cross at Ballaugh in the curious form Oulaibr, 
which Dr. Vigfusson says is unique. Olaf was a 
royal name in Man, and must at one time have been 
common. The derivation from Olaf seems most 
probable ; but it so happens that the native Irish 
name Amhalghada was also pronounced Aulay. 

Aumond M'Olave was Bishop of Man from 
A.D. 1077-noo, and, in no2, Olave, son of Godred 
Crovan, commenced his reign. 

* Flann MacAulay killed,' A.D. ii78.t 

6lAfr was a favourite proper name in the north, 
and was common both in the LandndmabSc and 
the FlateyjarbSc. Some of our Cowleys may be 
of English origin, but Kewley is a purely Manx 
name. 

In the parishes where Cowley is common, 
Kewley is rare, and vice versa. 

* Manx Note Book, No. 9, pp. 12, 13. f Four MasL 



iBant^ iiT StatOiitutrtatt 0i^tu 85 

MacCowley [1504], Cowley [1587], Kewley [161 i], 
CowLAY [1626]. 
Cowley — Lezayre, Ballaugh, Maughold (c), elsewhere (u). 
Kewley — Braddan, Marown, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

Crennell, and Crellin (the latter by metathesis 
from the former) were both probably contracted 
from MacRannall or MacRaghnaill, 'Reginald's 
son.' Raghnall is the Celtic form of the 
common Scandinavian name ROgnvaldr (rogn, 
a collective name for the Gods, is a frequent 
commencement of proper names, and valdr, 'ruler/ 
is equally common as an ending). It was not 
common in Ireland till the thirteenth century. 

' Godfrey MacMicRagnaill, king of Dublin,' a.d. 1075 * 

ROgnvaldr occurs in the Flaieyjarboc. 

Reginald or Ragnvald was the name of 
several of the Kings of Man. 

Andrew Reynesson was one of the Keys who 
signed the Indenture in 1417. 

* Brian, the son of Gilcreest MACRANNALL.'t 

John Crellin was a lieutenant in Peel Castle, 
in 1610. 

Crellin appears to be a purely Manx name, 

but, as in Cottier, there is a tradition of French 

origin, which^ in this case, is said to be from the 

noble family of De Crillon. It is remarkable 

that in the parishes where Crellin is common, 

Crennell is scarcely found, and vice versd. 

MacReynylt [1511], Crenilt [1627], Crynilt [1639], 
Crenylt [1640], Creniel [1642], Crennil [1646], 
Crinnell [1651], Crenil [1702], Crennell [1715]. 



♦ Annals of Ulster. t Four Mast., Vol. III., p. 547. 



86 ntanx Suvineinmt. 



Crelun [i6io], Crillin [1702], Crelling [1730]. 

Crennell— Bride, Andreas (vc), Maughold (c), else- 
where (u). 

Crelun— German (vc), Michael, Patrick, Arbory (c), 
elsewhere (u). 

Cringle, possibly from (O.N.) Kringle, which is 
found as a nickname in the LandndmabSc (Kringla, 
* a circle ')• 

Cringle [1641], Cringal [1672], Kringel [1774]. 
It is very uncommon. 

Garret, contracted from (O.N.) Geirrat^r. The 
first element in this name is geirr, ' spear/ The 
ending rau r in proper names has been supposed 
by Professor Bugge to have been derived by 
several successive corruptions from fridf * peace.' 

GeirO^r occurs twice in the Flaieyjarbdc. It 
may also be firom (O.N.) Geirvaldr, which cor- 
responds exactly to Gerald, or, in some cases, it 
might come from the Celtic MacArt : cf. Bally- 
macarret, ' MacArt's town.' 

Several Gerrards were governors of the Isle of 
Man. 

• Garret, Earl of Desmond,'* a.d. 1369. 
Garretf [1586], Gerrard [1592], Carretf [1609], 
Carret [1610], Carrat [1644], Garrad [1677], 
Garret [1661], Carrad [1679], Karret [1648], 
Karretf [1698], Karrad [1701]. 

It is spelt in the Registers with G, C, and K, 
indifferently, but the former predominates. 

Andreas (vc). Bride, Jurby, Maughold, Michael, Lezayre, 
German, Ballaugh (c), elsewhere (u). 

* Four Mast, Vol. II., p. 694. 



TUsvx^B iif $taiUi f itatiiatt 0Ji^gitu 87 

Christian has come to us from Iceland, in the form 
of KRisxfN. The Celtic Mac was prefixed to it, 
and then it gradually became anglicised into its 
present form. 

Kristin is found in the Flateyjarbdc. 
James, the seventh Earl of Derby, in one of his 
letters to his son, said : * There be many of the 
Christians in this country — that is Christins 
[for that is] the true name ; but they have made 
themselves chief here.** ft is a very common 
name in the Isle of Man, especially in the parish 
of Maughold. 

Compare (Scandinavian) Christian, Chris- 
tiansen. 
MacCrystyn [1408], Christiane [i499],t ChristiaNjJ 
MacChristene [1504], MacCristyn, MacChras- 
tene [151 i], MacCristin, MacCristen [1586], 
Christin [1610], Christing [1626], Cristen [1632]. 
Maughold, Andreas, Jurby, Bfide, Lezayre, Malew, 
Rushen, Onchan (vc), Braddan, Marown, Arbory, German, 
Santon, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

GoREE and Gorry, corrupted from (O.N.) Got- 
frey^r. Bugge and others connect frey^r with frid^ 
* peace,' but this is very uncertain. GdtJYey^ 
would naturally pass through the various stages of 
GoDFRAiTH, GoDRED, and Gored to Gore in 
Scandinavian lips. In Ireland it became Goth- 
FRAiTH, Goffry, and finally Gorry. 
GoTHFRAiTH is found in the Fowr Masters, and 



* Manx Society, Vol. III., p. 49. 

t This is given in the 'Statute Law Book' as 14 19, but it is more 
probably 1499. 
X Christian is not the usual form till the seventeenth century. 



88 ntattx Stntttmn»* 



the most curtailed form is exhibited in Derry 
GoRRY, * Godfrey's wood/ in Monaghan. 
' Er-derry haink er hue Ree Goree.* 
'Until there came to them King Gorce.' 

GoDRED and Orry. 

[TAis monograph on the connection between GODRED and 
Orry was sent to the writer by the late Dr. 
Vigfusson^ 

A grammarian named Thorodd, a housewright 
and church-builder by trade, living early in the 
twelfth century, having listened, while building the 
cathedral of Holdar, in the north of Ireland (area 
mo), to the teaching of Latin that took place 
whilst he sat at work, took a fancy to those studies 
and became ' a great master in that art,* and after- 
wards wrote an essay, in the Norse tongue, pn the 
Icelandic alphabet. In order to show how short 
and long vowels, or single and double consonants 
make all the difference, and result in words widely 
different in sound and sense, he gives appropriate 
sentences, containing one of each, drawn from 
mythology, history, old saws, and the like. I could 
never make out the origin of one of these till I 
came to the Isle of Man, and there I found the 
key to it. The sentence runs thus : 

* Vcl Ilka Go>roe>e g.d»> ro^J>e,' 
That is, 

* Godroth loves well good oars.' 

Godrod (Godfrod is a still older form) is an 
ancient royal name. But where did our gram- 
marian pick up the word and the sentence ? Since 
the time of Godrod, the famed Northman king, 



Charlemagne's antagonist, there had been no 
famous king in Scandinavia of that name. It can- 
not have been this Godred, separated by three 
centuries from the writer's time, never known but 
dimly in Iceland, and now clean forgotten by the 
lapse of time. Observe, also, that in Iceland the 
name never even obtained. Of all countries, Man 
is the only one where, in the twelfth century, 
Godred was still a favoured name. And hearing 
and seeing, during my stay in Man, King Orry 
everywhere — he being to the Manx a sort of King 
Alfred, the fountain-head of all that is old and 
time-honoured — ^the thought struck me : * Here is 
the Godred of the Icelandic grammarian.' A train 
of sound-changes, easily understood, transforms 
Gofroef to Orry, or King Orry of the present day 
— Go}>roep=:Go'reth = Gor6 ; then there must have 
been a time when the name was only sounded with 
King: King-go'r6=Kingor6, and dropping ' King,* 
and parting the word in the wrong place we have 
Ore, whence Orry; thus the initial g was lost. 
The * Godrod ' of the grammarian, who loved the 
oars, or good oarsmen, is, I think, the Godredus 
of the Rushen Abbey Chronicles, surnamed 
Crowan, who, after a chequered life, died in 1095. 
The Manx of that day were a people of sailors — 
their king, of necessity, a sailor king ; his strength, 
even his life and fortune, lay in his galley. To the 
ancient clipper-built galleys the oar and the oars- 
men were what steam is to modern vessels. No 
wonder, then, that a Manx king loved good oars- 
men. Thorodd's essay is separated from the king 
by some thirty-five years, but his memory would 



90 nUattx 9m^}XAmtJBu 



still be green, and men would still be living who 
had served on his galleys. At that time there was 
still trade communication between Iceland and the 
Orkneys and Shetland. Sodor and Man were 
more out of the Icelander's way, but would still be 
known to him. The crews, according to the rules 
of navigation in those days, would stay in Iceland 
the winter over, as * winter sitters.' In turn Ice- 
landers would now and then visit the Western 
Isles, for the crews were mixed. The story of 
King Godred, his adventures, his ships and oars- 
men, would have been the topic of entertainment 
many an evening. A century later the Icelanders 
knew of the Manx king, Reginald, who, like the 
sea-kings of old, for three consecutive years had 
never sat ' under a sooty roof ' — a true son of the 
galley. An Icelandic saga on the Earls of Orkney 
and Shetland has come down to us, where the Isle 
of Man comes in for a chance notice, but no saga 
of Manx kings is known, though such may well 
have been written, or told at any rate. The lives 
of these sea-kings survived the longest, into the 
thirteenth century, when the ship, oars, sail, and 
rudder were dropping out of Norse and Danish 
hands into those of the Hansa merchants. The 
inhabitants of Sodor and Man were the last sailors 
of the old Norse kin. 

GOREE [1627], GORRY [1712]. 

It is almost confined to Peel and was never 
common. 

Lace and Leece (probably originally the same 
name) possibly from Leif, or Leifr, 'an inheri- 



Wieanttt nf SranMnaMan Vi^igitu 91 

tance,' a name very frequently found in the Land- 
ndmabSc. 

In Lincolnshire there is a place called Laceby, 
which in the Domesday Book is written Levesbi, 
and in the Hundred Rolls, Leyseby. 

Compare (Norman) Lacy. 

Lace [1643], Leece [1679], Lase [1693], Leese [1695], 
M«yLeese [1746]. 

It is not so common as formerly. 

Bride, German (vc), Maughold, Santon, Andreas, Lezayre, 
Patrick (c), elsewhere (u). 

MacAlcar [1511] (obsolete), probably from (O.N.) 
Alfgeirr. 

ScARFF. Dr. Vigfusson suggests that this name is 
probably derived from (Q.H.) skarii, *a mountain 
pass.' Skar5 is common in local names in Ice- 
land, and we find Scarf-gap in Cumberland, so 
that the surname may have been taken from one 
of the places so called. Other possible derivations 
are from skar6i, ' hare-lip,' a nickname which was 
a frequent Danish proper name on Runic stones, 
or from skarf, *a cormorant,' which is used as a 
nickname in the LandndmabSc. The cormorant is 
still called ' the Scarf,' in the Shetlands. Scharf 
is found in the Hundred Rolls. 

The name is now very uncommon. 
MacSkerffe [1408], Skerf [1417], MacSkerff [1511], 

SCARFF [1620]. 

Skillicorne, a name peculiar to the Isle of Man, 
is puzzling. It is most probably derived from a 
local name now forgotten, beginning with the word 



92 Mnvac Sintnamit** 

skellig, *rock,' We have Skellig and Cornaa 
separately among our local names, but not in com- 
bination. 

CoRNi is found as a personal name in the Land- 
ndtnaMc, and Skyli in the FlateyjarMc. 

Sir Philip Skillicorne was a vicar in 1521. 
Skvlycorne [1511], Skillicorne [1521], Skylleskorn 
[1540], Skilucorn [1650], Skillecorn [1651). 
Maughold, Andreas, Lezayre, Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 



CHAPTER IV. 

EXOTIC SURNAMES. 

Under this head we include the Surnames which are 
neither of Celtic nor of Scandinavian formation, but 
have been introduced by immigration subsequent to 
the period of Norse domination. Amongst these the 
first place in order of time belongs to the Hibernicised 
Anglo-Norman Names. 

* After the murder of the Great Earl of Ulster, William de Burgo, 
the third Earl of that name, in 1333, and the consequent lessening 
of the English power in Ireland, many, if not all the distinguished 
Anglo-Norman families seated in Connaught and Munster became 
Hibernicised — Hibemis ipsis Hibemiores — spoke the Irish lan- 
guage, and assumed surnames like those of the Irish, by prefixing 
Mac to the Christian names of their ancestors. . . . Thus the De 
Burgos, in Connaught, assumed the name of MacWilliam. . . . 
from these sprang many offsets ... as the MacGibbons, Mac- 
Walters,** etc. 

Members of these families settled in the Isle of Man, 
particularly in the south-western portion, and contracted 
their names of MacWalter and MacWilliam into the 
decidedly harsh Qualtrough and Quilliam. 

* O'Donovan, Introduction, pp- 21, 22. 



94 Mecnx Sumatni^ 

Garret may come from the Anglo-Norman Gerald, 
but is more likely to have come to us from the 
Scandinavians.* 

Gale, also possibly of Anglo-Norman origin ; as * the 
Burkes of Gallstown and Balmontin, County Kil- 
kenny, who descended from the Red Earl of Ulster, 
took the name of Gall, or foreigner,' t sind the 
Stapletons, of Westmeath, took that of Mac an 
Ghaill, is more probably a name given by the 
natives to strangers who settled in the Isle of Man. 

Kerruish (pronounced Kerreush), contracted from 
MacFeorais, * Pierce's son,' and Corris, from 
MacOrish, another form of MacFeorais. The 
powerful Anglo-Norman family of Bermingham, 
Barons of Athenry, took the name of MacFeorais 
or MacOrish from an ancestor Pierce, Pieras, or 
Feoras, the son of Meyler Bermingham. J 

'Andrew MacFeorais/ a.d. i32i.§ 

It is remarkable that in the parishes where 

Kerruish is found, Corris is not. The former is 

almost confined to the parish of Maughold, while 

the latter is very common in the parish of German. 

The distich 

• Christian, Callow, and Kerruish, 
All the rest are refuse !' 

is still to be heard in Maughold, and is not so 
sweeping a condemnation as might be supposed, 

* See p. 86. 

t 0*Donovan, Introduction to Poems, pp 22-24. 

I O'Donovan, p. 22. 

§ Four Mast., Vol III., p. 37o. 



Cx0tit $11K1UII1100* 95 

as ' all the rest ' are not numerous. It is perhaps 
worth relating the popular etymology of this name. 
A ship was wrecked off Maughold Head. The 
people on shore, observing that four of the ship- 
wrecked mariners had stripped and were swimming 
to shore, exclaimed kiare rooisht, 'four naked T 
The swimmers settled in the parish. Hence the 
name and its frequency there. 

Compare (Irish) Corrish, Corus, Chorus, 
(Gaelic) MacJoris. 

McCoRRis [151 1], Corras [1601], Kerush [1610], Cores 
[1628], Kerruish [1643], CoRRis [1647], Kerroush, 
Kerrish [1666], Corrish [1674], Kerruse [1701I 
Kerish [1704], Kerrish [1708]. 

Kerruish, though it appears in 1643, is not the 

usual form till the eighteenth century ; till then 

Kerrish is more common. 

Kerruish — Maughold (vc), hardly found elsewhere. 
CoRRis— German (vc), Malew, Patrick (c), elsewhere (u). 

CoRKiSH is probably merely Corris with * k ' inter- 
polated. Note the Irish form Corrish, and observe 
that CoRKiSH is not found before 1660 ; also, that 
it does not occur in any of the parishes where 
CoRRis does. 

CORKISH [1660]. 
Arbory, Bride, Rushen (c), elsewhere (u). 

QuALTROUGH, Contracted from MacWalter, 'Walter's 
son,' (see Watterson). 

* Thomas MacWalter, constable of Bunfinn/* a.d. 1308. 
The FitzWalters were the ancestors of the 
princely line of Hamilton, in Scotland. 

In the parishes of Rushen and Arbory half the 

* Four Mast, Vol. III., p. 489. 



9^ VtAXtX 9VtXtl0iMlt9t* 



population is called either Qualtrough or Wat- 

TERSON, and in the parish of Malew one-fourth. 
MacQualtrough [1429], Qualtrough [1430], Mac- 
Walter, MacWhaltragh, Water [151 i], McQual- 
through [1521], Qualtragh [1654], Qualteragh 
[1698]. 
Rushen, Arbory, Malew (vc) elsewhere (u). 

Watterson, or Waterson, a corruption of Walter- 
son,* is a translation of MacWalter. It seems 
probable that the English-speaking MacWalters 
would adopt this name, whilst the Celtic would 
consent to have their name contracted into Qual- 
trough. We find Water as a corruption of 
Walter in England. Thus in the Churchwardens 
books at Ludlow we have 'The account of 
Wattare Taylor and Wyllyam Partynge, beynge 
churchwardens, in the xxxii yere of the rayne of 
Kyng Henry the eighth a.d. I54i.'t This is also 
shown in the account of Suffolk's death in Shake- 
speare's Henry VI., where the murderer says : 

* My name is Walter Whitmore. 

How now ! Why start^st thou ? What doth death affright ! 

Suffolk — Thy name afTrights me, in whose sound is death. 
A cunning man did calculate my birth, 
And told me that by Water I should die.' 

Some think that Watterson is a translation of 
Mac-yn-ushteyf * Water-son,' but this is very doubt- 
ful. The only entry in the Registers of such a 
* name is at Malew in 1669, when it states distinctly 
that ' William Macynustey ' was * an Irishman.'! 

"i^ It should, however, be stated that Walterson is not found in 
the Manx Registers before 1547, and that it only occurs once. 
t Bardsley Surnames, p. 215. 
X Manx Note Book, No. 8, p. 186. 



dxottt SnxnamtifBu 97 

KoDERE was formerly used as a synonym for 
Watterson, members of the same family being 
called indifferently by one name or the other. 
KoDERE, however, was evidently used merely as 
a nickname, as it is not found in the Parish 
Registers. Professor Rhys ingeniously conjectures 
that KoDERE may be a contraction of MacOtUr, 
and that Watterson is Otterson. 

Watterson is as common in the southern 
parishes as Qualtrough. 

Watersone* [1422], Watterson [1504], Water, 
Waterson [151 i], Walterson [1547]. 
Rushen, Arbory, Malew (vc), German, Patrick (c), else- 
where (u). 

QuiLLiAM, contracted from MacUilliam, 'William's 
son.' The name ' MacWilliam f (a.d. 1213,) in 
Ireland was taken by the De Burgos, whose de- 
scendants were numerous in the counties of Galway 
and Mayo. In 1225 King Henry III. granted the 
province of Connaught to Richard de Burgo. 
Another Richard de • Burgo was Governor of the 
Isle of Man a.d. 1292. 

Compare (Irish and Gaelic) McWilliam, 
(English) Williamson, Williams. 

Marown, Malew, German, Patrick (c), elsewhere (u). 

Crebbin, contracted from MacRoibin, * Robin's son.' 
A minor branch of the Barrets, of Tirawley, in 
Connaught, took the surname of MacRobert. 
Compare (Irish) Cribbin, Gribbin, G ribbon, 

* In the British Museum Copy only, 
t Four Mast, Vol. III., p. 1 8a 



98 !Rlditx $U¥tutt)tit0* 



(Scotch) RoBSON, Robertson, (Welsh) Probert, 
(English) Roberts, Robinson. 
MacRobyn [1511], Crebbin [1640], Cribbin [1666], 
Crebin [1668]. 
Jurby, Andreas, Rushen (vc), Braddan, German, Arbory 
(u), hardly found elsewhere. 

Cubbon contracted from MacGibbon, 'Gilbert's son/ 
* The descendants of Gilbert Fitzgerald, a younger son of 
John Fitzgerald, ancestor of the houses of Kildare and Des- 
mond, assumed the appellation of MacGibbon.** 

Compare (Irish) Gibbon, Gibbons, MacGibbon, 
McKiBBiN, (Gaelic) MacCubbin, (English) Gib- 
son, Gilbertson, Gibbs, Gubbins. 
Gybone [1429], M'Cubbon [1430], MacGibbon [1511], 
Cubbon [1605], Cubbin [1645], Cubon [1649], Gub- 
BON, Chubbon [1679]. 

KiNRY, contracted from MacHenry, * Henry's son.' 

'MACHENRY,' A.D. I248.t 

Dr. Joyce, however, says that the MacHenry 
in Ireland is derived from Innerighe, * early riser,' 
and that many MacHenrys now call themselves 
Early and Yardly. We find * MacInnerigh 'J 
in O'Huidhrin's poem, and in 1511 we have 
MacEnere as well as MacHenry, so it looks as 
if some, at any rate, of the Kinrys derived their 
names from this source. In the Isle of Man 
KiNRY has been invariably translated into Har- 
rison, which has now, except in the parishes of 
Andreas and Bride, almost entirely superseded it. 
MacEnere, MacHenry [1511], Kynry [1669], Kinry 
[1693]. 
Andreas, Bride (c), Lezayre (u), hardly found elsewhere. 

* 0*Donovan, p. 23. f Four Mast, Vol. III., p. 200. 

X O'Huidhrin, p. 119. 



Qfocirfic 9vo(tx0nttS0* 99 



Criggard and Krickart (obsolete), contracted from 
MacRichard, ' Richard's son.' 

' MacRichard/ A.D. 1462.* 
The MacRickards or MacRichards were 
descendants of the Mac Williams. 

Crickart [1649], Krickart [1657], Crigart [1664], 
Criggard [1771]. 
The name was formerly common in the parish of Jurby. 

Macsharry and Macsherry [1511] (obsolete), is a 

corruption of MacGeoffrey, * Geoffrey's son.' 

'The Hodnets of the Strand, a Shropshire family, took 
the surname of MacSherry,'! when they settled in Ire- 
land. 

We have Knocksharry, possibly so called from 
a proprietor of this name, though the derivation 
usually given is from Sharragh, a * foal.' 

*Magrath MacSherry, Bishop of Conmaicne,' a.d. 
I23at 

Since the Isle of Man became subject to 
English rule a considerable number of English, 
Scotch, and other family names have been im- 
ported. Some of these have undergone some 
corruption in insular use, while a few have even 
been translated into Manx, often, of course, with 
very grotesque misapprehensions of their mean- 
ing. We mention here those which are known 
to have been in use for, at least, several gene- 
rations, omitting such as are of merely incidental 
occurrence : 



* Four Mast., Vol IV. f 0*Donovan, p. 24. 

t Four Mast., Vol. III., p. 250. 



loo WHattx $intnmni^0* 

Gates and Oats. This surname is not uncommon 

in England, and is probably a derivative of the 

Norman Christian name Ote or Otes. * Sir Ote' 

was one of the brothers of Gamelyn (see the * Tale 

of Gamelyn/ erroneously ascribed to Chaucer). 

It is not so conimon in the Isle of Man now as 

formerly. It was occasionally found as a Christian 

name also. 

Braddan, Santon (vc), Marown, German, Onchan (c), 
elsewhere (u). 

CORJEAG is an attempt at translating the English 
Cavendish (imagined to mean * giving dish ' !) 

' CURJEIG, s.f. an alms dish. . . . This word is used for 
the surname of Cavendish (in Manks), but more probably 
giving dish.** 

At the end of the sixteenth century a family 
called Cavendish settled in the parish of Michael, 
where they held property in 1583 {vide Liber 
Vastarum), and from 161 1 (when the register 
commences) to 1650 their births, marriages, and 
deaths are duly entered under that name, but 
after that time, though the family is known not to 
have died out, the name disappears, and Corjeag 
entirely supplants it, the two names having co- 
existed since 1611. Corjeag t is still almost 
confined to Michael, occurring rarely in the ad- 
jacent parishes and not at all elsewhere. 

CORJEAGE [1611], CORJAIGE [1617], CORJEAG [1626], COR- 
JAGE [1658], CoRJAGUE [1736], CORJEGGE [1796]. 
Michael (c), Ballaugh, German (u). 

* Cregeen, Manx Dictionary, p. 51. 

t Several people of this name, who have moved into Douglas, 
have changed their name into Cavendish again. 



Cxolic 3fontttfttttt0* loi 



GuMMERY, a corruption of Montgomery. A Mont- 
gomery settled in Kirk Michael, and married 
in 1668, when he is styled Muntgummery; 
at the baptism of his first child Mountgomery ; 
two years later McGummery; in 1688 Gumery, 
in 1693 Gummery, and in 1705 McGummery. 

GUMMERY is now the accepted form. 
This name is confined to Kirk Michael 

Caralagh (obsolete) is a correct translation of 
* Cartful^ An English family of this name settled 
in the parish of Braddan at the end of the six- 
teenth century, and their name was soon trans- 
lated. 

Caralagh [1623], Caralaugh [1656]. 
Braddan (c) formerly, Santon (u), not found elsewhere. 

CoTTiNGHAM (obsolete), possibly from one of the 
villages so named in England, was formerly a 
common name in Maughold and Braddan. It 
is not found after the middle of the eighteenth 
century. It took a variety of forms in Manx 
lips. 

COTTINGHAM [1604], COTTIHAM [1628], COTTIGAM [1644], 
COTTIAM [1647], COTTEMAN [1732]. 

Radcliffe and Ratcliff, f.^.. Red-cliffy has been 

a common name in the north of the Island 

from an early period. It is a place-name in 

Lancashire, where this family was at one time of 

some importance. 

Radcliffe [1497], Ratcliffe [1540], Ratcliff [1674], 
Ratclift [1676], Rattliffe [1693]. 
Andreas (vc), Maughold, German, Bride (c), elsewhere (u). 



I02 WUatx Suitnmscetf. 

Bankes, formerly Bancks [1637], ("^ow extinct in 
the Isle of Man). This family held property in 
the parish of Onchan for many years. Banks's 
Howe was named from them. 

Bacon. The first member of this family settled in 
the Isle of Man in 1724. 

Casar [1643] (obsolete). The principal family of 
this name held property in Santon, and at Bal- 
lahick, in Malew. 

Calcott, or Calcot, contracted from Caledcott (cold- 
cot), the name of their estate in Cheshire. 
They were a powerful family in the Isle of Man in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but their 
name is now very uncommon. 

'The Prioress of Douglas and Robert Calcotb for the 
freshwater fishing of Douglas this year as in the preceding 
year 4/2.' (ZiA Assed., 1511.) 

*Robt Calcoats, receiver of the Castle of Man/ 1532.* 
Calcote [1511], Calcoats [1532], Calcotts [1586], Cal- 
cott [1629], Calcot [1689]. 

Crystal and Cristalson are corruptions of Christ- 
opher and Christopherson respectively, which 
have come to us from Scotland. They both occur 
in 1511, but are very uncommon now. 

Christory is also a corruption of Christopher. 
It was formerly common in the parish of Jurby, 
but is now uncommon everywhere. 
Crystory [1624], Christry [1640], Christery [1714], 
Chrystry [1738I Christory [1750]. 

* Statute Law Book, p. 29. 



(Sxxftit 9vtx\\AxiWit* 103 

Craig, formerly usually Corraige {Caraig, a * rock/) 
is a translation of the French Delaroche, A French 
family of this name settled in Scotland at an early 
date, and had their name transformed in this way. 
The name is uncommon. It may, perhaps, in 
some cases, be derived from the (o.n.) Krdka 
(Danish Krage), *a crow,' which is found in the 
LandndmabSc as a nickname. Ballacoraige is 
the name of a farm in Ballough. 
Corraige [1599], Corraig [1700], Craig [1776]. 

Farrant, from /ar, farCy signifying * travel,' and and 
signifying ' life,' * spirit.' 

Compare (old German and English) Ferrand. 
It may, perhaps, be contracted from Ferdinand. 
Faraund [1511], Farrant [1653], 

Ellison [1670], contracted from Eliason, is found 
chiefly in the northern part of the Island. 
Compare (Danish) Elissen, Eliassen. 

Fletcher [1621]. Edward Fletcher was Deputy- 
Governor in 1621, and Governor in 1622. This 
family, a branch of a well-known family in Lan- 
cashire, held considerable property here in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The estate 
of Ballafletcher in Braddan, which was their 
property, formerly contained five quarterlands. 

Fairbrother [1682], a translation of the French 
heaufrere^ probably came to us from Scotland. It 
was formerly common in Peel, but is not found in 
the Island now. 



I04 Widxix StntttAtitit^ 

Freer, from (French) frere, ' brother,* was formerly 
common in Jurby. 
Ffrser [1607], Freer [1690]. 

Creer, probably from MacFreer. 

Crere [161 i], Creer [1622], Creere [1652]. 

Nelson (see Chap, I., Part IL) ought to come under 
this section when it is of independent origin, but, 
as we have already said, it is usually a translation 
of Kneal in the Isle of Man. 

Greaves [1740], Graves [1779]. Found in Peel. 

GlCK [1663], GlCKE [1666]. 

Malew, Santon (c), elsewhere (u). 

Harrison [1504] is, in many cases, merely a trans- 
lation of Kinry (which see), but, doubtless, many 
immigrants bore this name when they arrived, as 
it is constantly found at an early date, and is, 
moreover, common in the Isle of Man. 

Heywood [1643], from Ewood, the name of their 
property in Lancashire. Peter Heywood, on his 
English estates being confiscated in 1643, came 
to reside in the Isle of Man. His son became 
Governor, and the family attained considerable 
power and influence in the Island. The name is 
not found here now. 

Cleator is probably a name of English extraction, 
though McCletter being found in 1511 would 
seem to point to a Celtic origin. 

Cf. Cleator-Moor in Cumberland. 
McCletter [151 i], Cleater [1670], Cleader [1696], 
Clator [1700], Claytor [1713], Cleator [1715], 
Claitor [175 i]. 
Bride (vc), Jurby, Andreas, Lezayre (c), elsewhere (u). 



HuTCHiN, HuTCHEN, HuDGEON, from the root hig, 
hog, hug, ' thought/ * study.' 
Compare (Scotch) Hutcheon, McHutchin. 

(English) Hutchinson. 
HucHON [151 1], Hutcheon [1540], Hutchin [1570I 

HUTCHEN [1586], HUDGEON [1785], MACHUTCHIN 

[I80I]. 

It is now very uncommon. 

Formerly (c) in Marown, German, Rushen, and (u) in 
Maughold, Malew, Lonan, Arbory, Patrick. 

Hampton [1689], fr^n^ ^ common English place- 
name. 

Braddan, Michael (c) formerly. 

Maddrell. a Lancashire place-name, chiefly found 
in the south of the Island. 

Matherell [1499],* Maddrell [1643]. 
Malew, Rushen, Arbory (c), elsewhere (u). 

NoRRis, formerly NoRRES-t This family followed 

the Stanleys from Lancashire to the Isle of 

Man, where they held several important official 

positions. 

'Gubon John NORRES'J [1422], *Sir Huan NORRES'J 
[1499], NoRRis [1586]. 

Parr, formerly PARRE,t is first found in the Isle of 
Man in 1504. 

Richard Parr was Bishop in 1637. Various 
Rectors and Vicars, also Deemster Parr, the 

* This date is given in the Statute Law Book as 1419, but 1499 
is probably correct, 
t These names are not found in the Island now. 
i Statute Law Book. 



io6 flldttx ivt^iXAUXtsu 

learned author of * Parr's Abstract/ were members 
of the same family. 
It was a well-known Lancashire family. 

Sansbury, generally Samsbury formerly. Possibly 
derived from the village of Samlesbury in 
Lancashire. The Samsburys were owners of 
Ronaldsway before the Christians. 
Saunesbury [151 i], Sansberie [1521J Samsbury [1586], 
Sansbure [1654], Sansbury [1657]. 
The name is much less common than formerly. 
Malew, German (c) formerly, elsewhere (u). 

Stanley [1408].* A younger branch of the Derby 
family settled in the Isle of Man for two or 
three generations, and held property chiefly in 
Arboiy. 

Stowell and Stole. 

This name is placed amongst the exotic sur- 
names because no Celtic or Scandinavian ety- 
mology appears to be adducible for it. Its early 
occurrence with the prefix Mac, however, is an 
argument in favour of its being of native origin. 
McStole, McStoile [1511], McStoyll [1540], Stole 
[1649], Stoil [1654I Stowell [1772]. 
Stowell has now gradually superseded the older 
forms. 

Malew, Arbory, San ton, Lonan (c), elsewhere (u). 

Standish [1511].* A Lancashire place-name. It 
was never common in the Isle of Man. 

William Standish was proprietor of Pulrose 
in Braddan in 15 11. 

* These names are not found in the Island now. 



(SxiMt Svtxfttavxesu 107 

Taubman, a name of German extraction. It is not 
uncommon in Germany. In modern German it 
would mean ^ deaf man/ but its real signification 
is, doubtless, something very different. 

Tubman [1601], Taubman [1610], Tumman [165 i], Tun- 
man [1652]. 
Malew, German, Arbory (c), elsewhere (u). 

Thompson, first found in 1598, has never been a 
common name in the Isle of Man. 

Tyldesley,* a Lancashire place-name. 

Thurstan de Tyldesley was one of the Com- 
missioners for Sir John Stanley in 1417. Thurstan 
Tyldesley was Receiver-General in 1532, and 
Thomas Tyldesley, Water Bailiff in the same 
year, and Deputy Governor in 1540. They lived 
at the Friary (Bemeccan) in the parish of Arbory. 
They were powerful and devoted adherents of 
the Stanleys. 

VoNDY is not so common as formerly. 

MacWanty? [1417I Gaunty? [1429], MacGuantie, 
[1430], Vantie [1602], Vondy [1606], Vandy [1608]. 
Jurby, Bride, Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 

Skinner. Now scarcely found. 

McSkynner [15 III Skinner [1623]. 

Formerly Andreas (vc), Jurby (c) elsewhere (u). 

ViNCH is the same name as Finch. 

Finch was a proprietor in Douglas, whence 
Finch Road. During the eighteenth century the 
name was much commoner than it is now. 
ViNCH [1685], Ffinch [1727I Finch [1750]- 

* This name is not found in the Island now. 



io8 SBaiix Smtttdini^' 

Wattleworth. a curious name, formerly much 
commoner than it is now. 

WaTERFORTH? [1422], WATfLEWORTH [1652], WaTELE- 
FORT [1673]. 

German (vc), Malew (c), elsewhere (u). 

Woods [1586]. 

Maughold, Lezayre, Santon, Kushen (c), elsewhere (u). 

Sherlock. 

Shurloge [1650], Shurlog [1652], Sherlock [1663]. 
There is a Balla-Shurloge in Arbory. The 
name is now scarcely found. 

Formerly Malew, Arbory (c), elsewhere (u). 



CHAPTER V. 

NAMES OBSOLETE BEFORE WRITTEN RECORDS. 

The oldest names recorded in the Isle of Man are those 
in the ogam character, which was in use about the fifth 
and sixth centuries. In the curious old Irish * Tale of 
the Children of Lir,' who are said to have lived in the 
Isle of Man, we are told that ' their ogam names were 
written and their lamentation rites were performed, and 
heaven was obtained for their souls through the prayers 
of Mochaomhog/ who may possibly be identified with 
Coemanus orGermanus,oneof the earliest Manx bishops. 
However this may have been, we find, as might have 
been expected from the constant early connection of 
the Isle of Man with Ireland, that the names on these 
inscriptions are mainly of purely Irish origin. The 
earliest discovery of an ogam inscription, that at Balla- 
queeny, near Port St Mary, was by the Rev. F. B. Grant, 
only fourteen years ago. This inscription has been 
deciphered by Professor Rh^s: Bivaicunas Maqui 
Mucoi CuNAVA, and by Mr. Kneale : Bifaidonas Maqi 
Mucoi QuNAFA, which he renders ' [The Stone] of 
Bifaidon, the son of Mucoi Conaf.* On further con- 
sideration Professor Rh^s thought it possible that 



no Manx $uitnam^0* 

BivicuNAS should be read Bivaiddonas. According 
to him the nominative of this should be Bivaiddu, 
which he compares with Beoaedh, a name which 
occurs in the * Martyrology of Donegal.' He thinks 
that the termination aedh is related to the Irish (ud, 
now translated ' Hugh/ and that this aed, and its longer 
form aidan, has driven the related form aidu, which we 
have in the above compound, out of use. Mr. Kneale 
remarks that Bifodon occurs in an Irish ogam. Macqui 
or Macqi is the ancient form of Mac, 'son.' 

Mucoi is a word which occurs frequently in ogam 
inscriptions ; it has probably some connection with the 
Irish mucaidh, a swineherd or owner. 

Cunava or QuNAFA is the first part of a longer word. 

On another stone close by are the words DovAi- 
DONA Maqui. Dovaidona(s) is the genitive of 
DovAiDU, which may be connected with aed, as 
Bivaiddu. 

A fragmentary inscription, at Bemeccan in the 
parish of Arbory, has recently been read by Professor 
Rhys as follows : Cunamagli ma[qi, etc. Cunamagli 
is a genitive. There was a Breton saint called CoNO- 
MAGLi. A later form CoNMiEOYL is given in the Saxon 
Chronicle as the name of one of the Welsh kings van- 
quished by Ceawlin at the battle of Deorham in 
A.D. 577. Its corresponding Irish forms are Conmal 
and CoNMHAL, where mAl probably means a prince 
or hero.* Professor Rhys has also recently dis- 
covered, on the back of the Mael-Lomchon cross at 
Kirk Michael, an inscription which bears a strong 
resemblance to the so-called * scratch ' ogams found in 
Scotland and Orkney. These ogams are of later date 

* For full discussion of these ogams see Manx Note Book, Nos. 
3, 10, and 12. 



'Siamt0 l^fatioil^U Ir^fm^ie Vriffien Sietmr^a* m 

than the ordinary ogams, which have been chiefly found 
in the South of Ireland and in South Wales. This 
inscription has been read by the EarP of Southesk as 
follows : MuNCOMALL AFi UA MuLLGUC, ' Mucomacl, 
son of O'Maelguc/* 

MuGO is equivalent to Mucoi (see pp. 109, no). 

Mael as a suifix is probably connected with Mdl, * a 
prince,' rather than with Mael, ' a servitor,* which is 
almost invariably a prefix. 

Maelguc. Here Mael probably means servitor, while 
guc may be connected with Cueg or Cuic, which has 
become the surnames QuiG or Keag in Ireland, and 
Quig(gin) and Keig in the Isle of Man. 

Next in order of time come the names on our nume- 
rous crosses inscribed with the Scandinavian letters 
called runes; these crosses were for the most part 
erected between the middle of the eleventh and the end 
of the thirteenth century. The pure Norse names are 
given first: Al^iSL, which is probably equivalent to 
Eadgils, is found on the MaeULomchon cross at Kirk 
Michael. A very interesting monograph on this name, 
which was sent to the writer by the late Dr. Vigfusson, 
is appended. 

* It is not his life, now but a dream and shadow, but 
his name we want to discuss. In the whole range of 
Northern nomenclature, old and modern, outside this 
Manx Cross, it is only once that we meet with this 
name, vi^., the old King A)>isl of Upsala, supposed to 
have lived in the fourth or fifth century. His name 
would be a riddle to us, but for the old English Epos, 
" Beolwulf," where the story of this very king is told, 
and his name is given as EAdgisl, answering to Norse 
♦ Sec Academy, November 26, 1887. 



112 mmtx 9vccnamt»* 



AutS-gisl, which last name therefore must somehow 
have been ground and worn into Apisl. But how is the 
question ? How came this ancient Upsala king by his 
name in this worn, ground-down form, quite unknown 
in Sweden or elsewhere in Scandinavia ? The full name 
Au^-GiSL occurs some five or six times in the Icelandic 
Sagas, hence the name was known in its old form; 
once it must needs have sounded so in the old lay 
Ynglingatal (the generations of the Ynlings, or ancient 
kings of Upsala). How is it, then, that that very poem 
as it was taken down by the Icelandic chroniclers g^ves 
ApiSL, especially as there is no full analogy for the 
change ? Au)> could never in a Norse mouth change into 
Aj>. The Kirk Michael Runic Cross gives, we think, 
the clue. Here in fact we meet for the first time with 
a flesh and blood Aj^isl, a man married to a lady of a 
Gaelic name. We infer from this that A]>isl is a Manx 
form of the old Norse and Swedish Auj>gisl ; the name 
in fact passed through Norse-Celtic mouths and Af is 
due to some analogy — in this case a false analogy — with 
other Manx names, such as AJ'ACAN. But now about 
the old Upsala king : how has this Manx form got hold 
of him, and crept into the text of the Norse poem 
Ynglingatal, and hence into the Skioldunga Saga, and 
the old generation of kings (Langfedgatal) ? There is, 
so far as I can see, only one way to explain this, viz., 
that the poem, before being transplanted to Iceland, 
had passed through Manx or Sodor mouths and 
memories, and that the Icelanders learnt it there, or 
from Manx or Sodor tradition, either in Iceland from 
** winter sitters '* there, or abroad in the Isles themselves. 
This cannot have taken place at a very early date, for 



ftanties i^taxrf^te fnfom^ »rttl^n Wmtvttm. 113 

it would take time to grind Aui$GiSL down into A]>ISL ; 
the poem, therefore, must for generations have lived in 
the mouths of the men of the Isles. The A]>isl of the 
Kirk Michael Cross would have lived about the end of 
the twelfth or early thirteenth century ; but there is no 
reason to think that he was the first of that name. Yet 
when that cross was carved Au)^isl was in the Manx 
changed into A}>isl, but how long since? Are, the 
Icelandic historian, wrote in the beginning of the 
twelfth century ; in his days it was A)>isl, and there was 
no trace of an older form. There is no evidence that 
the poem was known in Iceland before his days ; it is 
even possible that either he, or a contemporary of his, 
unearthed this poem and more of that kind in the Isles 
of the West from a bard or minstrel there. Hence the 
Manx form of King Au^gisl's name has obtained in all 
Scandinavian histories down to this day. 
BjARNAR, the genitive of Bjorn, * bear,* occurs on the 
Ufaac-Gaut Cross at Andreas, which was wrought 
by * Gaut the son of BjOrn.' There are forty-two 
Biorns in the Landndmaboc. It is the name which 
now appears in the forms Barnes and Barney. 
Gaut or Gout and Gautr aire different forms of the 
same name, which seems to mean ' father.' Gautr 
is a poetical name of Odin. 
Grims, the genitive of Grima, * a hood * or ' a cowl,' may 
reasonably be conjectured to be the whole name of 
which the letters R.I.M.S. occur on a cross at Kirk 
Michael. 

Grimr was an epithet applied to Odin from his 
travelling in disguise. It is a common masculine 
proper name in Iceland. . 

8 



114 M0mx $vfxn$itfxtsL 



LitT-ULBS is the genitive of Liut-wolf (Uot-ulfr*), 

* people wolf/ 

RosciL is a rare form of the commoner Hross-Ketill, 
usually contracted into HROSS-KELL,t ' Horse- 
Kettle.' RosKELL is a modern English surname. 

RuMUND, or Hromund, from Hrofir, 'fame, reputa- 
tion/ and Mundr,t is, according to Dr. Vigfusson, 
the name indicated by the letters r.u.m.u. found 
on a cross at Kirk Michael. 

SoNTULF, or Sandulf, from Sent or Sond, i.e., Santh, 

* sooth, true,' and Ulf, * wolf.' Ulb or Ulf, 'wolf,' 
is found singly on the Olaf cross, at Ballaugh. 

There are also the following compounds with p^r, 
viz., ptRBiAURN, 'Thor'sbear'; ptiR-LiBR,orpORLEiFR, 
'Thor's patrimony or inheritance'; pOR-ULFS, * Thor's 
wolf; and ptTR-VALDR, * Thor's might.' These names 
are all common in the LandndmabSc. 

There are also five Scandinavian female names on 
the crosses : 

Arin-biaurg, probably meaning * hearth-help,' is found 
on a cross at Kirk Andreas, which describes her 
as the wife of * Sandulf the Black.' This name 
is found in Iceland in its contracted form of Arn- 

BIORG. 

AsRipi, or AsRiTHi found on a cross in St. Germains, is 
a contraction of As-fri«r. Fri6r means ' fair ;* as, 

* semi'deus.* 

FRipu, or Frithay also from Fri^r. According to the 
inscription on^ the cross at Kirk Michael, where 
her name occurs, she was the mother of * Olaf the 
son of Thorwolf the Red.' 

* See CORLETT, ante, f See Castell, ante. 

% See Casement, ante. 



Os-RUpR, or As-THRUTH. Thruth was the name of a 
goddess, who was a daughter of Thor and Sif. 
This, according to Dr. Vigfasson, is a true Norse 
name, though he has never met with it except on 
the fragment of a cross at St. John's Chapel. 

pARip, or Thorrid, a feminine derivative from p6rr, is 
found on a cross at Onchan. 
The following names of Celtic origin are also found 
on the crosses : 

DuFGAL, from dubh-gall, 'black stranger,' still com- 
mon in Scotland in the form MacDougall. 
DouGAL, or DuGAL, is also used as a Christian 
name. 

Mal-Lumcun, or Mael-Lomchon, * Lomchu's ser- 
vant' There is a Cill Lomchon in Ulster, dedi- 
cated to St. Lomchu, whose name appears in the 
Martyrology of Donegal, on the 9th of January. 
The meaning of the name is not known. 

UciFAT is something like Ugfadan, a name given by 
the Four Masters in a.d. 904. 

MuR-ciOLU, a female name, is the same as Myrgiol, 
or MuiRGHEAL, an Irish king's daughter, recorded 
in the LandndmabSc. 

The remaining names are diflftcult to identify : 

Crinaas, the genitive of Crinaa, and Eabs cannot be 

identified. 
Onon may possibly be connected with the Norse 

Onundr. 
Druian, or Truian, seems the same name as Droian, 

found in an ogam inscription in the Shetlands. It 

8—2 



ii6 Mmu Suvimcmetu 

is remarkable that close by this cross, in the parish 
of Bride, there is a place called Glen Truan, 
where there never has been a strooan, ' stream.' 
The name Froca occurs once in an Icelandic place- 
name, Fracka-ness, and once in the Gold Thoris 
Saga. Dr. Vigfusson says that it is certainly not 
a Norse name. 

APPENDIX A 

Obsolete Christian Names. — (a) Men. 

Apeke (?). 

Dermot, from Diarmaid, * Free man ' (see Kermode). 
Germede is probably a corruption of the same. 
Dilnow and Gilnow are probably from Giolla-Noo, 

* Saint's servant.' 

Doncan, Donkane, either from Donnachu, ' Dun chief,* 
or Donngal, * Dun stranger.' Duncan is still a 
common Christian name in Scotland. 

Donald and Donold, from Domhnall, * Proud chief- 
tain.' (See Cannell.) 

FiNLO, FiNLOW, Fynlo, or Phinlo, is said to mean 

* Dane,' but on uncertain authority. 

The following have the prefix giolla, ' servant ' : Gil- 
grist, * Christ's servant ' (see Mylchreest) ; Gil- 
peder, 'Peter's servant'; Gilrea (see Mylrea) ; 
GiLROY, * Red servant' (see Mylroi) ; Gilpatrick, 

* Patrick's servant' 

Gibbon or Gybbon is an Irish corruption of Gilbert 

(see Cubbon). 
JANKYN and Jenkin are diminutives of John; the latter 

is common in Wales at the present day. 
JoHNAiGUE, ' Young John.' 



1^fm0iat €tpi^sdUtn ftant^ 117 

Mold, possibly from Moot, ' tonsured.' 

MoLDONNY, possibly from MaoUduine^ * tonsured man.' 

Ranolx) and Renold are corruptions of Reginald 

(see Crennell and Crellin). 
Silvester (Latin), * Living in a wood.' 
Symond and Symyn are connected with the Hebrew 

Simeon. 

(6) Women. 

In the early registers Avericke is common, and there 
are also the forms Aurick and Arick. The name 
probably became popular from having been that 
of AuFRiCA, or Affrica, daughter of Olave the 
Black, and heiress of the kingdom of Man, who, in 
i305> conveyed her right and interest in the Isle of 
Man to her husband. Sir Simon de Montacute. 

Bahee, Bahie, and Bahy, which sometimes degene- 
rate into Baggy, are obscure. Miss Yonge trans- 
lates Bahee, * life/ but gives no authority.* 

There are a number of names with the prefix cally^ a 
corruption oicailleach, * a nun, or handmaid,' which 
is equivalent to Giolla, prefixed to a man's name, 
thus: Callycrist, 'Christ's handmaid ^ Cally- 
BRID, ' Bridget's handmaid ' ; Callypharick and 
CALLYPHERpRfTatrick's handmaid '; Callyborry, 
Callyvorrey, and Callaughworry, 'Mary's 
handmaid'; Callychrowney, probably ' Rooney's 
handmaid.' Rooney, Latinised into RuNius, 
is the patron saint of Marown parish church. 

CooNiE and Cooney ? 

Iny, Ine, Innee, and Inny, usually mean 'daughter,' 
being corruptions of inneen. Thus we find in 
* Christian Names, Charlotte M. Yonge. 



ii8 IDdttx $mtnam]»u 

the registers such entries as * 1598 An Ine ill- 
WORREY,' i.e.f ' An lUworrey's daughter ' ; * 1609 
Cally Pharick ine Gawne,' f .^., * Cally Pharick 
Gawne's daughter.' Here ine clearly means 
daughter, as second Christian names were un- 
heard of at the dates given. Ine and Inny, how- 
ever, also appear as Christian names, as in Inny 
Keig. In this case they may correspond with the 
Irish female name Eithne, which has been cor- 
rupted into Aine and Hannah. Aine was one of 
the grand-daughters of the Irish king Lear. The 
name means 'joy,' 'praise,' and also 'fasting,' 
according to Miss Yonge. 

JoNY is probably a corruption of Johanna. 

Mally is a corruption of Mary. Miss Yonge gives 
MoissEY as a Manx corruption of Mary, but the 
name does not occur in the parochial registers. 

Marriod and Marriott are also corruptions of Mary. 

APPENDIX B, 

Nicknames used in the Isle of Man. 

In other than Celtic countries surnames have most fre- 
quently originated from nicknames descriptive of the 
personal peculiarities of some early ancestor. Thus in 
England we find families bearing such names as 
White, Black, Short, Long, etc. ; and amongst 
the Romans, the cognomina Crassus, ' fat ' ; Varus, 
' bow-legged ' ; Cincinnatus, ' curly,' and many 
others, continued to be borne by the descendants 
of the men to whom they were originally applicable. 
That this mode of forming surnames is less common 
among the peoples of Celtic speech is a fact which 



ftfefmamea itntv in if^t MtO^, nf WHeitu ng 

is probably due to the organisation of the clan 
having been more fully developed, and preserved to a 
later date amongst these peoples than elsewhere. 
It is certainly not the fact that descriptive nicknames 
were uncommon amongst the Celts. On the contrary, 
the quick fancy of this race has always displayed itself 
in the readiness with which sobriquets of this kind were 
invented. Many such distinctive epithets amongst the 
Welsh and Irish have become famous in history, as 
Hywel Da, ' Howel the Good ' ; Donald Gorm, 
* Blue Donald ' ; Malcolm Canmore, ' Malcolm Great- 
head ' ; Con Bacach, ' Con the Lame ' ; O'Conor 
Don, * Brown O'Conor,' etc. 

Sir Henry Piers, writing in the year 1682 to Anthony, 
Lord Bishop of Meath, gave the following account of 
Irish sobriquets :* * They take much liberty, and seem 
to do it with delight, in giving of nicknames ; and if a 
man have any imperfection or evil habit, he shall be 
sure to hear of it in the nickname. Thus if he be blind, 
lame, squint-eyed, gray-eyed, be a stammerer in speech, 
be left-handed, to be sure he shall have one of these 
added to his name ; so also from his color of hair, as 
black, red, yellow, brown, etc. ; and from his age, as 
young, old; or from what he addicts himself to, or 
much delights in, as in draining, building, fencing, or 
the like ; so that no man whatever can escape a nick- 
name, who lives among them — so libidinous are they in 
this kind of raillery, they will give nicknames per antu 
phrasim, or contrariety of speech,' etc. Dr. Joyce 
writes :t ' In early life I knew a village where more 
than half the people were familiarly known by nick- 

* O'Donovan, p. 19. 

t Joyce, Irish Names of Places, 2nd series, p. 156. 



I20 IDanx $ttttnante,0* 



names, which were always used, the proper names being 
hardly ever mentioned. One man, on account of his 
endurance in faction fights, was called Gadderagh, 
which literally means a tough fellow like a gad, or 
withe ; another was never called by any name but 
Cloosedarrag, *Red ears'; a third was Phil-A- 
Gaddy, or *Phil the thief ; a fourth Shaun-na-bointre, 
* John the (son of the) widow ' ; and one man, who was 
a notorious schemer, was universally called, by way of 
derision, or per antiphrasim, Thomas - A - sagart, 
" Tom the priest." ' 

In the Isle of Man, as in all small stationary com- 
munities, nicknames were much used. Indeed, in 
certain parishes where there were many bearing the 
same name, as Corlett, in Ballaugh, and Qual- 
trough, in Rushen, they were an absolute necessity 
for the sake of distinction. It has been thought advis- 
able, by way of illustration of what has been said on 
this subject in Chapter II., to furnish some specimens 
of the nicknames which were formerly recorded in the 
Parish Registers, as well as of those which are still in 
use. They will be discussed under the following heads : 
Nicknames derived from (i) Character or appearance ; 
(2) Place of abode or origin ; (3) Parents' Christian 
names ; (4) Trade or occupation. 

The earliest nicknames from character or appearance 
are on the inscribed crosses, where we find * Thorwolf 
the Red,^ {rauya) ; * Grim the Black ' ; and ' Sandulf 
the Black ' {suarti), of Scandinavian origin ; and Thor- 
laf Neaci, where Neaci is probably Celtic {vide Ua 
Nioc, Four Mast., 1032 and 1128). 

' Ye Natural,' referring to idiocy, is unfortunately a 
somewhat common entry in the Registers. 



Afrfmant^ vaoiti in f]^ JiOt nf Menu m 

* Tommy Scatty,' * puny/ or ' lean ' Tommy. 

* Cannell-ear / perhaps from the size of those 
appendages. 

* John Cowley, stoop,' and ' Kathren the cripple,' 
signify bodily infirmities. 

In 1660 ' Ann Watterson (Ben Vane's sister) ' was 
buried in Malew. Ben Vane perhaps means ' White 
Benjamin.' 

In the Maughold Register we find 'Old Carrad 
Bane Buryed ye 14 November, 1683.' Old Carrad, or 
Garret, had probably white hair. 

* Iliam Dhone,' ' Brown-haired William,' is the well- 
known William Christian, Receiver-General and 
Governor of the Island, who was * shott to death,' at 
Hango Hill, on the 2nd January, 1662. 

* Kelly the Red,' and ' Jimmy the Red,' doubt- 
less refer to the colour of the hair. 'Jane Gawn, 
Mann,' perhaps betokens masculine qualities. 'Wm. 
Kelly, cross cap'; *Thos. Corlett, Solomon'; 
' John Crideen, smile ' ; 'John Kneal, grumble ' ; 

* Wm. Preston, joy ' ; ' Thos. Fargher, crokh ' ; are 
vividly descriptive of the temperaments of their owners. 

* Jim-y-Lord,' * Prince,' and * Prince-beg,' may have 
designated a haughty demeanour. * Turk ' was a 
common synonym for an unruly child. 'Jinks' was 
doubtless up to many little games. 

Such nicknames as ' My love,' ' Veen ' ue. ' Dear,' 
and * Braveboy,' were perhaps given per antiphrasim, 
as Sir Henry Piers hath it. 

The burials of ' Thos. M^ylcarane, a batchelor/ 
and * RoBT. Skealley, a married man,' are recorded 
just as if there were something unusual in either con- 
dition. 



122 Manx Sui^nam^ 

'John Corlett, munlaa,' was well known many 
years ago in the parish of Ballaugh. He was called 
' Munlaa/ or ' Mid-day,' from his skill at being able to 
discern the exact dinner-hour, at all seasons, without 
the aid of a watch, and, as watches were uncommon in 
those days, it was a valuable qualification. 

' Speed,' and * Cut-the-wind,' denote fleetness of 
foot. The latter appertained to a woman who lived in 
Ramsey early in the present century. She disappeared 
mysteriously, and is supposed to have been drowned. 

'Cannell the Timber' may have had a wooden 
leg. ' Philly the Tweet ' is probably a euphonistic 
form of Philip the Toot, or stupid. 'John Curghey, 
strike,' died long before strikes were fashionable. The 
nicknames of William Christian, and Edward 
Christian, his son, i.e.y 'no* and 'no beg,' would 
seem to be of an entirely negative character, if it were 
not that ' NO ' is corrupted from yn-oe, * the grand- 
father.' ' Christian No ' belonged to Lezayre, and 
had property in the parish of Maughold. He was ex- 
communicated by Bishop Murray {circa 1825), and died 
a miserable death from starvation in consequence. 
(This was the last case of excommunication in the Isle 
of Man.) At one time he held the ' staff ' land, in 
Maughold, which, it is said, entitled him to keep his hat 
on in Court. 

* John Cottier, win,' 'John Garrett, cup,' 'Sil- 

VESTER QUIGGIN, QUARTER,' and * JOHN WaTTERSON, 

SON TO Jo, CALLED 2D,' are curious and mysterious 
epithets. 

2. Nicknames from place of abode or origin are 
numerous and very convenient, and it is from nick- 
names of this kind that the two surnames, Kinrig and 



W^itknam^ ttsielr in 1^^ 3»U nf Mem. 123 

KiNRED, have probably arisen (see pp. 77, 78). Landed 
proprietors, till quite a recent period, were almost 
universally known by the names of their properties. 
Many of these appellations, which at first sight appear 
to be nicknames, are really meant to denote places of 
abode : e.g., salUy for Ballasalla, vane for Ballavarvane ; 
irollagf nank, and croke for the farms of the same names. 
The following verse firom a clever squib, written in 1837, 
when there was considerable agitation against the 
House of Keys and their mode of election, gives a 
good specimen of their form of nomenclature : 

* " They'll have Ballavarvane," says Jack Meary Vooar. 
^ Back to Karane," says JUAK Jem Moore. 
" Why not Baljean ?" says Davy St. Ann. 
" He's too cross in the grain " says the UNION MiLL Man.' 

The name of the proprietor was, however, usually 
attached to the farm as 'Bridson Ballavarvane,' 
' Moore Baljean.' Sometimes the titles were more 
familiar as 'Billy Ballure.' 

In the registers we find such entries as * Elin 
Taylor, filia ould Tho. Belown,' i.e., daughter of 
old Thomas of Belown ; Dan Curghey, called Dan 
Baldroma.' The sobriquets of ' Mountanier,' ' High- 
land,' 'John Kelly of ye mountains,' 'John Stoley 
VuLLEE,' i.e., of the mullagh, or top of the mountain, 
all show that their bearers lived in lofty localities. 
' ViLLY Varoole ' is an alliterative rendering of Willy 
of BARRULE(the mountain), 'Ed. Crow (Vulgo)Garee ' 
(sour land), ' Claddy ' and ' Claddaghboy ' {claddagh, 
river meadow), ' Kaighan y Phurt ' (of the port), all 
refer to their various abodes. ' Kaighan y Phurt ' is 
a well-known family in Kirk Michael. ' Wm. Gell, 

BATCHELOR FROM CaSTLETOWN," ThO. StEVEN, SON OF 

Will of the Gate,' ' Tho. McYlleriah, son to h m 



124 Manx 9vocnemtt0. 

AT Ballaquaile,' were all, doubtless, satisfactory defini- 
tions at the time. In the older register books, when 
a stranger was buried, we generally find a reference to it. 
Thus' Robert Howard from Ramsey (Saxonagh),'*.^., 
Englishman. * Wm. Cowley, Vulgo dict Erinagh,' 
i.c., commonly called Irishman. * Jane, daughter of 
John Wright and Margaret Grey, foreigners,' 
' Margaret, daughter of a Frenchman.' Thislatteris 
decidedly vague, so is 'an Englishman buried.' 'El- 
LiNOR Briscoe, a passenger.' ' Corlett, Poland,' 
is somewhat incomprehensible. He may have been in 
the country referred to, but it is not very likely. Under 
Malew Baptisms, 1656, we find ' Mary Tunman, 
daughter to Jo. Att Green.' The Green is doubtless 
the Bowling Green Estate, of which the Taubmans are 
still the proprietors. In England such designations have 
frequently become surnames, e.g., Green, Attwood. 

3. Nicknames from fathers* or mothers' Christian 
names are very common. Many of these are nurse or 
pet-names. Thus Kennish in his poem * The Curraghs 
of Lezayre ' : 

' Now, 111 be bail his name is Quaile — 
I see it in his face.' 

* As sure as life/ exclaimed the wife, 

* He's something to that race.' 

* Yes, you are right, good dame,' said I, 

' That is my father's name, 
Though not the one that I go by, 

Nor like unto the same ; 
Tm called by all, both g^eat and small, 
Bill-Hommy-beg-Tom-moar,* 

i.e., Bill, the son of little Tommy, the son of big Tom, 

• ToM-MOAR ' being the grandfather. And again — 

' And he who won the race I think, 

If I do not mistake. 
Was JohnnY'Rob of Ballacrink.' 



WiickxuimtB n»ttf in tfit Jsls 0f Mem. 125 

A small selection of such sobriquets will suffice : 'John 
Kneal, Robin;' 'Ewan Christian, Hughee;' 'Wm. 
Garrett, Jack;' *John Cowly, Saul;' 'John Caley, 
HoMMY ;' ' Robert Crow, Paul ;' ' John Bridson, 
Giles;' are specimens of a large number found in the 
registers, and are probably all fathers' names. ' John 
Clarke, Bahee ;' 'John Killip, Nelly ;' 'William 
CuBBON, Annie ;' ' J. Corlett, Vess,' i.e., Bess ; 'Dick 
QuAYLE, Vessie,* uc, Bessie ; ' John Corlett, Inny- 
keig;' ' Tom Cubbon, Vary,' uc, Mary ; are probably 
their mothers' names. ' Gilbert Teare, Tom Nan,' 
had probably both his father's and mother's name. Wil- 
liam Corlett was known by the totally different name 
of ' Billy Garrett ;' and we find the burial of ' Janie 
Bridson, wife to John Bridson,' called ' Jo Laurance ' 
Females seem rarely to have borne this form of nick- 
name, but we find ' Mary Looney, als Guaggin als 
Mary Thom Doo,' {.c, Mary Black Tom. Such extra- 
ordinary compounds as 'Jem-Jemmy-Jem-Jem-Jem,' 
' Ocky-Dickbeg-Dickbob,' ' Tom-Billy-Sam-Harry- 
Phaul' were not unknown. ' Thomy-Hom-Homy ' 
Thomas the son of Thomas, the son of Thomas. 
'Juan-Jack-Ned,' i.e., John the son of John, the 
son of Edward, was a well-known character. He 
is said to have rolled an eighteen gallon cask of 
ale all the way up the long hill from Laxey towards 
Douglas, and when he arrived at the top to have taken 
it up in his hands and drunk out of the bung-hole ! 
Such titles as * Billy Illiam,' ' Illiam Joe,' ' Nancy 
Joe,' ' Dicky Dan,' are not uncommon. 

4. Nicknames from trades and occupations^ ' Dan 
Teare, physick,' and 'John Kewn Ye, doctor,' remind 



136 Manx inr^navxttu 



us of the country practitioners once so numerous. 
They dealt largely in charms, but nevertheless some of 
them were excellent bone-setters. Many of the pre- 
sent generation will remember 'Chucas the Strang.' 
It is well known that Bishop Wilson prescribed for the 
body as well as the soul ; and even a hundred and thirty 
years ago there does not seem to have been a regfular 
medical man on the island. * Corlett, Coblerbeg ;' 
'John Moore, Tucker as fuller;' ' Robert Clague, 
fidler;' 'John Craine,weaveratyeCarlaane ;' 'John 
Kewn, soldier and slater,' a curious combination ; 
'John NoRRis, hatmaker ;" John Bridson, glazier;' 
* Thomas the Breekman,' i.e., brickmaker; 'John 

CrEER, THATCHER;' 'JOHN CaNNEL, WALKER,' t.^.,fuller; 

' John Coole, plumber;' 'Thomas Bridson, celpman,' 
i.^., kelp burner; 'John Maddrell, milner;' 'John 
Crellin, glover;' and 'Evan CANNELL,cooBRAGH,'i.^., 
cooper; are quoted from the registers to show the usual 
trades engaged in. They perhaps hardly come under 
the head of nicknames. ' John Corlett, pinder,' and 
' Dan Cowle, pinner,' were persons whose duty it was 
to put strayed cattle into the parish pound. ' Thomas 
QuiGGiN, RUNNER,' was the Governor's messenger. 
'Thomas Jones, officier,' was a Customs official. 
We find the following entries in the registers : * Alice 
EvoNS, daughter to Robert (called the Cow-boy) 
AND Megory Shurloge;' ' William Carlett, son of 
William, vulgarly called Willy Curry Quemb,' 
and ' William Mylrea vulg6 Willy Churry.' These 
two latter had probably to do with horses. ' Mary 
Clarke, daughter TO the blind fiddler;' ' Margt, 
DAUGHTER TO Taleyr y Killey,' i.e., KiUey the tailor ; 



Aitfmam^« u^^^ in iftt %9iz 0T Klaiu 127 

* William Curlett, vulg6 plew.' This title appears in 
the same family for generations. It was probably origi- 
nally given to a ploughman. ' Thos. Teare, shecter,' 
ix,y executor. This name has continued in the same 
family for one hundred and fifty years. ' William Cain, 
flute/ was doubtless a performer on that instrument. 
'Wm. Quackyn, jockey/ who died in 1740, may 
have been a rider in the * Isle of Man Derby/ which is 
said to have been originated by the Earls of Derby on 
Langness long before the Epsom Derby was thought 
of! * Edward Teare, vulg6 Ned y Ghaue/ i.e,, 
Ned the smith. 

*Stowell the Gobbag/ probably a fisherman. 
Gobbag is the dog-fish. ' Thomas Kneal, pesson/ i.e., 
parson, probably an itinerant preacher. 

The following extract from a paper in Blackwood's 
Magazine for March, 1842, which depicts the fancy 
nomenclature of a Scotch fishing village in a most 
graphic and amusing manner, will show how the Scotch 
nicknames compare with the Manx : 

' The fishers are generally in want of surnames. . . . 
There are seldom more than two or three surnames in 
a fish town. There are twenty-five George Cowies in 
Buckie (Cowie is the name of an ancient fishing village). 
The grocers in ' booking ' their fisher customers invari- 
ably insert the nickname or tee-name, and in the case 
of married men write down the wife's along with the 
husband's name. The married debtors have the names 
of their parents inserted with their own. In the town 
register of Peterhead these signatures occur : Elizabeth 
Taylor, spouse to John Thomson, Gouples; Agnes 
Farquahar, spouse to W. Findlater, Stouttie. ... It 
is amusing enough to turn over the leaves of a grocer's 



128 nmtx Smtnam^a. 

ledger and see the tee-names as they come up. Buckie, 
Beauty, Bam, Biggelugs, Collop, Helldom, the King, 
the Provost, Rochie, Stoattie, Sillerton, the Smack, 
Snipe, Snuffers, Toothie, Tod Cowie. Ladies are 
occasionally found who are gallantly and exquisitely 
called the Cutter, the Bear, etc. Amongst the twenty- 
five George Cowies in Buckie there are George Cowie, 
doodle; George Cowie, carrot; and George Cowie, 
neef. A stranger had occasion to call on a fisherman 
in one of the Buchan fishing villages of the name of 
Alexander White. ' Meeting a girl he asked : " Could 
you tell me fa'r Sammy White lives ?" " Filk Sammy 
Fite ?" " Muckle Sammy Fite." " Filk Muckle 
Sammy Fite ?" " Muckle lang Sammy Fite." " Filk 
Muckle lang Sammy Fite ?" " Muckle lang gleyed 
Sammy Fite** (squint-eyed) shouted the stranger. 
" Oh ! its Goup-the-Lift ye're seeking," cried the girl, 
" and fat the deevil for dinna ye speer for the man by 
his richt.name at ance ?" ' 



MANX PLACE-NAMES. 

{OF CELTIC ORIGIN,) 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERIC TERMS FOR TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES. 

Celtic place-names may be divided into two classes : 
simple and compound, the latter being much more 
numerous. The simple names usually consist of 
substantives in the nominative, which constitute generic 
terms denoting the general class of the topographical 
features, while the compound names have also a second 
element, almost invariably an affix, which particularizes 
the place, or distinguishes it from others. These 
affixes may be either adjectives expressing colour, 
shape, size, situation, and other qualities, or substan- 
tives commemorating the names of persons, animals, 
vegetables, etc., or they may be the genitive cases of 
generic topographical terms. A list will be given first 
of the generic terms for topographical features^ whether 
simple or compound, and having thus put in the back- 
bone, as it were, the affixes, which form much the 

9 



130 Mattx T^latt-Wimn^fBu 

larger class, will follow, and receive a fuller discussion. 
The commonest generic terms for topographical fea- 
tures are : 

Crank, which occurs as a prefix seventy-six times, 
Glione fifty times, Gob thirty-nine times, Creg thirty-six 
times, Keeill thirty-four times, Close twenty-three times, 
Chibber, Knock, and Purt twenty-one times, and Slieau 
twenty times. Of the non-topographical prefixes Balla, 
occurring four hundred times, is far in excess of any 
other. 

It will be convenient to group the names which 
come under this heading, whether simple or compound, 
according to their connection with : (a) Hills, High- 
lands, and Rocks; (6) Sea- coast; (c) Glens, Lowlands, 
Rivers, and Bogs ; {d) Position ; (e) Human Habita- 
tions, including Buildings and Divisions of Land ; and 
(/) The Animal and Vegetable Kingdom. 

It will be noticed that most of the simple names 
have the definite article, either in English or Manx, 
prefixed. 

Part I. 
SIMPLE NAMES* 
The most interesting of the simple names is that of 
the Island itself; for it must be remembered that Isle 
OF Man, or its Manx original, Ellan Vannin, is com- 
paratively a late form, and that the early designation 
was a single word. Caesar called it Mona, Orosius 
Mevania, Pliny Monapia, Ptolemy Monaoida or Mon- 

* Some of the names under this heading may be parts of com- 
pound names, of which the other portion has been lost ; but when- 
ever this is known to have been the case, they have been placed 
under ' imperfect names.' 



Simpbt Hecm^jBu 131 



ARINA, and Gildas Eubonia or Eumonia. In the 
Welsh records it was called Manaw (the Irish genitive 
being Manann), and in the Icelandic Sagas MOn, which 
form is correctly transliterated Maun on the Malbrictu 
Gaut Cross at Kirk Michael. Controversy has raged 
about the meaning of these names, or rather name, as 
they are all variants of the same word; but of the 
various derivations given, the only one, in the writer's 
opinion, likely to be correct is that recently advanced 
by Professor Rhys* as follows : ' The Irish Manannan is 
fabled to have been the name of the first king of the 
Isle of Man, whence that appellation has sometimes 
been assumed to be derived. But this is an error, and 
it inverts the whole relation of the names ; for the 
matter is not as simple as it looks. It comes briefly to 
this: Manannan gave his original name, in a form 
corresponding to Manu and its congeners, to the 
island, making it Manavia Insula ... for which we 
have in Welsh and Irish respectively Manau and 
Manann. Then from these names of the Island the 
god derives his, in its attested forms of Manawy^Jan 
and ManannAn, which would seem to mark an epoch 
when he had become famous in connection with the 
Isle of Man.' 

Thus we gather that the mythical Manannan, God 
of the Sea, merchant and pilot, gave his name in its 
earliest form to the Isle of Man, and then, in his turn, 
derived his own extant name of Manannan from that 
of the Island. Professor Rhps conjectures that the 
earliest form of Manu should be Manavju, or Mana- 
vjonos. From this form Mona, Monapia (or Manavia, 
♦ Hibbcrt Lectures, 1886. 

9—2 



132 IDanx ^Isaat'JUecm^jeu 

as Stokes, ' Celtic Declension/ p. i8, doubtfully reads 
it), and the later more contracted forms naturally 
follow. 

It is not necessary to go into the disputed question of 
whether the correct spelling is Man or Mann. Both 
forms are used in the Records between the fifteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, but at the earlier dates !Man is 
rather more common than Mann. Dr. Haviland, in a 
recent paper read before the Isle of Man Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society, has made a strong 
point in favour of Man, by showing that it was neces- 
sary that the title of the King of Man and the Isles 
should be Rex Mannia et Instdarum, not Rex Mania ei 
Instdarum, * King of Madness and the Isles/ 

(a) Hills, Highlands, Rocks. 

Cronk (M), ' a hill.* A word not found in the earlier 
records, though it is now more common than 
cnoc, of which it is a corruption (see p. 142), in 
The Cronks, * The Hills.' In the north of Ireland 
cnoc is universally corrupted into croc. In Manx 
the change has gone further still. 

Broogh (F), ' a brow, hill, hillock, bank.' Usually, but 
incorrectly, applied in Manx local names to the 
steep slope of a hill, or of a bank by a river, in 
The Broogh,* 'The Brow.' This is the name 
of an old earthwork. 

Liargagh, Ihargagh (M), ' the slope of a hill.' Usually 
of a more gentle slope than Broogh, in The 
Lhergy, ' the slope,' and Largy, ' slope.' [(I) 
Largy, (G) Largies.] 

* It is seldom used in this sense, but is so translated to distin- 
guish it from liargagh. 



Shttiil; Batn^tf* 133 



Aerce, eary (F), *a moor.' In Nary and Nearey 
{yn-aery and yn-eary), 'The moor.' In Scotland 
airidh (airic) means a hill pasture, a shieling. It 
has not survived in modern Irish place-names, 
though there are several instances of it in the 
Martyrology of Donegal, as Aridh-Locha-Con. 
Aercc is always applied to highlands. [(G) Airie.] 

Rinn (K), * the long ridge of a mountain,' and Rh^nn 
(M), ' a division.* They are, almost certainly, 
originally the same word. The words rinttf in 
Irish, and roinn, in Gaelic, mean a promontory, 
point, headland, peninsula, and also a share or 
division — especially of land. This latter mean- 
ing would arise from the fact that divisions 
are very commonly made by mountain- ridges. 
Thus The Rheyn, or The Rhine, * The Ridge,' 
is a ridge of land dividing the parishes of Braddan 
and Marown. [(I) Rine, (G) The Rinns, in 
I slay.] 

Dreenty Dreeym (M), * a back.' Used in local names 
of the back of a hill, as in The Drum, ' The hill- 
back.' [(I) Drum.] 

Recast (M), 'a desert, a waste, a rough uncultivated 
piece of ground.* Invariably applied to uplands, 
as in The Reeast Mooar, *The Big Waste.' 
On the place so called, in the parish of Michael, 
there are several circular enclosures, about twenty 
feet in diameter, surrounded by white quartz. In 
one of these was discovered a grave, twelve feet 
long by four feet broad, having a tall, upright stone 
at one end of it. About twelve inches below the 
ground there was a layer of white quartz closely 



134 nanx piac^-Aatn^s. 

packed over the entire length of the grave, and 
beneath this an urn of coarse clay, covering 
charred bones. It measured three feet two inches 
round the top, and five and a half inches across the 
base, and was fourteen inches high. It was un- 
fortunately broken when being carried away. 

In Ireland and Scotland riasg means a marsh, 
or marshy land, while in the Isle of Man the 
corresponding word recast is applied to rough land, 
whether wet or dry. This word is not now used 
in colloquial Manx. [(I) Reask.] 

Carrick, carrig (F), *a rock or crag.' In Carrick, 
* Rock,' the name of a treen in Lezayre, and in 
The Carrick, *The Rock,' a detached rock in 
the sea. This name is rarely found inland. 
[(I and G) Carrick.] 

Creg and craig (F). Contractions of the above, in The 
Craig, ' The Rock.' [(I and G) Creg.] 

(b) Sea-coast 

Gob (M), *neb, beak, bill.' Used in local names of 
pointed promontories, as in The Gob, 'The 
Point.' 

Mootragh (K), 'avoid place cast up by the sea'; *a 
flat piece of land extending along the sea ' (Joyce). 
In The Mooragh, the best rendering of which 
is * The Sandbank.' ' In the Book of Rights 
it is spelled Murmhagh, which points to the ety- 
mology: muir, the sea; and tnagh, a plain.'* 
[(I) MuRROW of Wicklow.] 

Cam (M), literally *a heap of stones.' In The Carn 
* Joyce, Irish Names of Places, 4th edition, p. 466. 



Simylt BamssL 13s 



— the fanciful name of a detached rock in the 
sea. 

(c) Glens, Lowlands, Rivers, Bogs. 

Cooil(F), 'a nook' (K) ; *a hiding-place* (C). In 
The Cooil, ' The Nook.' [(I) Coole.] 

Glack (F), 'the hollow of the hand.' Used in local 
names of a hollow, as The Glaick, ' The Hollow.' 
[(I) Glack, (G) Glaik.] 

Lag, Laggey (M), * a hollow.' In The Lag, and the 
latter and more uncommon form, probably, in The 
Lagagh, ' The Hollow,' a swampy place. 

Claddagh (M), ' a lake, a shore, a low, uncultivated 
land that lies upon a river ' (K) ; ' the bank of a 
river ' (C). In Manx local names it is applied to 
meadow-land by a river, as in The Claddagh, 
' The River Meadow.' In Ireland and Scotland it 
is usually applied to a stony or shingly beach, and 
also, in Ireland, to miry places inland. [(I) Clad- 
dagh, Islay, Cladich.] 

Garee (F), (C), * a sour piece of land.' In Galloway it 
is a common term for a rough hillside, or stony 
place. In the Isle of Man it has much the same 
meaning, but it is also used of boggy or sour lands, 
and is usually low land, though sometimes used of 
highlands. Thus The Garey, * the stony,' or ' boggy 
place.' Being generally spelled Gar^ in local names, 
it is, unless the locality is known, impossible to 
distinguish it from garey, ' a garden.' [(G) Gairy.] 

Alt (F), ' a brook, a stream, particularly in the moun- 
tains ' (K) ; 'a high place ' (C). This latter signi- 
fication is the primitive one, it being cognate with 



13^ TSi&ttx tj^Iatit-Adtiti^ 

the Latin alius. In Galloway it is applied to a 
height, a glen, and even the stream in the glen. 
In Ireland it is generally understood to mean a 
cliff or the side of a glen. In the only name in which 
it occurs in the Isle of Man — Alt, a branch of Sulby 
Glen — it is uncertain whether it refers to the glen 
side or the stream. [(I) Alts, (G) The Allt.] 

Slogh (K), ' a pit.' Is always pronounced sloe, just as 
in Irish, by Manxmen. O'Reilly gives *sloc, s.m., 
a pit, hollow, hole, cavity, pitfall, mine.' The slogh 
given by Kelly seems to be an anglicised form of 
the Celtic sloe. We have it in The Slog, of which 
the most suitable rendering is 'The Gully.' It 
is on the south-east slope of Cronk-na-arrey- 
lhaa, and is well known as being the place where 
there are several ancient hut-dwellings ; also in 
Y Slogh, ' The Pit ' — on the shore close by — the 
name of a little stream. Jamieson's description of 
slack, * an opening in the higher part of a hill where 
it becomes less steep, and forms a sort of pass,' 
applies exactly to The Slog in the Isle of Man. 
There is a cognate Icelandic word, slakr. There 
is a Slogk in Galloway, where it is also common 
as a compound. 

Curragh, 'a bog, fen, marsh.' In The Curragh, ' The 
Bog,' the name given to the large extent of boggy 
land in the north of the Island, where remains of 
the Irish elk have been found. It formerly con- 
tained large ponds, or small lakes, which, as late 
as 1690, were called * meres.' It is now drained 
by The Lhen, or The Lane ditch, but the lower 
parts are still boggy. [(I) The Curragh.] 



Simplt llisaax^eu 137 



MoainUj moanee (F), *a turbary.' A derivative of 
moainj 'peat, turf.' In The Moaney, 'The 
Turbary.' 

Elian (F), 'an island.' In Nellan (Yn-ellan), 'The 
Island.' It is here used of a piece of higher land 
surrounded by marshes. Such ellans are common 
in the Curragh. 

(e) Human Habitations, whether Buildings or Divisions 
of Land. 

Peeley (F), (C), * a fortress, tower ' — as in Peel. This 
was the name no doubt originally given to the an- 
cient round tower, which is of the same type as the 
round towers in Ireland, in the centre of the little 
island off PEEL-^(we;». It was afterwards applied 
to the Island itself and to the later and more ex- 
tensive fortifications, which were probably erected 
there by the Stanleys. These were repaired by Fer- 
dinando,Earl of Derby, and an old engraving, dated 
1593, represents them as being at that time in per- 
fect condition, but since then they have fallen into 
ruins. At a comparatively late period (1595) this 
name was first applied to the town on the mainland, 
which was then called PEEL-^ote^n. Its oldest name 
was probably the Celtic Purt-ny-hinshey, 'Port of 
the Island.' The Norsemen called it Holm-tun, 
which became Holme-town, and even Halland- 
TOWNE. The forts on the border between England 
and Scotland were called Peels. Jamieson gives 
* pele, peyll, peel, paile — a place of strength, a forti- 
fication, properly of earth.' [(G) Peal Hill, 
(in England) Pilltown, Piel-a-Foudry.] 



13S WCtaxtx Ij^iate-Wiamtm. 

Rath (I and G), ' a fort.' In The Rhaa, * The Fort.' 
This word is not found in our dictionaries, and is 
not known colloquially, but certainly exists in local 
names. [(I) Raigh and Ray, (G) Rha.] 

Cam (M), 'a heap of stones.' In The Cairn, 'The 
heap of stones/ or * The Cairn.'* These cairns 
are common upon the mountains, and are 
popularly supposed to have been raised either in 
memory of the dead, or of some remarkable event. 
There are also the more modern cairns set up to 
mark the tops of mountains by the Ordnance 
Survey. [(I) Carn, (G) The Cairn.] 

Faaigh, faaie (F), ' a green, flat, grass plot, paddock ' 
(K) ; ' a field near or under a mansion-house, 
better manured than the other fields ' (C). Almost 
every farm has The Faaie, 'The Flat,' in the 
situation described by Cregeen. 

CroiU (F), ' a croft, a small close adjoining the house.' 

Croft^ ' a piece of ground adjoining to a house ' 

(Jamieson). The word * croft ' is common in 

English. 

* Tending my flocks hard by in the hilly crofts 
That brow this northern glade.*— MiLTON. 

The Croft is found upon most farms, and is 

generally used of a small field. 

Bwoailtyn,' ioXds' {seeBwooaillee). Probably in Botchin 

and BosHEN, also possibly in Boltane and Bal- 

thane, found in the computus of Abbey Tenants, 

in 1540, as Byulthan. 

Doon (M), 'a close.' In The Dhoon, 'The Close.' 

The Irish and Gaelic dun, and Welsh din, mean * a 

* This word has been adopted into English. 



Stmpfo Bam^«. 139 



fort/ or ' a fortified hill/ but, in Manx, doon seems 
to have retained the original meaning of a fence or 
enclosure, and hence the space enclosed. It is 
represented in English by the word town. [(I and 
G) Doon.] 

(/) The Animal and Vegetable Kingdom. 

The two following names have probably been given 
from fancied resemblances. 

Boa (F), *a cow/ In The Boe, 'The Cow/ the name 
of a large rock in Castletown Bay. There is a 
large black rock in mid-channel of the Luce, in 
Galloway, called The Bo Stane. 

Goayr (F), * a goat.' In The Goayr, ' The Goat/ the 
name of a small rock off the coast. 

Guile, Guilcagh (K), ' Broom.' In The Guilcagh, 'The 
Broom.' This is the name of a farm, which was 
probably so called from the quantity of the broom 
plant growing there. [(I) Guilcagh.] 

Doubtful. 

The following simple names are of uncertain deriva- 
tion, and are therefore classed as doubtful. 

Braid (K), * the upper part.' In Manx local names it 
is usually applied to uplands, as in The Braid, 
'The Upland,' though in the case of The Braids 
in the parish of Maughold, which are gullies cut 
on the mountain-side by heavy rains, and the 
compound name Braid-ny-Glionney, it seems to 
be used in much the same sense as the Irish word 
braid (braghad) — i.e., a deeply-cut glen or gorge. 



140 Maxu f^lat^rlBifnntsu 



Cnapan (I), ' a little hillock.' Possibly in The Nappin, 
' The Little Hillock.* This farm, in the parish of 
Jurby, is popularly derived from Yn abban, ' The 
Abbey/ but this is very doubtful, as it is not even 
Abbey land. There are also farms called the East 
Nappin and the West Nappin. There is a keeill 
on the West Nappin, which is evidently of later 
date than such buildings usually are. It is sur- 
rounded by a large grave-yard, fenced with an 
Earthen bank. Inside the chapel there is a piscina. 
[(I) Nappan.] 

Boireand (I), *a large rock; a stony, rocky district.* 
The latter meaning appropriately describes the 
rough, upland district, in the parish of Patrick, 
called BoiRREAN. This word is not found in our 
dictionaries and is not known colloquially. 

There is a small stream at the north of the Island, 
called The Dhoor, which name is also given to 
the district through which it flows. It is just 
possible that it may be from the Irish and Gaelic 
dobhar, 'water,' of which the Manx dubbyr is 
probably a corruption. The Dhoor may then 
be translated * The Water.' [(I) Dower, Dore, 

(G) DOVERAN.] 

The name Bearey, applied to a mountain, probably 
has some connection with Eary^ ' a moor.' 

Meaylj Meyll (K), * a cape, bare headland, top of a hill.' 
In The Meayll, 'The Cape.' This name has 
been placed under the heading ' doubtful,' simply 
because, in this special case, the name is only of 
recent introduction into our maps — the old name 
of the hilly district so called being The Mull, 



Simply UieimeB* 141 



which is of Scandinavian origin. It is invariably 
pronounced Mull. There is, however, no doubt 
that the word meal, meaning primarily a lump, 
mass, or heap of anything, is used in Ireland 
and Scotland of mountains, hills, hillocks and pro- 
montories. In Galloway there are four mountains, 
of over 1,400 feet high, called Meaull. [(I) Moyle, 
(G) Meaull.] 

Quing (F), ' a yoke.' This word would seem to be found 
in The Whing, * The Yoke,' the name of a place 
in the parish of Andreas. 

Cregeen translates S'cregganagh, 'how full of small 
rocks.' In Yn Scregganagh it is probably used 
substantively, with the meaning of 'The Rocky 
Place,' which exactly describes the shore under 
Clay Head, where the name is found. 

A ash (M), 'ease, rest.' Possibly in Naish (Yn aash), 
'The Rest.' 

Colloo (F), the Manx name for the Calf Island, would 
appear to be a corruption of the O.N. kalv, as 
garroo of the earlier garw. Cregeen and Kelly 
were evidently much puzzled about its deri- 
vation. The former says : ' Conjectures in 
such cases are endless — some persons will have it 
to be from coqyl-halloo (behind the land), others 
that it is from coayl (loss), and others that it is so 
called on account of it being formerly frequented 
by puffins, this word Colloo being their principal 
note ' ! Kelly gives ' Calloo or Calv, the Calf of 
Man,' but wisely does not attempt any explanation. 

Sniaul, the Celtic name of the highest mountain in the 
Island, would likewise seem to be a corruption of 



142 manx ^lAte-WLecmt9* 

the O.N. Sn-EFEll. Our lexicographers are also 
ingenious in their surmises about this name. 
According to Cregeen it is from sniaghty, * snow/ 
while Gill takes refuge in niful or niul, ' a mist, or 
bog,' and the Gaelic Neul, * a cloud/ as possible 
derivations. 

Part II. 
COMPOUND NAMES. 
(a) Mountains, Hills, Rocks. 

S/f>aw (M), 'mountain, hill.' The usual name in the 
Isle of Man for a mountain, as in Slieau-Ree, 
'King's Hill.' [(I) Slievebloom, (G)Slewcreen.] 

Baare (M), * top, point, extremity.' Generally of the 
top of a hill, as in BAREDOoi 'Black-top.' [(I) 
Barroe, (G) Barness.] 

Mullagh (M), * top, summit.' Has much the same 
meaning as baare, as in Mullaghouyr, * Dun-top.' 
[(I) Mullaghbane, (G) Tullochard.] 

Cnoc (K), *hill/ is used of a lower elevation than 
Slieau, being even occasionally applied to tumuli, 
as in Knock-e-dooiney, * Man's Hill.* It is a 
very common prefix. [(I) Knockagapple, (G) 
Knockbreck.] 

Ard (M), *a hill, a highland, a rising ground.' As in 
Ardwhallan (Whuallian), 'Whelp's HiU.' [(I) 
Armagh, (G) Ardnamurchan.] 

Eanin, eaynin (F), 'a precipice.' In Enym-Mooar, 
formerly Enin-Mooar, ' Big Precipice.' This farm 
is close by the almost precipitous western side of 
Cronk-ny-arrey-lhaa. Eanin is used colloquially 
in Manx, though it is not found in Irish or Gaelic. 



(Eiiui|iA>uiily CUratts* 143 

Ughiagh (F), ' an acclivity/ Only in Ughtagh-breesh- 
MY-CHREE, ' Break-my-heart Hill.' This word is 
not now known colloquially. It is used by Bishop 
Wilson, in Matthew vii. 32, for the * steep place ' 
down which the swine ran, but eaynee is substituted 
for it in the modern version. [(I) Ughtyneill.] 

Geaylin (F), ' a shoulder.' Is used of the shoulder of a 
hill ; it occurs in one local name only : Geaylin- 
NY-CREGGYN, * Shoulder of the Rocks.* [(I) Sha- 

NAGOLDEN.] 

Clagh (F), ' a stone.' As in Claghbane, ' White Stone.' 
[(I) Cloghlea, (G) Clawbelly.] 

The following are also found as simple terms : 

Cronk. As in Cronk-ny-mona (Moainee), ' Hill of the 
Turbary.' This is one of the commonest prefixes 
ih the language. [(I) Crockanure.] 

Broogh. As in Broogh-jiarg-mooar, ' Big Red Brow.' 
[(I) Broughderg, (G) Broughjiarg.] 

Liargagh, largagh. As in Largyrhenny (rennee), ' Fern's 
Slope.' [(I) Largynagreana, (G) Lhargie 
Point.^ 

Aeree, eary. As in Eary-kellagh, ' Cock Moor.' [(G) 
Ariengour.] 

Recast. As in Reeast-mooar, *Big Waste.' [(I) 

RiASKMORE, (G) RiSKMORE.] 

Rinn, rheynn. As in Rhenshent (sheeant), ' Holy Ridge.* 

[(I) RiNVILLE, (G) RiNGREER.] 

Dreem, Dreeym. As in Dreemruy, * Red Hill-back.* 

[(I) Drumroe, (G) Drumnakill.] 
Creg, craig. As in Creglea (Iheeah), 'Grey Crag.* 

[(I) Cregboy, (G) Craigdhu.] 



144 nianx !p(at^-1RUtm^0* 

(6) Sea-coast, • 
Gob. As in Gob breac, * Speckled Point.' [(I) Gub- 

BACROCK.] 

Kione (M), ' a head/ As in Kione Doolish, * Douglas 
Head/ In local names kione means either 'head/ 
in the sense of headland, point, promontory, an 
instance of which has been given already, or ' end/ 
as in Kentraugh {kione4raih\ 'Shore-end/ [(I) 
Kenmare, (G) Cantire, (W) Penmaenmawr.] 

Carrigy carrick (see p. 134). As in Carrick Rock 
in Ramsey Bay. The addition of the word 
' rock ' would tend to show that the meaning of 
carrick must have been generally forgotten when 
it was made. 

Carrick is seldom found inland in the Isle of 
Man, while its contraction, creg, occurs both inland 
and on the coast. 
[(I) Carrickfergus, (G) Carrick Point,] 

Stroin (F), literally ' a nose/ is used in local names of 
a promontory or headland, as in Stroin-Vuigh, 
'Yellow Headland.* [(I) Sroankeeragh, (G) 
Stronhavie.] 

Baie, baih (F), 'a bay.* Possibly a word of English 
origin, as in Bay-ny-carrickey, 'Bay of the 
Rocks/ 

Traie, traih (F), 'shore, strand/ As in Traiebane, 
' White Shore/ [(I) Tralee.] 

Purt (F), ' a port, harbour, landing-place/ As in Purt- 
MooAR, 'Big Port.* [(I) Portrush, (G) Port- 
Patrick.] 

Or, or ooirr (K), ' a border, coast, limit/ only in Or 



(Eimtpimnlr Aant^ai* 145 

VooAR, 'Big Coast/ Ooirr^y-Marr^ is 'The 
margin of the sea.' 
Elian. As in Ellan Vannin, ' Mannan's Isle/ the 
Manx name of the Isle of Man. Elian is, how- 
ever, more frequently used of a piece of land sur- 
rounded by marshes, as in Ellan-y-Voddee, 
' Isle of the Dogs.' [(I) Ellanfad, (G) Ellan-na- 

ROAN.] 

Innis (K), ' an island.' Occurs only as a prefix in the 
. ancient poetical name of the Isle of Man : Innis- 
SHEEANT, * Holy Isle.' In a rescript from Pope 
Pius II., dated 1459, to Thomas Stanley, we find 
that the island, having been honoured by the 
relics of certain saints, ' has been commonly called 
down to the present day the Holy Island ' (Insula 
Sancta). 

Boa. In BoE Norris, * Norris's Cow,' an islet in 
Castletown Bay. 

(c) Glens, Lowlands, Rivers, Bogs. 

Glione and Glion (F), * a glen.' As in Glione-feeagh, 
' Raven's Glen.' It is, however, more usual in its 
English form, as in Glen-darragh, ' Oak Glen.' 
[(I) Glenduff, (G) Glencoe.] 

Coan, Couan (M), 'a valley.' As in Coanrennee, 
'Ferns' Valley,' or 'Ferny Valley.' This word 
is used colloquially in Manx, though there is 
nothing in Irish or Gaelic to correspond with it. 

Lag, Laggey. As in Lagbane, ' White Hollow.' Lag 
is also the technical term for a turf cutting, so it 
is sometimes found high up in the mountains. 
[(I and G) Lagmore.] 

10 



146 Manx jptac^-Bmtt^s* 

Lheeanee (F), 'a meadow.' As in Leeanee-vooar 
' Big Meadow.' [(I) Lenamore.] 

CooiL As in Cooil-cam, ' Winding Nook.' [(I) Cool- 
bane, (G) CULROSS.] 

Barney (F), ' a gap.' In Barna-ellan-renny (rmnee), 
' Ferns' Island Gap,' or ' Ferny Island Gap.' [(I) 
Barnageehy, (G) BARHEY'Water.] 

Claare (M), * a dish.' In Claare-our {ouyr\ ' Dun 
Dish.' Claare-ouyr is an old circular earth- 
work near St. Marks, exactly the shape of a dish. 
The Irish word clar means * a level place.' [(I) 
Clare, (G) Clarehill.] 

Loob (M), literally, * a loop.' Usually applied in Manx 
local names to winding mountain guUeys, as 
in Lhoob-y-reeast, * GuUey of the Waste.' 
Clarke, in the English-Manx portion of the Manx 
Society's Dictionary, translates slope by loob ; but 
this usage is now obsolete colloquially, though it 
may be applicable to some of the loobs in local 
names. [(I) Loobagh, (G) Loopmabinnie.] 

Doarlish (F), *a gap.' As in Doarlish-Cashen, 
* Cashen's Gap.' 

Garee. As in Garee-meen, * Soft Stony-place.' 

Slogh, * a pit.' In Sloc-na-cabbyl-screevagh, ' Pit 
of the Scabby Horse.' 

Awin, ' a river.' As in Awin-ruy, ' Red River.' [(I 
and G) Avonmore.] 

Eos (K), * a cascade, a waterfall.' In Nascoin (yn-eas- 
coon), * The Narrow Waterfall.' [(I) Assaroe.] 

Spooyt, *a spout.' Used in Spooyt Vane, * White 
Spout,' the only name in which it appears in 
the Isle of Man, to describe a small, narrow water- 



Cmtqimnai WLsimtB. 147 

fall. Jamieson describes spout as meaning a bogg}' 
spring. [(G) Spout Burn.] 

Logh (F), * a lake, pool.' As in Loughdoo, ' Black 
Lake.' It is used only of inland waters in the Isle 
of Man, and these have now been for the most 
part drained. [(I) Loughrea, (G) Loughness.] 

Pooyl (F), ' a pool, pond.* As in Pooylbreinn, * Stag- 
nant Pool.' In the case of Pooyl-vaish, * Death 
Pool,* poqyl would seem to mean *bay.' [(I) 

POLLANASS, (G) POLB-fi.] 

Dubbyr (K), *a pond.' Generally used of a deep 
pool in a river ; but also of pools of rain-water 
formed in hollow places in wet weather, as in 
Dubbyr Vooar, ' Big Pool.* Dubbyr is used of a 
smaller piece of water than Pooyl. Jamieson ex- 
plains Dub, * a small pool of rain-water ;' while 
O'Reilly gives ' Dob, river, stream.* It is connected 
with the word dobbar, ' water.' [(I) Dower, (G) 
Dub of Hass.] 

Curragh, As in Curragh Glass, * Green Curragh.* 
[(I) Curragh Glass.] 

Moainee, Moanee. As in Moainee Mollagh, ' Rough 
Turbary.' These turbaries were valuable proper- 
ties when coals were scarce and dear. [(I) Moan 
Vane, (G) Monybine.] 

Beinn (M), *a peak, summit, point.' It occurs only once, 
certainly, as a prefix, in the name of the mountain 
Beinn-y-/Ao^, or, as commonly spelt, Penny- 
Pot, * Point of the Pot,* where pot seems to be 
merely the English word. How this somewhat 
absurd appellation came to be given to the 
mountain, the fourth highest in the island, is not 

10 — 2 



143 Ittanx |^Iar^-jEtam^«. 

known. There is a treen called Ben-doyle, in 
the parish of Santon, but, though it is rather high 
land, it cannot be certainly connected with beinn. 
The plural binn is found in Binn-buie, * Yellow 
Tops.' This is high land near the coast, the 
higher parts of which are covered with gorse. [(I 
and G) Benmore.] 

Mullagh. As in Mullaugh-y-Sniaul, 'Top of Sniaul/ 
commonly called Sn-^fell. 

Beeal (M), 'a mouth.' As in Beal-y-phurt, ' Mouth 
of the Port.' [(I) Belclare, (G) Bellew.] 

Kione. As in Kione-droghad, ' Bridge-end.' [(I and 

G) KiNLOCH.] 

Gob. As in Gob-ny-strona (Strooan)^ * Point of the 
Current.' [(I) Gubbacrock, (G) Gobawhilkin.] 

Cass (F), *a foot.' As in Cass-ny-hawin, 'Foot of 
the River.' [(I) Coslea.] 

(d) Position. 

Lhiattee (F), ' a side.' As in Lhiattee-ny-Beinnee, 
' Side of the Summits.' This word would appear 
to be connected with lieh, ' half;' but there is an 
Irish word lacka, a derivative from leac, meaning a 
hill-side, as in Lackabane, of which it may be a 
corruption. 

Bun (M), ' the bottom or end of anything.' Found 
only in Bunghey (?). [(I) Bunlaghey.] 

Comeil (F), * a corner, an angle.' Probably a word of 
English origin ; found only in Corneil-y-Killagh, 
' Comer of the Church.' By an act of Tynwald, 
in 1834, ^^^ Parish Church of Michael was 
ordered to be built on the vicar's ancient glebe, 



dmttpmxtib Aams0» 149 

and a parcel of land, called Corneil-y-Killagh, 
to be given to the vicar instead. 



(e) Human Habitation. 
I.— Topographical Divisions of Land. 

Magher (M), *a field.* As in Magher-y-ChiarK, 
' Field of the Lord.' Machair in Irish and Gaelic 
generally means a plain, and seldom a field, which 
is its invariable meaning in Manx. [(I) Maghera- 
BOY, (G) Macherbrake.] 

Faaigh, Faaie. As in Faaie-ny-Cabbal, ' Flat of the 
Chapel.' [(I) Fahykeen.] 

Close (K), * a close.' As in Close -an-Ellan, ' Close 
of the Island.' This is probably a word of 
English origin. Jamieson describes it as ' an area 
before a house, a courtyard beside a farmhouse, in 
which cattle are fed, and where straw, etc., are 
deposited, or an enclosure, a place fenced in.' 
In Manx it simply means a small field. [(G) 
Close Hil^ 

CroiU. As in Crot-e-Caley, * Caley's Croft.' [(G) 
CrotfoyJ 

Thalloo (M), Mand earth.' In Manx local names, 
usually of a small plot of ground, as in Thalloo- 
Vell, • Bell's Land.' [(I) Tallowroe, (G) 
Tallowguhairn.] 

Pairk (M), ' a park.' Used in Manx local names of a 
large enclosure of grass-land, generally in the 
mountains, as in Pairk-ny-earkan, * Park of the 
Lapwing.' [(I) Parkatleva, (G) Parkmaclurg.] 

Garey (M), ' a garden.' As in Garey Feeyney, ' Vine 



150 aianx ^lacie-iaam^ift. 



Garden.* It is often confused in local names with 
garee (see p. 135). [(I) Garryowen, (G) Garrie- 

FAD.] 

Mwannal (M), ^ a neck.' Used in local names of a 
narrow part of a field, as in Mwannal-y-Guiy, 

* Neck of the Goose.' 

^i^g> Stuggey (M), * a lump, a large portion ' (K), ' A 
part or piece of a thing.' (C) In Manx local names 
it is used of a piece of a field fenced off, so as to 
render the large piece more regular in shape, as in 
Stuckeydoo, formerly Stuggadoo, ' Black Piece.' 
A stout, short man or woman in called colloquially 
a sthugga. In Fifeshire a stout woman is called a 
stug. 

Bwoaillee (F) (pi. bwoatltyn), ' a fold.' As in Bwoaillee 
LosHT, ' Burnt Fold,' and Builtchyn Rhenny 
(rennee), * Ferny Fold,' or * Ferns' Fold.' It is a 
very common word in local nomenclature, especially 
in field-names, which are not to be found in maps. 
It was an old custom to fence off a portion of a 
field and then to turn sheep and cattle into it. 
When it was thoroughly manured they were trans- 
ferred to another similar space. These were 
called bwoailtyn, or builtchyn. Spenser, in his 

* View of the State of Ireland,' describes a different 
usage there : * There is one use amongst them, to 
keepe their cattle, and to live themselves in booties, 
pasturing upon the mountain and waste wild 
places, and removing still to fresh land, as they 
have depastured the former.' Here booley refers 
to the mountain-hut where they lived. It was also 
applied in Ireland to any place where cattle were 



drmpimiUy 9iean^9. 151 

fed or milked. In the Isle of Man it means simply 
a fold or pen, and is quite as common on the low 
as on the high lands. [(I) Booldarragh.] 

Croa (K), * a pen,' generally of a sheep-fold. As in 
Crocreen, ' Ripe or Withered (?) Pen.' There is 
an Icelandic word, kro, with the same meaning, 
but it is probably taken from the Celtic. In 
Ireland it also means a hut or hovel. [(I) Kro- 
Kevin.] 

UUHn (C), *a stackyard or hay-yard.' In Magher- 
YN-ULLiN, * Field of the Stackyard.' This word 
would seem to be a corruption of the Irish ith-lann, 

* corn-house.' 

Cleigh, Cleiy (M), ' a hedge, a bank.' As in Clybane, 
' White Hedge.' [(I) Clyduff, (G) Claygrane.] 

Scrah (K), Scraig (C), (F), ' a turf, a sod.' Probably in 
Scravorley (voalley), * Sod Fence. [(I) Scralea.] 

2.— Buildings, Wells, Roads, etc. 
Keeill (F), * a cell, a church.' As in Keeill Vreeshey, 

* Bridget's Cell.' These tiny churches were pro- 
bably erected for the most part by the Culdees, 
between the fifth and eighth centuries. The 
Culdees were religious recluses who spent their 
lives in solitary prayer and bodily mortification. 
The Isle of Man must have been a favourite resort 
of theirs, as the sites of nearly one hundred of these 
keeills are still to be found ; of which about thirty 
possess names. They were evidently not intended 
for congregations, as their internal measurement 
does not exceed twenty feet by twelve feet, and they 
are, moreover, distributed so promiscuously that the 



1 53 aiattx' I^Iatie-AattisB. 

theory started by the Traditionary Ballad,* and 
eagerly accepted by most of those who have 
written on the subject, that there was one for 
every trecftyf cannot be substantiated by the facts. 

[(I) KiLBREEDY, (G) KiLMORIE.] 

Cabbal (F), ' a chapel.' As in Cabbal-yn-oural Losht, 
' Chapel of the Burnt Sacrifice.' Cabbal is quite 
a modern word, and seems to be merely a corrup- 
tion of ' chapel.' Gumming draws an elaborate dis- 
tinction between the cabbal of the fifth century 
and the keeill of the sixth, which, apart from the 
fact that the word cabbal was unknown at that 
date, seems a very doubtful one. J 

Rhfdlick (G), Rutlltc (Gl), Relic (Gi), *a graveyard.' 
As in RuLLiCK-NY-QuAKERYN, * Graveyard of the 
Quakers.' [(I) Reilick-murry.] 

Oaie (F), *a grave, a tomb.' In Gaie-ny-foawr, 
'Grave of the Giant.' Nothing corresponding to 
this word is found in either Irish or Gaelic. 

Lhiaght (M), * a tombstone, a pile of stones in memory 
of the dead.' Found only in Lhiaght-e-Kinry, 
* Kinry's Tombstone.' This was erected in memory 
of a person of this name, who was rash enough to 
wager that he would run ^aked from Douglas to 
Bishop's Court and back on a snowy day, and who 
perished in the attempt.§ 

Cashtal (K), ' a castle.' As in Cashtal Ree Goree, 
'King Orree's Castle.' [(I) Castledargan, (G) 
Castledouglas.] 

* Train, History of the Isle of Man, p. 52. 

t For treen^ see post, 

X Manx Soc, Vol. XV. 

§ Feltham's Tour, Manx Soc, Vol. VI. 



CmntrmttUv Bam^0« 153 



Rath. Probably occurs in The Raa Mooar, ' The Big 
Fort/ now a heap of stones in a commanding 
position by the shore in the parish of Maughold. 
The supposition that this may be the remains of 
an ancient fort is strengthened by the fact that 
the rocky point below is called Gob-yn-Cashtal. 
[(I) Rahard.] 

Thie (M), * a house.' As in Thie Juan Ned, 'John 
Ned's House.' [(I) Tyfarnham, (G) Tydeaverys.] 

Soalt (F), • a barn.' As in Tholt-e-Will, * Will's 
Barn.' [(I) Saul.] 

Droghad (F), 'a bridge.' As in Droghad Fayle, 
'Fayle's Bridge.' [(I) Drogheda, (G) Droch 
Head.] 

Mwyllin (C), Mwillin (K) (pi. Mwiljin), *a mill.' As 
in MuLLEN-E-CoRRAN, * Corrau's Mill.' Early in 
the sixteenth century water-mills were established 
in large numbers by the Lord of the Isle, who 
ordered the old querns, or hand-mills, to be bfoken 
up, so that the farmers were compelled to send 
their corn to be ground at his mills. It would 
appear that, in spite of these regulations, some of 
the querns survived, as many fines for not bringing 
corn to be ground are recorded in the manorial 
books. We learn from the Statute Book that ' all 
the mulcture, toll and soken of all corn and graine 
within the Island '* belonged to the Lord, who no 
doubt derived a considerable revenue in this way. 

[(I) MULLENMORE.] 

Chibber (F), 'a well.' As in Chibber Voirrey, 
* Mary's Well.' The numerous well-names in the 
* Statute Law Book, Vol L, p. 85 (a.d. 1636). 



154 fl&anx f|^Iar^-Bam«0* 

Isle of Man are usually found near old ecclesias- 
tical sites, as the holy recluses would naturally 
build their keeills near springs, where they would 
construct wells both for their own personal con- 
venience as well as for baptizing their disciples. 
Some of these wells were formerly much venerated, 
as their waters were supposed to possess sanative 
qualities, and to be of special virtue as charms 
against witchcraft and fairies. They were generally 
visited on Ascension Day and on the first Sunday 
in August, called j^» chied doonaghtyn ourr, * the first 
Sunday of the harvest,' when the devotees would 
drop a small coin into the well, drink of the 
water, repeat a prayer, in which they mentioned 
their ailments, and then decorate the well, or 
the tree overhanging it, with flowers and other 
votive offerings, usually rags. They believed that 
when the flowers withered or the rags rotted their 
ailments would be cured. These rites have been 
observed in the Isle of Man within the memory of 
those now living. There is a well on Gob-y-Vollee, 
called Chibber Lansh (where the meaning of lansh 
is uncertain), consisting of three pools, which was 
formerly much resorted to for the cure of sore eyes. 
The cure could only be effective if the patient 
came on Sunday and walked three times round 
each pool, saying in Manx, Ayns enym yn Ayr, asy 
Vac, as y Spyrryd Nu, ' In the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,' and then 
applied the water to his or her eye. [(I) Tobera- 
KEENA, (G) Tobermory.] 
Crosh (F), ' a cross.' As in Crosh-mooar, * Big Cross,' 



<E0mp0unt» WLsanttu 155 

and Crosh Stdby, * Sulby Cross,' both of which have 

disappeared. [(I) Crossgar, (G) Crossmaglen.] 
Cam. As in Carn Gerjoil, * Joyful Cairn.' [(I) 

Carnacally, (G) Cairngorm.] 
Road (M), ' a road.' As in Raad-jiarg, ' Red Road.' 

The rainbow was called Raad Ree Gorree, 

* King Orry's Road.' 
Bayr (M), 'a road' (K), * a way, avenue' (C). As in 

Baregarrow, ' Rough Road.' [(I) Boherkill.] 
Cassan (M), * a path.' As in Cassan Keil, * Narrow 

Path.' [(I) Cassankerry, (G) Cassencarie.] 
Crottk and Knock are used in local names for artificial 

structures, such as tumuli and barrows, as well as 

hills. Thus Cronk-e-dooiney, ' Man's Hill,' and 

Knock-e-dooiney with the same meaning. 
Clagh is also used for stone pillars erected as memorials. 

As in Clagh Ard, ' High Stone.' 

Doubtful. 

The following generic terms can only be classed as 

doubtful. 

Lann (I, G, and W), ' an enclosure, a house, a church,' 
is not found in our dictionaries, and is not known 
colloquially, though we have the word ullin (eith- 
Umn, 'corn-house,' see p. 151). Dr. Joyce re- 
marks that when it means * house 'it is a purely 
Irish word ; but that in its ecclesiastical significa- 
tion it was borrowed from the Welsh. It would 
seem, however, that its earliest meaning was simply 
an enclosure, and it is in this sense that it is pro- 
bably found in the only name in which it occurs 
as a prefix in the Isle of Man — Lanjaghin, 



* Deacon's Enclosure,' or * Joughin's Enclosure.' 
[(I) Landmore, (G) Landis.] 

Braid. In Braid-ny-Boshen {bwoailtyn), * Upland of 
the Folds/ and Braid-ny-Skarrag, ' Upland of 
the Skate.' The mountain-ridge so called is sup- 
posed to be the shape of a skate ; also in Braid- 
ny-Glionney, ' Gorge of the Glen.' 

There is in Ireland a word cor, commonly used as a 
topographical term in the meanings of round hill, 
a round pit, or cup-like hollow, a turn or bend in a 
road. In the Isle of Man it seems to occur in two 
names only, viz. : Cormonagh (moanagh), ' Round 
Turfy Hollow,' and Corlea {Iheeah), ' Round Gray 
Hill' 

The other cors are either from the (O. N.) personal 
name Cort, or from the adjective coar, ' pleasant,' or 
at least either cart or coar would be more appro- 
priate topographically than cor, except in the two 
names above. There are also Corrony, which is 
a corruption of (O.N.) Corna, and Corrady, which 
is obscure. There is a Corrody in Ireland, which 
name is said to be connected with a peculiar legal 
tenure. 

Cor is not found in Manx dictionaries, and it is 
not known colloquially. [(I) Corbeagh.] 

Boireand. As in Borrane-creg-lieh (Iheeah) ' Rocky 
District of the Gray Cragj'^as its translation would 
seem to be ; but it is a name actually applied to an 
old earthen fortification near the Niarbyl, on the 
seashore. There are four forts marked in the 
Ordnance Survey along the sea-line in this district 
Just above it there is an earthwork called 



dmapmaf^ Bam^s. 157 

BoRRANE Balebly, about thirty yards long by 
twenty-two broad. 
The name of the Lhane* Mooar, or the Lhen 
MooAR, which drains the Curragh, is etymologi- 
cally obscure, though it probably means 'The 
Great Ditch.' Sir Herbert Maxwell, in explaining 
Lane Burn in Galloway, quotes Jamieson. 'Lane. 
I. A brook, of which the motion is so slow as to 
be scarcely perceptible ; the hollow course of a 
large rivulet in a meadow ground. 2. Applied to 
those parts of a river or rivulet which are so 
smooth as to answer to this description.' There is 
no word corresponding to Ihane or lhen in our dic- 
tionaries, except the adjective lane^ * full,' and it is 
only known colloquially as applied with the mean- 
ing of trench or ditch to the great Curragh drain. 
Certainly the current of the water in the Lhane 
Mooar is quite slow enough to answer Jamieson's 
description, though it can hardly be accepted as a 
satisfactory derivation. 

Part in. 

DIMINUTIVES (SIMPLE AND COMPOUND). 

There are certainly two terminations that denote 
smallness in Manx : an (I and G, an) and aeg (I 
and G, og), and possibly there are two others, 
ecn (I, in) and en (I, en) ; but these are not so easily 
identified. Of these, an is the most common ; but 
in many of the words ending in it the original 
meaning of smallness has been quite lost. Thus : 
* Not connected with latm^ ^ an endosore.' 



153 WStBiXtx 1^lSitt'JitL0iXtttB* 

Strooan (F), 'A stream, rivulet.' As in Stroan-ny- 
Craue, * Stream of the Bone.' There is nothing 
in Manx to correspond to the Irish and Gaelic 
sruth. [(I) Sruthanmore.] 
Carnane (diminutive of cam). As in The Carnane, 

* The pile of stones or cairn,' and Carnane-Breck, 

* Speckled Cairn.' [(I) Carnane Bane.] 
Creggan, originally a diminutive of creg, is explained by 

Kelly as meaning *a hillock, a rocky place, a 
barrow, a heap of stones,' and by Cregeen as * a 
place or piece of ground left uncultivated in con- 
sequence of being rocky or containing stones; 
generally overgrown with gorse or underwood.' 
The most suitable translation would appear to be 
' rocky hillock.' As in The Creggans, Creggan 
MoAR, ' Big Rocky Hillock,' Ny-cregganyn, ' The 
Rocky Hillocks,' and probably Croggane, * Rocky 
Hillock.' [(I) Creggane, (G) Craigenbuy.] 

In the following the diminutive signification has 
been retained : 
Knockan, 'hillock.' As in Knockan and Knockan- 
AALiN, ' Beautiful Hillock.' [(I and G) Knockan- 

DOO.] 

Cronkan. As in Cronkan-renny (rennee)^ 'Ferns' 
Hillock,' or 'Ferny Hillock,' and in the corrupt 
form cronnan, as in Cronnan-mooar, ' Big Hillock.' 

Laggan, ' a little hollow.' As in Laggandoo, ' Black 
Little Hollow.' [(I) Laganeany, (G) Laggan- 
harnie.] 

Loghan, * a pond.' As in Loughan-y-guiy, ' Pond of the 

Goose.' [(I) LOUGHANASKIN, (G) LOCHINBRECK.] 

(See cnapan under Simple Names.) 
Aeg^ literally 'young,' is not recognised either in our 



J^httbtufi^T^su 159 



dictionaries or colloquially as a diminutive, though 
it has undoubtedly the same signification as the 
Irish og, anglicised og, oge, ogue, which is very 
common both in personal and local names. It 
occurs in the following : 

Lheeanag (F), * a little meadow.' As in The Leenag. 

Cronnag. A corruption of Cronk-aeg, ' Little Hill/ 
and the plural Ny Cronnagyn, ' The Little Hills.' 

Crossag (crosh-aeg). In The Crossag Bridge, *The 
Little Cross Bridge,' near Rushen Abbey. This is 
probably the oldest bridge in the island, dating 
from the thirteenth century. Its breadth in the 
centre is only three feet three inches. 

Crammag. The farm so called is popularly derived from 
crammag, ' a snail,' and the explanation given is that 
this farm is so steep that either nothing but a snail 
could get up it, or that you must ascend the hill at 
a snail's pace. It is quite true that the farmhouse 
is situated on so steep a slope that it is very difficult 
to get a cart up to it ; but perhaps the following 
explanation is a more satisfactory one : Joyce, in 
treating of crom, * bent, inclined, crooked,' refers 
to two diminutives of it : Cromane and Cromage^ 
which, he says, signify 'anything sloping or bending, 
and give names to many places.'* Sir Herbert 
Maxwell mentions a place called Crammag, in 
Galloway, as being the name of a sea-cliff. The 
best translation of Crammag would seem, there- 
fore, to be ' The Little Cliff.' 

(The termination aeg is also found as a diminu- 
tive in the following affixes : sceabag, cuilleig, kill- 
eig. beishteig.) 

* Series 2, p. 399. 



i6o manx i^laee-tieimtsu 



The diminutive een perhaps occurs in Clyeen, which 
may be a corruption of Cleiy-een, * Little Hedge/ 
the name of a farm adjoining the Northern Tynwald 
at Cronk Urley. Possibly this name may have 
some connection with the ancient fence round the 
court. Cleiy means a mound, dyke, or rampart of 
any kind, as well as a hedge* 

The diminutive en is perhaps found in the doubtful 
RusHEN {roS'Cen), ' Little Wood' {see post). 




CHAPTER II. 

NAMES OF DIVISIONS OF LAND, NOT TOPOGRAPHICAL. 

There are divisions of land for administrative pur- 
poses, the names of which appear on our maps, but 
are not apparent as topographical features. The 
largest of these, the Sheading, is undoubtedly of 
Scandinavian origin {see post). 

The name of the next division in point of size, skeer^, 
' a parish,' when regarded merely as a civil division — 
and the civil divisions are certainly older than the 
ecclesiastical — is also probably of Scandinavian origin ; 
but, when regarded as an ecclesiastical division, its 
name, skeeylley, may possibly be a corruption of the 
Scandinavian skeerey, and the Manx keeilley (gen. of 
heeill), as in Skeeyley* Charmane, ' German's 
Church Division ' (or Parish), though in this case also 
a purely Scandinavian derivation appears more pro- 
bable (see post). Skeeley forms the prefix to fifteen 
out of the seventeen parish churches in the island. 

About the next division, the treen, there has been 

* Kelly writes this Skeeyl-y-Channane, which cannot be cor- 
rect Skeeyley is pronounced as one word by Manx people. 

II 



i62 Mlanx !|^laxit-B.amt0. 

considerable controversy, which, however, has not been 
successful in elucidating its meaning. Kelly does not 
mention it in the Triglott Dictionary. Gill has : 
* Treein, " an ecclesiastical division of the country . . . 
being a third part." ' Cregeen : ' Treen (F), " a town- 
ship that divides tithe into three." ' If it ever was a 
third part, the division of which it was a third has dis- 
appeared. Dr. Joyce remarks that Tn'aw (treen) denotes 
the third part of anything ; it was formerly a territorial 
designation in frequent use ... it generally takes the 
forms of trean and trien, which constitute or begin the 
names of about seventy townlands in the four pro- 
vinces.'* There are, on an average, ten treens in a 
parish in the Isle of Man, and as in all the sheadings 
except one there are three parishes, the sheadings 
contains about thirty treens. Now in Ireland the baile, 
Manx balla (see below), was the thirtieth part of a barony, 
and, assuming that the Irish barony and the Manx 
sheading are equivalent divisions, it may be conjec- 
tured that the treen and the balla were originally identi- 
cal. From the Ballaugh Register, a.d. 1600, we learn 
that the owners of the treens were obliged to keep their 
portion of the churchyard and its fence in order, which 
portions were * marked out as foUoweth in order by 
the most ancient men of the parish ;*"t" and there is a 
further note in the register to the effect that there were 
twenty yards allotted to each treen, there being eight 
and a half treens, so that the circumference of the 
churchyard was one hundred and seventy yards. The 
treen owners had also to keep the parish pinfolds in 

* Joyce, 4th Ed., p. 242. 

t Manx Note Book, No, 2, p. 57. 



Tkemtjei» Df 9i\fiaimm Df tanbr* 163 

order. The ireens include both cultivated and uncul- 
tivated land, i.e., quarterlands and intacksc 
Bailey, Bulla (M), * a town, an estate, a farm, a village.' 
As in Ballaglass, 'Green Farm.' Bulla is the 
modern form, bailey or bully being almost universal 
before the seventeenth century. It receives the 
gloss locus in Cormac's glossary and the Book of 
Armagh. Cormac also gives buile as the equivalent 
of rath, and it is frequently found in this sense in the 
Irish annals. Its primary meaning seems to have 
been an enclosure, a place fenced round, where it 
is identical with the Irish and Gaelic balla, and the 
Manx boayl. All these words are possibly derived 
from the late Latin ballivum. When St. Mochna 
founded his monastery, in the seventh century, he 
is said to have enclosed it with a balla. The 
following relating to the balla is from a tract 
printed in the appendix to *The Tribes and 
Customs of the Hy Fiach-ruich ' : ' These countries 
were sub-divided into townlands, which were called 
ballys . . . and each townland was divided into 
quarters . . . and now the lands are generally set 
and let, not by the measure of acres, but by the 
name of quarters ... a quarter being the fourth 
part of a townland. ... I have been sometimes 
perplexed to know how many acres a quarter con- 
tains, but I have learned it is an uncertain 
measure, and anciently proportioned only by guess, 
or according to the bigness of the townlands where- 
of it was a parcel.'* Balla has quite lost its 
meaning of a definite division corresponding with 
♦ Miscellany of Celtic Society, p. 49. 

II — 2 



1 64 IDanx T^UtB'Wiecm^m. 

the treen, and is now prefixed to the name of 
nearly every farm in the island, without regard to 
its size. It is therefore by far the commonest 
local term in the Isle of Man, as it is in Ireland. 
It should be mentioned that in three ireen names 
in the parish of Braddan it seems to have entered 
into composition with the (O.N.) dalr, as Baldall 
Brew (Balla Dalr Vriew or Brew), ' Judge's Dale 
Farm,* or 'Brew's Dale Farm,' and Baldall 
Christe, in 1511, Baldal Christory, ' Chris- 
tory's Dale Farm.' In the same district there is 
a farm called Baldalregnylt, ' Reginald's Dale 
Farm,' in 1511, but now Ballaregnilt, 'Re- 
ginald's Farm.' [(I) Ballybane, (G) Bally- 
mellan.] 

Boayl (M), * a place.' As in Boal-na-Muck, * Place of 
the Pig/ This word is cognate with balla (see 
above). 

Lieh (M), * a half.' As in Leakerroo, * Half Quarter.' 
In the Isle of Man it is only found as a prefix in 
connection with kerroo. [(I) Laharran.] 

Kerroo (M), 'a quarter.' As in Kerroo-Garroo, 
* Rough Quarter.' In land measurement in the 
Isle of Man the kerroo is invariably used for the 
fourth part of a balla or treen, and includes the 
cultivated land only within it. Thus the Manx 
speak of a kerroo-valley, or, in English, a quarter- 
land, which is a further proof of the identity of the 
ireen and balla; but, when an epithet is affixed to 
kerroo, valley is dropped. The size of the kerroo of 
course varies with that of the treen, though quarter- 
lands in the same treen are also of different sizes ; 



Bam^« 0f VttrteimoE of Canlr* 165 

being, as a rule, from sixty to eighty acres, except 
in the parish of Lonan, where they are somewhat 
larger. The original size of the kerroo-valUy #as 
probably from fifty to sixty acres, which is about the 
extent of land which one plough could turn up in 
the course of a year. The treens or ballas there- 
fore vary from 240 to 320 acres, though there are 
some exceptional ones either much larger or 
much smaller. There are in the Island 6391^^ 
quarterlands of Lord's lands and 169 treens, making 
rather less than four quarterlands to a treen. There 
are also 99 J quarterlands which belonged to the dis- 
solved Monastery at Rushen, called Thalloo-ab, or 
'Abbey-land/ and 32J quarterlands belonging to 
the various baronies. The abbey and barons' lands 
were not divided into treens. [(I) Carrow-keeL, 
(G) Carruchan.] 



CHAPTER III. 



DISTINCTIVE AFFIXES. 



^ 



Part /. — Substantives. 

The following words are found as Affixes, as well 

as Prefixes and Simple Names : 

Baare, in Creg-y-vaare, ' Crag of the Summit.' 

Beinn, in Lhiattee-ny-Beinnee, ' Side of the Sum- 
mits/ and GoB-NY-VEiNNY, ' Point of the Summits.' 

Slieau, in Kioneslieau, * Mountain End ;' Cooil- 
SLIEAU, ' Mountain Nook ;' Folieu (Fo-yn-hlieau), 
' Under the Mountain ;' Gob-ny-daa-Slieau, 
'Point of the Two Mountains,;' Balla-Killey- 
Clieu, * Farm of the Church Hill,* where there is 
a treen chapel. 

Aeree or eary, in Ballirey, formerly Balleary, ' Moor 
Farm ;' Cronkairey, ' Moor Hill ;' Blockeary (?), 
Ballaneary (yn-eafy)y * Farm of the Moor.' 

Ard, in Ballanard (yn-ard), and Ballanahard, 
* Farm of the Height ;* Kerroo-na-ard, ' Quarter 
of the Height.' Cashtal-yn-ard, ' Castle of 
the Height ;' and Cashtal-yn-ard is the remains 
of a stone circle and stone cists, with avenues, 



Sttlrsfantilaal Hffix^A, 167 

standing on the top of a rounded hill called ' The 
Ard/ which is about 500 feet above the sea ; the 
length of the remains is, from east to west, 105 
feet, breadth at west end 50 feet, at east end 40 
feet. This place is also called Cashtal Ree 
GoREE, but this is quite a modem name. 

Rhen, in Mullen-Reneash, 'Waterfall Ridge Mill,' and 
Gob-y-Rheynn, * Point of the Ridge or Division.' 

Cronk, in Kerroo-ny-Gronk, * Quarter of the Hill ;' 
Keeill Cronk, ' Church Hill ;' Creg-ny-Crock, 
' Crag of the Hill,' and probably in Ballacroak, 

* Hill Farm.' This farm is on a hill where there 
are two fine specimens of chambered barrows. 

Cruink, the plural, is found in Ballacruink and 
Ballacrink, ' Hills' Farm,' and probably in Glen- 
drink and Glentrunk, * Hills' Glen.' C5n Balla- 
crink, in Onchan, there are the remains of a stone 
circle and of a tumulus. 

Craig and Creg, in Balnycraig (balla-ny), ' Farm of the 
Crag ;' ' Geayllin-ny-Creggyn, ' Shoulder of the 
Crags ;' Gob-ny-Creg, * Point of the Crag,' and 
Boirane-creg-lieh (Iheeah), 'Rocky Ground 
of the Grey Crag.* 

Creggyn, the plural, in Alt-ny-Creggan (creggyn), 

* Mountain Stream of the Crags.' Boulders abound 
in and about the course of the stream. 

Creggatty in Ballacreggan, ' Rocky Hillock Farm.' 
On the farm of this name in the parish of Rushen 
are the ' Giants' quoiting stones,' probably the 
remains of a megalithic monument. 

Liargagh, in Ballerghy, or Ballarghey, 'Slope 
Farm.' This is a very common name. In Cronk- 



1 68 niattx ^toi^-namttf* 

ny-Lherghy, *Hill of the Slope;* Dreem-ny- 

Lherghy, 'Back of the Slope;' Balnalhergy 

(balla-ny), * Farm of the Slope.' 
Broogh, in Magher-y-Broogh, ' Field of the Brow.' 
Eanifty in Kione-ny-Henin, * End of the Precipice.' 

There are the remains of a stone circle, and also 

of hut dwellings, near this cliff. 
Vghtagh, probably in Ballanahoughty, * Farm of the 

Acclivity.' 
Dreeym, in Laggan-y-dromma, 'Little hollow of the 

(Hill-)back ;' Baldromma, ' (Hill-)back Farm;' 

Baldromma heose, * Upper (Hill-)back Farm ;' 

Baldromma heis, ' Lower (Hill-)back Farm ;' 

Keill-Pheric-a-Drumma {y Dromney), ' Patrick's 

Church of the (Hill-)back.' 
Kione, in Eary-ny-Kione, ' Moor of the End (of the 

Hill) ;' GoB-NY- KIONE, ' Point of the Head,' where 

kione is a promontory. 
King, the plural, in Port-ny-ding, ' Port of the Heads.' 
Cronwge (I), in Glione Crammag, ' Little Cliff Glen.' 
Reeasty in Awin-ny-reeast, 'River of the Waste;' 

Lhoob-y-reeast, ' GuUey of the Waste.' 
Garee, in Ballagaree, ' Stony Land Farm ;' Kione-ny- 

Garee, 'End of the Stony Land;' Close-ny- 

Garey, ' Close of the Stony Land.' 
Garey, in Ballagarey, ' Garden Farm.' 
Clagh, in Slieu-ny-Clogh, ' Hill of the Stone,' near St. 

Mark's, where there is a huge granite boulder ; in 

Kerroo-ny-clough, ' Quarter of the Stone ;' Cly- 

CLOUGH, 'Stone Fence;' Lhergy-clagh- Willy, 

' Willy's Stone Slope.' 
Rheyn, in Gob-y-rheynn, ' Point of the Division.' 



Glifme, in Ballaglionney, Ballalonney and Balla- 
LONNA, 'Glen Farm;' and Braid-ny-Glionney, 
' Gorge of the Glen.' 

Lheeanee, in Ballalheaney, ' Meadow Farm ;' Close- 
ny-Lheaney, ' Close of the Meadow.' 

Lheeanag, in Cronk-y-leannag, ' Hill of the Little 
Meadow.' 

Lag, in Ballalag, * Hollow Farm ;' Rhullick-y-lagg- 
SHLiGGAGH, 'Graveyard of the Shelly Hollow;' — 
this is the Manx name of the large stone circle 
on the Mull. 

Lig, the plural, in Ballalig and Ballig, ' Hollows' 
Farm.' On Ballalig, in the parish of Braddan, 
there is a tumulus, where urns have been found. 

Barney, in Ballaberna and Ballabenna, ' Gap Farm ;' 
and possibly in Chibbyr-y-vainnagh, ' Well of the 
Gap.' 

Coan, in Ballagawne, formerly Ballacoan, * Valley 
Farm ;' Belegawn {BeaUy-coan), * Mouth of the 
Valley ;' Purt-ny-coan, ' Port of the Valley ;' and 
possibly in Ballacoine and Ballacoyne, * Valley 
Farm.' 

Cooil, in Ballacooiley, *Nook Farm;' Crot-ny- 
cooiLLEY, ' Croft of the Nook.' 

Awin, in Cassnahowin (ny-awin), * Foot of the River;' 
Balnahowin, ' Farm of the River ;' Ballahowin, 
' River Farm ;' Mullenlawne (in 1602 Mullin- 
ny-hawin), 'Mill of the River;' Lag-ny-awin, 
' Hollow of the River ;* Billowne, formerly Be- 
lowne, (Beeal), ' River Mouth,' and Liargey-ny- 
HOUNE, ' Slope of the River.' There is a stone 
circle at Billowne. 



Strooan, ' Stream or Current,' in Ballastrooan, ' Stream 
Farm;' Cass-ny-strooan, * Foot of the Stream;* 
Cass-stroan/ Stream Foot;' Bvltroah (Bwoaillee), 
'Stream Fold,' where the stream flows past a 
cattle-fold; Gob-ny-strona, 'Point of the Current,' 
at the end of Maughold Head, where the tides meet. 

Eos, in Rheneas or Rhenas, ' Waterfall Ridge ;* 
Mullen Rheneash, ' Waterfall Ridge Mill.' 

Alt, plural altyn, in Glione Auldyn and Glen Altyn, 
' Mountain Streams' Glen.' 

A a, a, ah, in Mullen Doway (obs.) (doo-a), ' Black Ford 
Mill,' now Union Mills, on the river Doo. 

Logh, in Cashtal-logh, ' Lake Castle ;' Ballalough, 
* Lake Farm ; Dollough Moar (doo), ' Big Black 
Lake,' and Dollough Beg, ' Little Black Lake ;' 
Glenlough, * Lake Glen.' All these Loghs are 
either drained or have become very diminutive. 

Loughan, in Knock- a-loughan (y), * Hill of the Pond.' 

Currach, in Glencorragh, ' Bog Glen.' 

Moainee, in Ballamona, ' Turbary Farm ;' Croit-ny- 
MoNA, * Croft of the Turbary;' Cly-na-mona, 
' Hedge of the Turbary ;' Gullet Creeagh 
Moainee, ' Turbary Stack Gullet ;' Cronk-ne- 
MONA, ' Hill of the Turbary.' 

Ros (see Doubtful Names), in Pulrose, formerly Pooyl- 
ROiSH, * Wood Pool.' 

Carrick, in Baie-ny-carrickey, * Bay of the Rocks.' 

Boc, in Sandwick Boe, ' Sandcreek Cow,' where Boc is 
a large rock. 

Beeal, in Ooig-ny-veeal, ' Cave of the Entrance.' 

Elian, in Close-an-ellan, 'Close of the Island;' 
Ballellin, formerly Ballellan, * Island Farm ;' 



Barna-Ellan-renny, * Ferns' Island Gap/ or 

' Ferny Island Gap/ 
Elian in these names does not refer to an island 

in the sea, but to patches of cultivated land which 

were formerly surrounded by swamps, but are now 

for the most part drained. 
Innis, in Purt-ny-Hinshey, * Port of the Island,' as 

Peel was sometimes called formerly. 
Purt, in B ALLAFURT, * Port Farm ;' Crot-y-furt-Callow, 

' Callow's Port Croft;' Gob-ny-Port-Moar, ' Point 

of the Big Port.' 
Traie, in Kentraugh, formerly Kentraie {kione-traie), 

' Shore End.' This property abuts on the shore. 

In Lag-ny-Traie, ' Hollow of the shore ;' Magher- 

y-Traie, ' Field of the Shore.' 
Bun, or Bunt, in Ballabunt, formerly Balnybunt, 

* Farm of the End,' or ' End Farm.' This farm is 
on the boundary between the parishes of Braddan 
and Marown. Bunt is used in colloquial Scotch 
for the tail or end of anything. 

Balla, in Shenvalla, * Old Farm,' and Corvalley, 

' Pleasant Farm.' 
Kerroo, in Ballakerroo, * Quarter Farm.' 
Lieh, in Ballie, ' Half Farm.' 
Magher, in Balla vagher, ' Field Farm.' 
Bwoaillee, in Arduailey, ' High Fold ;' and its plural, 
Bwoailtyn, in Braid-ny-Boshen, ' Upland of the 

Folds;* and Lag-y-votchin, ' Hollow of the Folds.' 
Faaie, in Dreemfaaie, ' Shoulder of the Flat' 
Carlane (see Doubtful Names), in Stroan-ny-Carlane, 

* Stream of the Sheep-fold.* 

Lane, in Kian-ny-Lane, • End of the Trench.' 



172 Manx fj^lat^rVisinvisu 

Dhoon, in Baldoon, * Close Farm.' 

Close, in Bastin's Close, Island Close. 

Cleiy or CUigh, in Mwyillin-ny-Cleiy, ' Mill of the 
Hedge.' This is one of the little mills which 
were formerly used for crushing gorse. In 
Balnyclybane, ' Farm of the White Hedge ;' 
Ballaclybane, * White Hedge Farm.' 

Croa, in Ballagroa, ' Pen (or Fold) Farm.' 

Injetg, in Ballinjague, ' Paddock Farm.' 

Croit, in Cooil Croft, ' Croft Nook.' 

Keeill, in numerous farms called Ballakilly, * Church 
Farm,' or * Cell Farm.* These are invariably 
found near the sites of ancient keeills, or modern 
churches, which were usually built on old sacred 
sites. In Ballakilleyclieu, 'Church Hill Farm;' 
Ballacurnkeil, formerly Ballacarn - y- Keil, 
* Cairn of the Church Farm;' Glion-y-Killey, 
'Glen of the Church;' Lag-ny-Keilley, * Hollow 
of the Church,' also probably in Ballagilley. 
An old burial-ground was discovered on this pro- 
perty some years ago. At Lag-ny-KeilleY, at 
the foot of the precipitous west side of Cronk-ny- 
arrey-Lhaa, there are the remains of an old 
chapel, St. Luke's (see post), surrounded by a 
wall about two feet high. Within this enclosure, 
according to tradition, are the graves of the early 
Manx kings. Lag-ny-Keeilley is the name of 
the little glen close by, which divides the parishes 
of Patrick and Rushen. 

Cabbal, in Cregacable (y-Cabbal), 'Crag of the 
Chapel ;' and Magher Cabbal, * Chapel Field,' 
near Killabragga. 



Sttteianitlral ftflTixs^. 173 

Rutllic, in Magher-y-Ruillic, ' Field of the Grave- 
yard/ where there are the remains of a Keeill, of 
a well, and near the well a large flat block of 
granite, having in its centre a cavity, which may 
have formed the socket of a cross. In Cabbal 
RuLLiCKY, * Graveyard Chapel ;* and Shen Rol- 
lick, ' Old Graveyard.* 
Oaie, in Cronk-ny-Hey, ' Hill of the Grave.* 
Rhaa, in Lhergy Rhaa, ^Rhaa Slope,' where raa, 

' fort,* is the name of the farm. 
Cashtal, in Balley-Cashtal, which is now translated 
into English, and called ' Castletown.' It was so 
called from its famous castle, Rushen. In Gob- 
yn-Cashtal, ' Point of the Castle,' and in the 
curious combination Fort Caishtal. This is an 
ancient fortified earthwork near the Cloven Stones. 
All the Manx cashtals, with the exception of those 
of Rushen and Peel, are ancient earthworks. 
Soalt, in Knock-e-tholt (y), ' Hill of the Barn.' 
Mwyllin is very common in Ballawyllin, in one 
case corrupted into Ballawoolin, *Mill Farm.* 
It is found also in Rhenwillen, ' Mill Ridge ;* 
where there is a windmill. Windmills are now 
very uncommon in the Isle of Man. They were 
never, however, nearly as numerous as watermills. 
In Cronk-ny-Mwyllin, ' Hill of the Mill;' Port-y- 
VuLLEN, and Puirt-ny-Mwyllin, * Port of the 
Mill ;' Bolee Willin (bwoaillee), ' Mill Fold.' 
Droghad, in Kionedroghad, * Bridge End.' 
Lane (see Doubtful Names), in Ballalhane, * Lhen- 
trench Farm ;' and Kian-ny-Lhane, ' End of the 
Lhen-trench.' 



174 Manx fj^lefSt'tiam^B. 

Crosh, in Ballacrosha and Ballacross, ' Cross Farm.' 
Ballacrosha is the name of the farm upon which 
the village of Ballaugh stands, where, till recently, 
there was a cross inscribed with runes. 

Cam, in Ballacurnekiel, formerly Ballacarn-y-keil 
{keilley), * Cairn of the Cell (or Church) Farm ;' and 
in the adjoining farms Ballacurnekiel-moar, 
* Big Cairn of the Cell Farm ; andBALLACURNEKiEL- 
beg, ' Little Cairn of the Cell Farm.* There was 
formerly a keeill on Ballacurnekiel, but now all 
that is left of it is a cairn of stones. The name 
of the mountain on which these farms lie is spelled 
Slieau Curn or Slieau Cairn, formerly Slieau 
Carn, * Cairn Mountain.' 

Camancy originally a diminutive of carn, is now used 
with precisely the same meaning. It is found in 
Ballacarnane, * Cairn Farm,* and Ballacarnane, 
beg, ' Little Cairn Farm.' There are the remains of 
a keeilly with its burying ground, on this farm. 

Bayr, in Ballavarvane, Ballavarane and Balla- 
VARRAN, ' White Road Farm ;' also in Cashtall-y- 
VARE-VANE,' Castle of the White Road,*where there 
are the remains of an earthwork. All these are 
corruptions of bayr-vane ; in Ballavare, Bal- 
lavair and Ballavear, / Road Farm;' Beale- 
VAYR (y), ' Entrance of the Road ;' Crot-y-vear, 
'Croft of the Road;' and probably in Gob-ny- -_ 

Garvane, ' Point of the White Road.' f 

Traie, possibly in Contrary Head, contrary being sup- 1 

posed to be a corruption of kione'traie^ ' Shore End.' 
Lann, * an enclosure,' in Stroan-ny-Carlane, ' Stream } 

of the Sheep-fold;' and The Carlane, or The \ 



KiRLANE {keyrr), * The Sheep-fold.' This place is 
near the mouth of the Lhen ditch, and the Stroan is 
a small stream, which flows into the ditch ; so it is 
possible that the termination lane has something 
to do with this ditch ; but, if so, the explanation 
of the prefix becomes more difficult. 

Chibber, in Lag-ny-chibbyr, * Hollow of the Well ;* 
and in Gara-na-Chibberaugh, * Garden of the 
Wells;' Chibberaugh being possibly intended for 
Chibberaghyn, the plural of Chibber. 
The following are found as affixes only : 

Glaisey glais OTglas (I), * a small stream, a brook,' is not 
found in our dictionaries, and is not known 
colloquially, but it almost certainly is the affix in 
the name of the largest town in the Island, 
Douglas, or, as it is called by Manx-speaking 
people, DooLiSH. Joyce writes : * Douglas is very 
common, both as a river and townland designation 
all over the country, and it is also well known in 
Scotland ; its Irish form is Dubhghlaise, black 
stream.'* We may therefore translate Douglas, 
* black stream ;' the name was probably originally 
Balladouglas ; but no trace of this can be found. 
Douglas Head is called Kione Doolish by the 
Manx, who would soften glaish into lish, as they do 
glass into fosA {see post). The popular interpreta- 
tion of the name is that it is a compound of the 
names of the two rivers, Doo and Glass, which 
unite above the town, but, apart from other 
difficulties, ' black gray ' is not a probable name. 

Lhing (G), Lhingey (C) (F), * a pool ;' in Ballaling, 
* Joyce, 4th Ed., p. 456. 



176 iBanx Ij^lHt^rT^i^tntB. 

' Pool Farm ;' and Aah-ny-lingey, * Ford of the 
Pool.' [(I) Dublin.] 
Creagh (F), 'a stack;' in G«/fo^CHREAGH-MoAINEE, 

* Turbary Stack Gullet ;' and Lough-ny-greeagh, 

* Lake of the Stack ;' the stack being of peat turves. 
Cassan (M), * a path ;' in Gob-ny-cassan, ' Point of the 

Path.' [(I) Ardnagassan.] 

Laagh (F), 'mire, mud, slush;' as in Bal-ny-laghey, 
now Ballaugh, 'Town of the Mire;' as the 
village is called which has transferred its name 
to the parish. Vicar-General Wilks, Rector of 
Ballaugh from 1771-77, explained this name, in 
answer to a query of Mr. Pennant's, as being ' from 
y® Manx: Bal-ny-laghey, which lagh^ signifies 
mire or mud, where w**^ this Parish formerly 
abounded from y® number of quags or mires in y® 
E. side thereof.' In 1595, it is found written 
Ballalough, 'Lake-town;' but the Rector's 
derivation is probably the correct one. The 
greater part of the Parish was formerly occupied, 
by the then undrained Curragh; and, even since 
the Lhen trench has been made, there is a good 
deal of marshy land at the eastern end of the 
parish. [(I) Gortnalahagh.] 

Farraw^, 'a spring, a fountain;' in Ballanarran, 'Spring 
farm ' (there is a spring by the farm), and in Slieau- 
ny-freoghane, a map maker's error for Slieau- 
ny-farrane, * Hill of the Spring.' There is a spring 
which gushes out on the side of this hill, and, 
as its name is always pronounced Farrane, not 
Freoghane, ' bilberry,' by the Manx people, there 
can be little doubt but that the derivation given is 



$tttelan!firal Rfffx^s^ 177 

the proper one. It seems probable that the name 
Cregg-yn-arran or Creg-y-arran, may mean the 
* Rock of the Spring,' as the initial / is frequently 
elided in Manx; and moreover the only other 
possible interpretation, ' Rock of the bread,' is 
not in any way appropriate. 

Cuilleig (F), * a nook ;' a diminutive of cooil originally, 
in Chleig-ny-cuilleig, ' Hedge of the nook,' 

Boalley (M), a wall ; probably in Scrahvorley, * Sod 
wall or fence.' 

Spuir (K), *a spur;' in Ballaspur, * Spur farm;' 
possibly from some pointed rock on the farm. 
Joyce thinks it probable that the corresponding 
word, spoTy in Irish was borrowed from English. 
[(I) Knockaspur.] 

Keilleig (C) (F), ' an enclosure belonging to a church or 
chapel ;' probably originally a diminutive of keeill^ 
in Cronk-y-keilleig, * Hill of the church enclo- 
sure.' There are the remains of a heeill^ and its 
little graveyard at this spot. 

Cott, coit, ' a cott or cottage built on a croitt ' (K). It 
would seem, however, to be more probably simply a 
corruption of the English word. It is found only in 
Ballahott, formerly Ballacott, * Cottage farm.' 

Keim (Gi), ' a stile ;' in Magher-y-keim, ' Field of the 
stile.' 

Relating to the Sea. 

Roayrt(F), ' spring tide ;' in Carrick Roayrt, * Spring- 
tide Rock.' This rock is only covered completely 
at spring tides. 

12 



1 78 Mattx T^latt'Viam^tu 

Kesh (C) (F), Kiesh (K), 'froth, foam;' in Balla Kesh, 
* Foam Farm.' This farm is by the sea, and in gales 
the foam is blown up upon it. Kesh, though not 
found in Irish or Gaelic, is used in colloquial Manx. 

Ushtey (M), * water;' in Gob-yn-Ushtey, 'Point 
of the Water.' This is a headland in the sea. 
[(I) Ballinisha, (G) Benaskie.] 

Sloat (M), * a small pool, or low water,' always by the 
sea ; in Gob-ny-Sloat, ' Point of the Low Water ;' 
and Traie-ny-Sloat, ' Strand of the Little Pool.' 
The Irish slod means * a little standing water.' 

From Various Circumstances. 
There are a number of affixes which may be grouped as 

relating, (a) to battles or other events ; (6) to memorials 

of the dead ; (c) to supposed resemblances ; and {d) to 

customs, legends, and superstitions. 

Considering that the Isle of Man has been the scene 

of numerous battles and skirmishes, the names which 

record their occurrence are singularly few. 

Caggey (M), ' a war, a battle, a fight ;' in Magher-y- 
Caggey, ' Field of the Battle.' Forty years ago 
this field at Ballanard in the parish of Onchan con- 
tained a complete semi-circular entrenchment, but 
it has since then been almost entirely levelled. 

Troddan. This word is not given by Kelly in the 
Triglot, or by Cregeen. The Rev. W. Gill, in the 
Manx Society's Dictionary, states that it means 
*the haunt of cattle, a place of pasture.' The 
Rev. W. FitzSimmons, who revised this portion of 
the dictionary, rightly looks with suspicion on this 
statement, and adds : * I am very doubtful as to 



iSttlneifanfttral Hffixt». 179 

this article. Troddan is a quarrel — a contest.' 
O'Reilly gives trodan, 'a quarrel.' Joyce says: 

* Trodan signifies " a quarrel ;" and from this word 
we have the names of two places in Armagh.'* 
We may, therefore, translate Knock- y-Troddan, 

* Hill of the Contest.' This fortification, now 
known as Castle Ward, is partly natural and 
partly artificial, and, though popularly called * The 
Danish Camp,' it is almost certainly of neolithic 
origin. It is just opposite Magher-y-Caggey, 
mentioned above, being about 500 yards from it, 
and on the other side of the river Glass. 
[(I) Carricktroddan, (G) Drumtroddan.j 

Fuill (F), ' blood ;' in Traie-ny-Fuilley, ' Strand of 
the Blood ;' and Magher-a-Fuill, ' Field of the 
Blood.' This possibly commemorates some bloody 
fight of days long past. 

Cragh (F), * carnage, slaughter, destruction, spoil, prey ;' 
in Keeill Cragh, 'Slaughter Cell.' This place 
may possibly have been the scene of some combat. 

Cliwe (F), ' a sword ;' in Cronk-y-Cliwe, * Hill of the 
Sword.' This is a tumulus close by the site of 
the battle of Santwat, which was an internecine 
struggle between the Manx of the North and of 
the South in 1098, and the name probably com- 
memorates the finding of a sword, which was 
buried with some warrior, who had fought on that 
occasion. 

Armyn (plural of arm), * arms ;' in Cronk Armyn, 

* Arms' Hill,' a tumulus close by Cronk- y-Cliwe, 
would seem to commemorate a similar discovery. 

* Joyce, Irish Names of Places, 2nd ed., p. 431. 

12 — 2 



t8o nanx !piiit^-Amtr^ 

Craue (F), ' a bone;' in Stroan-ny-Craue, 'The Stream 
of the Bone.' This stream flows through the site 
of the battle of Scaccafell or Skyehill, which 
was fought in 1077, between Godred Crovan and 
the Manx; also in Ballagraue, 'Bone Farm/ 
and Lhergy Graue, ' Bone Slope.' On Lhergy 
Graue is St. Patrick's Well, where, according to 
the legend, the Saint's horse fell. 

Marroo, the past participle of dy marroo, ' to kill,* is used 
substantively in Cronk-y-Marroo, 'Hill of the 
Dead (Man),' in the parish of Lonan, and Cronk- 
ny-Merriu, ' Hill of the Dead (Men),' in the 
parish of Santon. Cronk-ny-Merriu is forty 
yards long, twenty yards broad, and twelve yards 
high. The bodies of those who were killed in 
battle were interred in huge tumuli, close to where 
they fought. Cronk-y-Marroo and Cronk-ny- 
Merriu are two of the most important of these. 

Dooiney (M), 'a man;' in Cronk-e-Dooiney, 'Man's 
Hill,' and Knock-e-Dooiney, with the same mean- 
ing. Both these hillocks are tumuli, where human 
remains have doubtless been discovered. 

Asnu (K), asney (C) (F), ' a rib ;' probably in Balla- 
hasney, ' Rib Farm ;* this name may also denote 
a similar discovery to that in Cronk and Knock-e- 
Dooiney. 

Koir (F), ' a box, or chest ;' in Cronk Koir, * Chest 
Hill.' This tumulus has now disappeared, having 
been cut through by a road. It would seem pro- 
bable from the name that, when this road was 
made, a sepulchral urn, which the Manx people 
call a Koify was found in the tumulus. 



Sutefanlttral Wiffbam. i8i 

Undin, 'a foundation;' in Chibber Undin, * Founda- 
tion Well ;' in the parish of Malew, which is close 
to an ancient keeilL There are only the founda- 
tions of this keeill left, which show it to have been 
twenty-one feet long by twelve feet broad. The 
water of this well is supposed to have curative 
properties. The patients who came to it, took a 
mouthful of water, retaining it in their mouths 
till they had twice walked round the well. They 
then took a piece of cloth from a garment which 
they had worn, wetted it with the water from 
the well, and hung it on the hawthorn-tree which 
grew there. When the cloth had rotted away, 
the cure was supposed to be effected. 
Real or fancied resemblance to various parts of the 

human body, or to well-known animate or artificial 

objects, has originated various topographical names. 

Eddin (F), 'face, front;' in Ballaneddin, 'Face 
Farm,' the name of a farm on the slope of Slieau 
VoLLY in Ballaugh, the contour of which is sup- 
posed to be like a human face. 

Mollee (F), * eyebrow ;' in Ballavolly, * Eyebrow 
Farm,' which is on a higher part of Slieau 
Volley, 'Eyebrow Hill,' than Ballaneddin. 
The point of the same hill is called Gob-y-Volley, 
' Point of the Eyebrow.' There is also an Ard- 
VOLLEY, ' Eyebrow Height,* in the parish of Malew. 

Bamagh (F), ' a limpet, a common kind of shell-fish, 
which adheres to rock ; it is also called flitter in 
English, in this Island ' (C) ; Baamagh^ ' a limpet 
or flitter' (K). The natives of the parish of 
Michael will tell you that the farm called Barnagh 



1 82 Manx !piac]^-Aam^ 

JiARG, formerly Balla Barnagh Jiarg, 'Red 
Limpet Farm,' was so-called from the fact that 
its fields are spotted over with tumuli, which lie 
on the surface like flitters on a rock. This is such 
an apt description of the actual appearance of the 
farm, that it is most probably the correct derivation. 
It cannot be derived from Barney, *a gap,' as 
there are no gaps on the farm. 
Goggan (F), *a noggin;' in Kione-y-ghoggan, 'Head 
of th^ Noggin,' probably from a fancied resem- 
blance to the small wooden vessel so-called. 
Chreel (Gi), * a dorser of straw, a basket,' used of the 
deep basket carried by fisherwomen ; in Creg-y- 
Chreel, ' Rock of the Creel,' probably also so- 
called from a resemblance. 
Cruii (I), ' a harp ;' possibly in Loughcroute, * Harp 
Lake.' It is just possible that this pond, which 
was once much larger, may have had formerly a 
harp-like contour. Philips in his Prayer-book, 
written about 1628, has the word kruit for harp, 
but it is not found in later Manx. 
There are also a few names which originate from 
customs. The most important of these is that of 
keeping ' Watch and Ward,' which from the time of 
the earliest recorded Statute in 1417 was constantly 
enjoined on the inhabitants under severe penalties in 
the event of failure. In the military orders in 1594 
we find that ' Whereas the safe keeping of this Isle 
consisteth in the dutifuU carefuU observance of Watch 
and Ward . . . therefore be it ordained that all Watch 
and Ward be kept according to the Strict order of the 
Law, and that none be sent thither but such as are of 



$u60lanittial Sfflxieff. 183 

Discretion, and able to deserve to be carefull; and 
that the night watch shall come at Sun-setting, and 
shall not depart before the Sun-rising, and that the 
Day Watch shall come at the Sun-rising, and not 
depart before the Sun-setting.'* There was a warden 
in each parish, who was responsible for the proper 
keeping both of the day and night watch. His com- 
mission, which was given by the Governor of the 
Island, ran as follows : * I do hereby nominate, con- 
stitute, and appoint ... to be y® warden of y* night 
and day watches within y* parish of. . . . Willing and 
hereby requiring all persons whbm it may concern to 
take notice hereof and to yield their obedience there 
unto upon pain of sore punishment as by the Lawes 
of this Isle and as they will answer the contrary.* 
That these duties were strictly enforced is clear from 
the numerous fines for their non-observance which are 
to be found in the records. * Watch and Ward ' was 
not finally discontinued till after 1815. 

From the lofty and precipitous Cronk-ny-arrey- 
Lhaa, ' Hill of the Day Watch,' in the south-west, to 
the little Cronk-ny-Arrey, * Hill of the Watch,' in the 
north-east, there is a constant series of watch hills, 
all of which are in sight of each other. When an 
enemy approached, beacons were at once lit on these 
hills, a practice which is probably commemorated in 
the fanciful name Archallagan (ard'ChioUagh-an), 
* High little hearth ;' chiollagh meaning ' the hearth, 
the fireside.' Archallagan is the name of a hill in 
the parish of Patrick, which is known to have been a 

* Statutes, VoL I. p. 65. 



1 84 Meatx !pfacit-Bami|». 

watch hill. (See also Elby, Wardfell in Scandi- 
navian section.) 
Sthowyr (M), *a staff, pole;* in Cronk-y-Sthowyr, 

* Hill of the Staff.* This is a modern name, there 
being a flagstaff on the top of this hill. 

Quackeryn is simply Quakers, with a Manx plural. It is 
found in Rhullick-ny-Quakeryn, * Graveyard of 
the Quakers.* The Quakers were much persecuted 
in the Isle of Man during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. They were not even permitted 
to bury in the parish churchyards. 

Slaynt (F), * health ;' in Chibber-y-Slaint, * Well of 
the Health.' This is one of the few wells whose 
waters, from a slight impregnation of iron, really 
had some medicinal qualities, though many others, 
as stated under Chibber, were frequented on account 
of their supposed sanative qualities. 
It was customary in the case of disputed boundaries 

to have a jury, who decided the question on the spot. 

Bing (F), * a jury ;' in Cronk-ny-Bing, * Hill of the 
the Jury,* probably commemorates one of these 
occasions. 

Leigh (F), *.a law,* in Ballaleigh, ' Law Farm,* close 
by, was a name probably bestowed for the same 
reason. 

Jaghee (F), ' tithe ;* in Creg-y-Jaghee, ' Rock of the 
Tithe,* records one of the places where the clergy's 
tithe of fish was paid. 

Oural (M), * a sacrifice ;' in Cabbal-yn-Oural-Losht, 

* Chapel of the Burnt Sacrifice.' This name records 
a circumstance which took place in the nineteenth 
century, but which, it is to be hoped, was never 



SttfeeJanftoal Rflfixm. 185 

customary in the Isle of Man. A farmer, who had 
lost a number of his sheep and cattle by murrain, 
burned a calf as a propitiatory offering to the 
Deity on this spot, where a chapel was afterwards 
built. Hence the name. 

Bashtey (M), * baptism ;' in Chibber-y- Vaster, ' Well 
of the Baptism.' This well, which is close by 
Keeill-Vael, in Maughold, was probably once 
made use of by the religious recluse who lived 
there to baptize those who were converted by 
him, as well as for his domestic purposes. 

Boght (M), * a poor person ;' in Croit-ny-Moght, * Croft 
of the Poor,' and Moanamoght (Moainee), * The 
Poor's Turbary.' It was a custom in each parish 
to reserve a small portion of arable land, and in 
parishes where there was bog a small portion of 
peat-land, the rent of which was divided among 
the poor. 

Ping (F), 'a penny;' in Croit Pingey, 'Penny Croft,' 
probably so named from the lord's rent of it being 
one penny. 
The copious legendary lore of the Isle of Man is 

scarcely represented in its local nomenclature. 

Stcyl (M), * a stool, a seat ;' in Stoyl-ny-Manannan, or 
correctly, Stoyl-e-Manannan, ' Manannan's Seat ;' 
this ' seat,' now usually called * Manannan's Chair,' 
was a cromlech. It has now disappeared. (For 
Manannan, see p. 131.) 

Foawr (M), ' a giant ;' in Meir-ny-Foawr, * Fingers of 
the Giant,' and Liaght-ny-Foawr, ' Grave of the 
Giant' The first of these names refers to the 
pillars of the stone avenue near Kew, and the 



1 36 Maxtx Ij^Uttt'ViBcmt^i, 



latter to the cromlech in the same place, which 
has now disappeared. The avenue doubtless led 
up to the cromlech. There is also Oaie-ny- 
FoAWR, 'Grave of the Giant/ which is a fine 
tumulus about forty-eight feet in diameter and 
four feet high, where bones have been discovered. 

Grian (M), ' the sun ;' in Carn-y-Greiney and Carny- 
GREiE, formerly Carn-y-Greiney, * Cairn of the 
Sun.' It seems possible that the names of these 
cairns, which are both on mountain tops, may be 
connected with ancient sun-worship. A memory 
of this cult would seem to have been perpetuated 
to comparatively modern times by the custom of 
going up to the mountain tops on the first Sunday 
in August. In 1732 certain of the parishioners of 
the parish of Lonan were presented and punished 
for indulging in this * superstitious and wicked 
custom.' [Coulnagreiney (Islay).] 
The solitary affix denoting position, which is to be 

found in Manx place-names, is jerrey (M), * the end,* in 

YiARN Jerrey, ' Iron End,' at Bradda, close to the Mine. 
The following names all commemorate death by 

drowning, a death unfortunately too common on the 

dangerous Manx coasts : 

Baase (M), ' death ;' in Traaie Vaaish, * Death Strand ;' 
PooYL Vaaish, ' Death Pool ;' and Balla Vaaish, 
' Death Farm.' These are all close together, and 
probably record the same occurrence. Pooyl 
Vaaish is well known on account of its dull black 
marble. The steps of St. Paul's Cathedral, in 
London, which were presented by Bishop Wilson, 
were made of it. 



Sttfeslaitf&al aifx^ 187 

Callin (K), * a body ;' in Gob-ny-Callin, ' Point of the 

Body.' 
Ineen (F), 'a girl, a daughter;' in Creg-ny-Ineen, 

* Rock of the Girl.' 

Thalhear (M),'^t2ii\or;\in Creg-ny-Inneen«thalhear, 

* Rock of the Tailor's Daughter.' Girls were 
drowned at both these places. 

Geay, *wind,' and taarnagh, 'thunder,' are the only 
atmospheric conditions recorded in Manx local 
names. 

Geay (F) is found in Ball-ny-Geay, *Farm of the 
Wind;' Creg-ny-Geay, 'Rock of the Wind;' 
Gob-NY-Gee, ' Point of the Wind ;' Carnageay, 
'Cairn of the Wind;' Beeal-feayn-y-Geay, 
' Wide Entrance of the Wind ;' and Chibber-y- 
Geay, ' Well of the Wind.' [(I) Ballynagee, (G) 
Barnagee.] 

Taarnagh (M), occurs only in Cooil Taarnagh, 

* Thunder Nook.' 

The two following appear to be simply poetical : 
Shee (F), 'peace;' in Port-e-Chee, or correctly, 
Purt-ny-Shee, 'Harbour of the Peace.' The 
last Duke of Athol, who was king of the Island, 
lived at Port-e-Chee while Castle Mona was 
being built for his reception. There is also 
Cronk-ny-Shee, ' Hill of the Peace.' It is just 
possible that this latter may record some treaty 
of peace, but Port-e-Chee is comparatively a 
modern name. 
Cree (F), ' a heart ;' in Chibber-ny-Cree-baney, ' Well 
of the White Heart;' Cronk-y-Cree, 'Hill of the 
Heart ;' and Ballacree, ' Heart Farm,' close by. 



1 88 Manx ^Iace-Aam«0* 

None of these have any pretensions to be shaped 
like a heart, so that the poetical application of 
the name seems the more probable. Ughtagh- 
breesh-my-Chree, 'Break my Heart Hill/ is a 
fanciful name given to a long steep hill in the 
parish of German. 

Relating to Offices and Trades, 

There are not many local names under these head- 
ings. 

Ree (M), * a king ;' probably in Slieau Ree, * King's 
Hill;' BoL Reiy, 'King's Fold;' Close Rei 
and Close Reigh, * King's Close ;' and Cashtal 
Ree Goree, ' King Orree's Castle.' This last, 
however, is merely a modern and fanciful name 
for the ruins on The Ard, in the parish of Maug- 
hold. [(I) MONAREE, (G) Ardree.] 
Chiarn (M), ' a lord,' signifying the lord of the island ; 
in Slieau Chiarn, * Lord's Hill ;' Keeill-yn- 
Chiarn, * Cell of the Lord ;' Close-y-Chiarn, 
* Close of the Lord ;' Chibber-y-Chiarn, * Well 
of the Lord;' and Magher-y-Chiarn, * Field of 
the Lord,' in the parish of Marown, on which is 
found the so-called ' St. Patrick's Chair,' in which 
the saint is said to have sat when he gave his 
blessing to the Manx. It is really the remains of 
a cromlech. The lower portion is a platform of 
stones and sods, seven feet six inches long by 
three feet six inches deep. On this platform 
stand two upright slabs of blue slate, on the west 
faces of which are crosses. There appears to have 
been another slab formerly. 



Sutalatttttral llffbae«. 189 

A spick (M), ' a bishop ;' in Ballaspick, and a cor- 
rupt Ballaspet, ' Bishop's Farm ;' and in CuR- 
RAGH-AN-AspiCK {yn)y 'Curragh of the Bishop.' 
This was the bishop's turbary in the Curragh at 
Ballaugh, and was the largest in the island. 
[(I) MoNASPiCK, (G) Ernespie.] 

Abb (M), *an abbot;' in Renab, 'Abbot's Ridge.' 
The abbot of Rushen was formerly a spiritual 
baron, and had great influence in the island. 

[(I) B ALLAN AB, (G) BaLNAB.] 

Saggyrt (M), 'a priest;* in Ballataggart, 'Priest's 
Farm.' This name may possibly be derived im- 
mediately from the personal name Taggart, which, 
however, is itself derived from sagyrt (see p. 72). 
[(I) Derrynasagart.] 

Pesson (M), 'a parson;' appears to be simply a cor- 
ruption of the English word. We have it in 
Ballaphesson, * Parson's Farm ;' and Croit-e- 
Phesson, * Parson's Croft.' These are both 
glebes. [(I) Ballyfaesoon.] 

Managh (M), ' a monk ;' in Close Managh, ' Monk's 
Close,* which, according to the Liber Vastarum of 
1606, was * ?i piece of ground of one day math of 
hay ;' Ballamanagh, ' Monk's Farm.' There 
are several Ballamanaghs, which are liable to 
be confounded with the more numerous Balla- 
MEENAGHs, * Middle Farms.' The following note 
concerning one of these abbey farms from the 
records is interesting as showing the peculiar 
customary rents : 

In 1692 the abbey tenants of Ballamanaugh, 
in Sulby, petitioned William, Earl of Derby, for a 



190 Maxtx pi0it^'1i$aattu 

reduction of rent, 'setting forth the great loss 
they had sustained by having the greatest part 
of their tenement washed away by the violence 
of Sulby river.* On inquiry ' it was found that a 
fourth part of the s^ tenem* of Ballamanaugh 
was taken away and wasted by the said river.' 
Therefore a fourth part of the customs was abated, 
which a later report tells us resulted in 'great 
inconvenience in making allowance of the fourth 
part of a goose or hen.' [(I) Ardnamanach.] 
A reference to index (3) will show that all these 

ecclesiastical names are of Latin origin. 

Druaight (M), (K), ' sorcery/ (C) ' a druid ;' in Cabbal 
Druiaght, ' Druid's Chapel.' This chapel, with a 
burial-ground, is close to Ballahutchin in the parish 
of Marown. It is on a slightly elevated circular 
mound, about forty-eight feet in diameter. The 
chapel itself is fifteen feet by twelve feet. Just 
enough remains of the walls to show its form. 
This name, however, is due to modern inventive- 
ness. If old it would certainly have been corrupted 
into some such form as the Irish Drui, (gen.) druad, 

in LOUGHNADROOA, Or GOBNADRUY. 

Briw (M), *a judge;' in Knock-e-Vriew, 'Judge's 
Hill;' and Ballavriew, 'Judge's Farm.' This 
latter is close to the site of the ancient southern 
Tynwald in Baldwin. 

Meoir, 'a moar,' the official appointed to collect the 
Lord's rents and fines ; in Ballavoar, ' Moar's 
Farm.' 

Crufire (I), ' a harper ;' probably in Glencrutchery, 
formerly Glencruttery, * Harper's Glen.' This 



word is not found in our dictionaries, which give 
claaseyder for a harper^ and claasagh for a harp. 
Bishop Philips, however, whose Manx Prayer- 
book was written about 1628, gives the word kruif 
for a harp. 
Gaaue (M), * a smith ;' in Ballagaue, * Smith's Farm ;' 
and perhaps in Ballagawne with the same mean- 
ing, which, however, is more probably directly 
from the personal name Gawne. [(I) Bally- 

GOWAN, (G) BaLNAGOWAN.] 

Seyir (M), * a carpenter ;' in Ballaseyr, * Carpenter's 
Farm/ and Ogig-ny-Seyr, 'Cave of the Car- 
penter.' [(I) Rathnaseer.] 

Fidder (M), * a weaver ;' in Thie-ny-Fidder, ' House 
of the Weaver.' Weaving, more especially of 
flannel, is still carried on in the country. 

Beaynee (K), * a reaper ;' in Close-ny-Veaynee, ' Close 
of the Reaper.' 
The two following, which scarcely come under the 

above headings, may be placed here. 

Joaree (M), *a stranger, an alien, a foreigner;' in 
Eairy Jora, formerly Eairy Joarey, ' Stranger's 
Moor,' and Ballajora, * Stranger's Farm.' In 
the Isle of Man formerly all who were not natives 
were called strangers or foreigners. 

Maarliagh (M), 'a thief;' in Glione Maarliagh, 
'Thief Glen.' It is not known how this name 
was acquired. 
The following names arise from industrial occupa- 
tions having been carried on at the places they 

indicate. 

Fasney (M), *a winnowing;' in Strooan Farsee, 



192 Wanx ^lat)e-Bam^«* 

* Winnowing Stream/ so called from the mill 
which it drives. 

Garmin (M), 'a weaver's beam;' in Ballagarman, 

* Weaver's Beam Farm.' The cottage industries 
have one by one disappeared during the present 
century. 

Tuar (I), 'a bleach-green;' in Ballathoar, formerly 
Ballnethoar, ' Bleach-green Farm,' and Glione- 
THOAR, ' Bleach-green Glen.* There were formerly 
Bleach-greens in both these localities. This word 
is not found in the Manx Dictionaries. [(I) Balli- 

TORE.] 

The following name has clearly been given because 
the creek so called could not admit a vessel larger than 
a boat : 
Port-e-Vada (jv), 'The Boat Port.' [(I) Rinawade, 

(G) Portavaddie.] 
Brott, 'broth' (K), in Chibberbrott, 'Broth Well,' 
would seem to be a fanciful name. 

From the Animal Kingdom. 

Tarroo (M), ' a bull ;' in Pooyl Therriu, ' Bulls' Pool.' 
[(I) Knockatarriv.] 

Boa (F), (gen. pi. ny baa), ' a cow ;' in Creg-ny-baa, 
' Rock of the Cows.' (This is found as a prefix, 
but only when used fancifully of a rock in the sea. 
See pp. 139, 145.) [(I) Aghaboe.] 

Maase (M), 'cattle;' in Ballavaase, 'Cattle Farm.' 
This farm in German is where the cattle were 
formerly kept which were slaughtered for the use 
of the garrison of Peel Castle ; and, probably, in 
Loughan-ny-Maskey, or Maidjey, ' Pond of the 



SufnsUatObal ftffixi^ 193 

Cattle.' It has now disappeared. No word cor- 
responding to moose is to be found in Irish or 
Gaelic. 
Muc (F), * a pig ;' in Boal-na-muck, * Place of the Pig * 

(pigsty). [(I) Slievenamuck.] 
MuC'Oill (F), * a sow;* in Cronk-ny-Mucaillyn, ' Hill 
of the Sows.' By an Act passed in 1629, which was 
not repealed till 1832, it was made felony to steal 
a pig. There was formerly a curious breed of wild 
pigs, called purrs, which is now extinct. 
Collogh (M), ' a stallion ;' of the male of most animals, 
but usually of a horse; in Cronk-Collach, 
' Stallion HiU.' 
Mohlt (M), (pi. muihli), * a wether ;' in Glen-y-Mult, 
* Glen of the Wethers,' and Creg-ny-Molt, ' Crag 
of the Wether.' [(I) Annamult.] 
Lheiy (M), 'a calf;' in Ballalheiy, *Calf Farm.' 

[(I) Clonleigh.] 
Colbagh (F), ' a heifer ;' in Close-ny-Cholbagh> ' Close 

of the Heifer.' [(I) Kilnacolpagh.] 
Keyrr or keyrrey (F), (pi. kirree), 'a sheep;' in GiAU- 
NY-KiRREE, * Creek of the Sheep,' where sheep 
were swum ashore; and Ballakeeragh, 'Sheep 
Farm.' In Bishop Phillip's Prayer-book sheep 
is geragh. [(I) Meenkeeragh.] 
Eayn (M), * a lamb ;' in Knock- y-nean (yn-ean), * Hill 

of the Lamb.' [(I) Gortanoon.] 
Feeaihy ' a deer ;' in Carrick-a-Feeaih, * Rock of the 
Deer,' in the parish of Lonan ; in Lheim Feeaih, 
* Deer's Leap,' at a bend of the narrow stream, 
just above the chapel at the head of Sulby Glen ; 
and in Curragh Feeheh, * Deer's Curragh,' in the 

13 



194 WBteaxx !piatJ%-Aam]^«* 



parish of German. It is said that the skeleton of 
an elk has been discovered there. 

Eagh, ' a horse ;' in Ballaneagh (yn-eagh), * Farm of 
the Horse/ [(I) Kineagh.] 

Cabbyl, 'a horse;' in Giau-ny-Cabbyl, 'Cove of the 
Horse' (this was the cove whence horses were 
swum across to the Calf Island) ; and in Sloc-na- 
Cabbyl-Screevagh, 'Pit of the Scabby Horse.' 
This word has also been adopted from the late 
Latin caballus by the Norsemen (see post). [(I) 

GORTNAGAPPUL.] 

Sharragh (M), 'a foal;' in Knocksharry, 'Foals' 
Hill ;' Chibbyr Harree, ' Foals' Well ;' Gob-ny- 
Sharrey, * Point of the Foals ;' and Ballacharre, 
' Foals' Farm.' The iVell-known Cairn Sharragh 
Vane, * White Foal Cairn/ is a huge block of 
white quartz, in the mountains near Druidale. 
It is now usually called ' The Sharragh Vedn.' 
[(G) Barsherry.] 

Moddey (M), (pi. voddee), *a dog;' in CooiL Voddy, 
'Dog Nook;' Cronk-y-voddey, ' Hill of the Dog, 
or Dogs ;' Ellan-y-Voddey, * Isle of the Dog, or 
Dogs,' in Ballaugh Curragh ; Carrick-y-Voddey, 
* Rock of the Dog, or Dogs ;' and in various 
Ballamoddas and Ballamoddeys, * Dog Farm.' 
On the farm of this name, in the parish of Malew, 
there is a granite font, which probably belonged 
to an adjoining keeilL [(I) Knockavaddy, (G) 
Blairmoddie.] 

QiMUian (M), * a whelp, cub,' is in local names applied 
to a low hill when near a higher one, as in Slieau 
Whuallian, 'Whelp's Hill,' near the loftier 
South Barrule. Down the steep northern side 



3Sulr0lanittraX Sffix^& 195 

of this mountain the witches who survived the 
ordeal of being ducked in the Curragh-glass are 
said to have been formerly rolled in barrels with 
spikes inside. This process would certainly kill 
them. There is also Creg-y-Whuallian, * Crag 
of the Whelp;' Lhergy - Awhallan (Aah- 
Whuallin), * Whelp's Ford Slope;' and Awhal- 
lan, ' Whelp's Ford.' 

Goayr (F), ' a goat ;' in Glione-ny-Goayr, * Glen of 
the Goat ;' and Close- y-Gaur, * Close of the 
Goat.' [(I) Gleuagower, (G) Ardgower.] 

Shynnagh (M), 'a fox;' in Cronk Shynnagh and 
Cronk Shannagh, *Fox Hill.' Foxes are now 
extinct in the island, but the records tell us that 
they formerly existed. [(I) Coolnashinnagh, (G) 

AUCHENSHINNAGH.] 

Conning (F), ' a rabbit ;' in Close Conning, * Rabbit 
Close ;* Croft-ny-Gonning, * Croft of the Rabbit ;' 
and Croit Gonning, 'Rabbit Croft.' [(I) 
Kylenagoneen.] 

Kayt (M), ' a cat ;' in Cronk- y-Catt, ' Hill of the 
Cat.' It is tempting to derive the name of this 
place from the Irish cath, * a battle,' especially as 
there is a tumulus on it ; but, if it were so, it could 
scarcely have acquired its present hard sound. 
[(I) Carnagat.] 

Raun (F), * a seal ;' in Carrigraun, * Seal Rock ;' and 
Gob-na-Roinna, * Point of the Seal.' Seals were 
formerly common off the Manx coast, but they 
are now rarely seen. [(I) Cairickroan.] 

Maggie (M), * a testicle ;' in Slieau Maggle, * Testicle 
Hill.' It was probably so-called because the 

13—2 



19^ tUitnx jj^Idtit'Ctamieft* 

shepherds brought the mountain lambs together 
there to be cut. 

Ushag, ' a bird ;' in Chibber-ny-Ushag, * Well of the 
Bird.' This word is common in colloquial use^ and 
is found in the Manx Bible. There is nothing 
corresponding to it in Irish or Gaelic. 

l/rfoy (M), 'an eagle '/ in Cronk Urley, 'Eagle Hill/ 
where a Tynwald Court was held in 1422. It is 
called Reneurling in the Statute Law Book, 
which would seem to be a corruption of Ren- 
Urley, * Eagle Ridge/ an appropriate name, as 
it is a long low hill. Eagles and falcons were 
formerly common in the Isle of Man, which the 
Stanleys had received from the English Crown 
for the nominal obligation of presenting a cast of 
falcons at each coronation. [(I) Craiganuller, 
(G) Benyellary.] 

Fceagh (M), * a raven ;' in Glione Feeagh, * Raven's 
Glen/ in Edd Feeagh Vooar, *Big Raven's 
Nest ;' and Crot-y-daa Fiag, * Croft of the Two 
Ravens.' (The dual in Manx is not plural.) [(I) 
Carrickaneagh, (G) Beanaveoch.] 

Eairkan (K), earkan (C), (F), * a lapwing / in Traie-ny- 
Earkan, * Strand of the Lapwing / and Park-ny- 
Earkan, * Park of the Lapwing.' This word is 
not now uded in colloquial Manx, but it is found 
in the Manx Bible. 

Fannag (F), 'a crow/ in Cronk-ny-Fannag, *The 
Hill of the Crow/ and Creggan-y-annag, * Rocky 
Hillock of the Crow.' Urns have been found 
in the tumulus on Cronk-ny-Fannag. [(I) 
Mullamavannag.] 



Sttlrslatifttial WL^ixetu 197 

Foillan (F), *a seagull;' in Gob-ny-Voillan, * Point 
of the Seagull;' Traie-ny- Foillan, *^ Shore of 
the Seagull ;' and Ellan-ny- Foillan, * Island of 
the Seagull' This was a field, probably once 
surrounded by water, as it is on the borders of the 
curragh, in the estate of Loughan-y-Eiy, It was 
in this field that a crannoge or lake dwelling was 
found some years ago. [(I) Carrownaweelaun.] 

Guiy (M), * a goose ;' in Loughan-y-Eiy, * Pond of 
the Goose;' Cronk-ny-Guiy, ' Hill of the Goose ;* 
Gullet-ny-Guiy, 'Gullet of the Goose;' and 
MwANNAL-Y-GuiY, 'Neck of the Goose.' In these 
last two names it is used metaphorically of the 
narrowest part, in the one case of a little creek, 
and in the other of a field. [(I) Monagay.] 

Thunnag (F), * a duck ;' in Ballathunnag, * Duck 
Farm ;' and Close Tunnag, * Duck Close.' 

KeUagh (M), ' a cock ' (pi. kellee) ; in Airey Kellag, 
*Cock Moor;' Balla- Kellag, 'Cock Farm;' 
and Eairy Kellee, ' Cocks' Moor.' (This latter 
may, however, mean Kelly's Moor, being some- 
times spelled Eairy Kelly.) [(I) Knockakilly.] 

Kiark (F), 'a hen;' in Glione Kiark, * Hen Glen;* 
Close Giark, ' Hen Close ;' Ballacarkey and 
Ballakarka, ' Hens' Farm.' [(I) Slievenagark.] 

Fcdjag (F), * a feather ;' in Cronk-ny-Fedjag, * Hill 
of the Feather.' 

Edd (M), 'a nest;' in Cronk Ned (yn«^, 'Hill of 
the Nest.' Edd is also found as a prefix in Edd 
Feeagh Vooar, * Big Raven's Nest.' This name is 
applied to a crag at the south end of Greeba 
Mountain. [(I) Derrynaned.] 



Beishteig (F), * a reptile ' (C), peishteig, ' a little worm ' 
(K), a diminutive of Beisht, * a beast, brute.' The 
old Irish word beist, from the Latin besita, was 
used in the lives of the Irish saints to denote 
a dragon, serpent, or monster. Thalloo-a- 
Peishteig, * Land of the Little Worm,' is pro- 
bably so-called from worm-earths, without having 
any legendary signification. [(I) Loch-na-Peiste.] 

Skeddan (M), * a herring ;' in Gob-y-Skeddan, * Point 
of the Herring.' According to an old Manx 
legend the fish elected the herring as their king. 
The Deemsters swore to execute the laws of the 
isle 'as indifferently as the herring's backbone 
doth lie in the middle of the fish.' [(I) CooL' 

SCADDAN, (G) CULSCADDAN.] 

Brack (M), * a trout,' a name derived from its speckled 
skin (breck) ; in Glione-ny-Brack, * Glen of the 
Trout.' [(I) Bealannabrack, (G) Altibrick.] 

Bollan (F), *the rock fish,' a red fish resembling a 
carp, and frequenting rocky coasts (Gi) ; in Creg- 
VoLLAN, *Carp Rock;' and Traie-ny-Vollan, 
' Shore of the Carp.' 

Shlig (F), 'a shell;' in Ballashlig, 'Shell Farm.' 
There are several farms of this name on sandy 
soil inland, where shells have been found. 

SheUan (F), ' a bee ;' in Glenshellan, * Bee Glen.' 

Caash^ (M), 'cheese;' in Gob-ny-Caashey, ' Point of 
the Cheese.' Possibly a vessel laden with cheese 
was wrecked here. 



$tt&0fantttral fKffix^jeu 199 

From the Vegetable Kingdom. 

Keyll (F), ' a wood;' in Ballakeyll, ' Wood Farm ;' 
and BooLDOHOLLY {Bwoaillee doo Keylley)^ 'Black 
Fold of the Wood.' Keyll is usually corrupted 
killey^ but as this is also the corruption of kedll^ ' a 
church ' (see p. 151), it is difi&cult to distinguish 
between the two. It may, however, be safely as- 
sumed that most of the Ballakilleys maybe trans- 
lated ' Church Farm/ as they are generally found 
in close proximity to sacred sites, which are very 
numerous, whilst we know from our records that 
woods have been, and are, conspicuous by their 
absence. [(I) Balnakillie.] 

Bill^ (pi. biljyn) (M), ' a tree ;' in Ballavilley, * Tree 
Farm,' now Seafield, in the parish of Santon ; in 

POOLHILLY, POOLVILL, POOLVILLA, and POOL- 

YiLLEY, *Tree Pool;' and Ballamiljin, 'Trees' 
Farm,' also possibly in Ballamillaghyn. [(I) 
Aghavilley.] 

Tramman (F), 'the elder-tree;' in Glione Tramman, 
' Elder-tree Glen ;' and BooiL Tramman, ' Elder- 
tree Fold.' Tramman would seem to have been 
originally a diminutive of an obsolete tromm. 

Dar (gen. darragh) (M), ' an oak ;' in Glione Darragh 
and Glen Darragh, 'Oak Glen;' in Cronk 
Darragh, 'Oak Hill;' and possibly in Cronk 
Derree, 'Oaks' Hill;' in Cooil Darry, * Oaks' 
Nook;' and Awin-ny- Darragh, * River of the Oak.' 
At the upper end of Glen Darragh, in the parish 
of Marown, there are the remains of a fine stone 
circle. [(I) Clondarragh, (G) Glendarroch.] 



200 Manx pUftt'VMavBi. 

Euar (K), 'the yew;' in Ballure, * Yew Farm.* The 
old chapel in the treen of this name has been kept 
in repair, and is still used. [(I) Glenure.] 

Unjin, 'the ash ;' in Chibber Unjin, * Ash Well ;• and 
Cronk Unjin, 'Ash Hill.' At Chibber Unjin 
there was formerly a sacred ash-tree, where votive 
offerings were hung. The ash was formerly con- 
sidered a sacred tree, possibly from a recollection 
of Scandinavian legends with regard to it. 

Cidlion (K), * the holly ;' in Rencullen, ' Holly Ridge ;' 
Glen Cooilieen, * Holly Glen.' [(I) Drimcullen, 
(G) Barhullion.] 

Drine (M), *a thorn, or thorn-tree;* in Baldrine, 

* Thorn-tree Farm;' Thalloo Drine, * Thorn- 
tree Land, or Plot ;* and Thalloo Drine Beg, 

* Little Thorn-tree Land, or Plot.' Drine is the 
general word for thorn, or thorn-tree, though 
usually applied more especially to the blackthorn. 
[(I) Aghadrean, (G) Beealchandrean.] 

Drughaig (F), ' the hipthorn, or dog-rose * (drine drughaig 
being the correct term) ; in Lough Drughaig, 

* Dog-rose Lake.' 

Skeaig (K), Skeag (C), ' the hawthorn ' (for drine skeag) ; 
in Ballaskaig, Ballaskeige, and possibly Bal- 
LASAiG, * Hawthorn Farm;'. and Dreem-y-Jee- 
SKAIG, ' (Hill-)back of the Two Hawthorns.' Large 
hawthorn-trees were supposed to be frequented by 
£sLiries, and therefore regarded with considerable 
respect. They were also placed by wells. [(G) 
Knockskaig.] 

Aittin (K), 'gorse;' in Cronkaittin, 'Gorse Hill;' 
Creggan-ashen, formerly Creggan-atten, 'Gorse 



SttbSEfanfttral Mffbo^ 201 

Rocky Hillock ;' and Garey-ashen, ' Gorse Stony 
Land.* This word is not now used colloquially. 

[(I) COOLATTIN.] 

Conney (Gi), * gorse;' in Ballaconna-Moor (Mooar), 
' Big Gorse Farm ;' and perhaps in Ballacunney, 
* Gorse Farm.' This latter, however, is more pro- 
bably *Quinney's Farm.' Gill, on whose authority 
only the word is given, remarks : ' It is a complete 
term for the whole genus of fiirze, distinguished 
into the following species : aittin, " gorse, whins ;" 
frangagh, " great furze, or gorse ;*' fruaighe, "heath, 
ling." Cann^ is the general colloquial term for 
gorse.' 

Freoagh (M), 'heath, heather;' in Knock-Freiy and 
Knockfroy, * Heather Hill ;' Dreemfroy, 
'Heather (Hill-)back ;' and Booilley -'Freoie, 
•Heather Fold.' [(I) Inishfree, (G) Innis- 

FRAOCH.] 

Guile and guilcagh (K), * the broom plant ;' in Balla- 
juckley, * Broom Plant Farm ;' and Cronk- 
JUGKLEY, * Broom Plant Hill.' [(I) Knockgilsie.] 

Shuglaig (F), 'sorrel;' in Ballashuglaig, * Sorrel 
Farm ;' Balla-shuglaig-e-Quiggin, * Quiggin's 
Sorrel Farm;' and Bally- shuglaig -e -Cain, 
' Cain's Sorrel Farm.' Shuglaig is occasionally 
corrupted into Shalghaige, as in Ballashalghaige. 

Cabbag (F), * sour-dock;' in Traie Cabbage, 'Sour- 
dock Shore;' and Close ChabbacHi 'Sour-dock 
Close.' [(I) Glencoppog.] 

Shcillagh or Shellagh (F), 'the sallow or willow;' in 
CoN-SHELLAGH (coan), ' WiUow Valley;' and 
possibly in Ballasalla, 'Willow Farm;' but 



202 WHemx l^lecc^-tHsan^tu 

this is more probably from sallagh (see post). 
[(G) Barnsallie.] 

fean (K), ' darnel weed ;' in Baljean (Balla), * Damel- 
weed Farm.' This word is not now used col- 
loquially, the ordinary word for * darnel weed' 
being jurlan* 

Sumrac and sumark (F), * a primrose/ This word is 
probably a corruption of the Irish seamrog, a 
diminutive of seamar, * the trefoil, or white clover/ 
This has become anglicised into shamrock, in 
which form it occurs in Ballashamrock, * Prim- 
rose Farm/ 

The colloquial Manx for primrose is sumark- 
source, 'summer primrose/ These flowers were 
formerly gathered on May-eve, and scattered 
before the doors of every house as a charm against 
witchcraft. [(I) Coolnashamroge, (G) Glen- 

SHIMMEROCK.] 

Dullish, dyllish (F), * a sea-weed, which is eaten either 
wet or dried, liver worts, dills, from duill, a leaf, 
and ush or ushtey, water ' (Gi) ; ' a marine eatable 
leaf (C) ; in Traie Dullish, * Sea-weed Shore/ 

Cork^ (M), 'oats;' in Ballacorkey, *Oats Farm/ 
[(I) Farranacurkey*] 

Shoggyl(F), *rye;' in Glione-shoggyl, * Rye Glen;' 
Ballashuggal, ' Rye Farm ;' and Bole-shoggil 
{Bwoailley\ * Rye Fold/ Rye is very seldom 
grown now. [(I) Coolataggle.] 

Coonlagh (F), 'straw;' in Close Conley, * Straw 
Close ;' Ballaconley, formerly Ballacoonlagh, 
* Straw Farm ;' and Keeill-Coonlagk, * Straw 
Church.' The primitive keeill yfB,s probably thatched. 



Sutefantttral Wiffix^tk. 205 

Sceabag (K), ^a small sheaf;' in Ballaskebbag and 
Ballaskebbeg, * Sheaf Farm.' This word is not 
now used colloquially, the ordinary word for a 
sheaf being bunney. 

Traagh (F), 'hay;' in Glentragh, ' Hay Glen.' This 
word, though not found in Irish or Gaelic, is used 
colloquially in Manx. 

Soo (M), * juice, a berry;' in Broogh-ny-Soo, *Brow 
of the Berry.' 

Feeyn (M), * wine, or a vine ;' in Chleig-ny-Fheeiney, 
' Hedge of the Wine ;' Garey Feeney, ' Wine 
Garden ;' and Traie-ny-Feaney, * Strand of 
the Wine/ These names must either refer to 
smuggling, or are else purely fanciful, as grapes 
would not ripen out of doors in the Manx 
climate. 

Traie-ny-Feeney would be a very convenient 
place for smuggling, but Chleig-ny-Fheeiney 
is high ground inland, at the head of Glen 
Rushen. 

From the Mineral Kingdom. 

The Isle of Man shows but little trace of its mineral 

wealth in its local names. 

Leoaie^ Mead,' though worked from an early period, 
does not bestow a name on any place. 

Yiam (M), ' iron ;' in Eairn Yerrey, * Iron End,' on 
Bradda Head ; GiAU Yiarn, * Iron Creek ;' and 
possibly in Port Erin, formerly Phurt Yiarn, 
'Iron Port.' It may have been so called from 
being the landing-place of the ore from the neigh- 
bouring Bradda mine, but the Scandinavian deri- 



204 TttHttK ^l^PCt'fBLOM^ 

vation (see post) seems more probable. [(I) Curry- 

NIERIN.] 

Leac, Ihiach (F), 'a slate;' in Goblhiack, * Slate 
Point/ The slate rock at this point is in large 
slabs. [(G) Arielick.] 

Argid (M), * silver, money;' in Close-yn-Argyt, 
'Close of the Silver or Money.' Perhaps so 
called from a discovery of hidden money. This 
word is cognate with the Latin argentum. 
[(I) Cloonargid.] 

Geinnagh (F), *sand;' in Craig- y-ghenny, * Rock of 
the Sand ;' and Kerroo-ny-genny, * Quarter of 
the Sand.' [(I) Clonganny, (G) Gi^engain- 

NOCH.] 

Sooie (K), sooee (C), (F), 'soot;' in Eary-ny-sooie, 
' Moor of the Soot.' So called from the smoke 
of a chimney connected with a mine which ascends 
to it 

Personal Names.* 

Probably the oldest application of personal nomen- 
clature to local names in the Isle of Man occurs in the 
dedications of the parish churches, which were usually 
built on the site of older edifices, whose name they 
took, and of the keills, or so-called treen chapels, to 
Celtic saints. The names of these saints would lead 
us to suppose that Manxmen were, for the most part, 
Christianized by Irish missionaries; and, indeed^ it 
would have been strange if the proselytizing Irish 
monks, who wandered all over Europe, had avoided an 

* So many of the names under this heading must be considered 
doubtful, that all, whether doubtful or not, are given here. 



. Stttofatifhral WLffixtsu 205 

island so near to them. Of the names of our seventeen 
parish churches, seven are certainly, two — Maughold 
and Onchan — almost certainly, and four probably, of 
Irish origin, the remaining four being of comparatively 
recent dedication. St. Patrick's* own name was given to 
two churches, one called Kirk Patrick, in Manx Skeeley 
Pharick, 'Patrick's Parish Church,' and the other Kirk 
Patrick of Jurby, the parishes being called Patrick 
and Jurby (in 1511 Jourby). Jurby Point, on which the 
latter church is situated, is said to have once been an 
island — ^the Innis Patrick, where the saint is supposed 
to have landed. Peel Island, however, where there is 
also a church of very early date dedicated to him, has 
stronger claims to the name. 

The saint now called Maughold^ who is said to have 
been one of St. Patrick's earliest disciples, probably 
gave his name to the parish church called Kirk Maug- 
hold, in Manx Skeeley Maghal, * Maughold's Parish 
Church.' It has, however, been suggested that this 
parish and church has really derived its name from 
MacutuSf Bishop of Aleth in Brittany, whose bishopric 
was afterwards transferred to the town now called 
St. Malo, which is said to have been named after him. 
It may, therefore, be desirable to see what evidence 

* Whether St. Patrick visited the Isle of Man or not is not cer- 
tainly known, as the ancient records are silent on this point, and 
the inference from the accounts in the ' Book of Armngh' and ' Tri- 
partite Life' would be that he had not (see under Maughold), It 
was reserved for Jocelyn, a monk of Fumess, writing early in the 
1 2th century, who may, however, have had access to information 
not attainable now, to tell us that he did so ; and his narrative is 
expanded and embellished by the ^ Supposed True Chronicle of 
Man ' and the ' Traditionary Ballad,' both probably of not earlier 
date than the sixteenth century. 



2o6 Mscnx ^lant-lAa^mits. 

there is in support of both views. The earliest 
authority, the ' Book of Armagh/ speaks of a certain 
Maccuil, whom it describes as a very bad character, 
who was converted by St. Patrick, and sent off to an 
island called Evonta, or Eubonia, an old name of the 
Isle of Man. There he found two holy men, Conindrus 
and Rumilt4Sy who had already taught the Word of God 
there. After their death he became bishop. The * Tripar- 
tite Life of St. Patrick ' contains a similar account, 
stating that Mace Cuill * went ... to sea . . . till he 
reached Mann.' There is now no available evidence on 
this subject till the thirteenth century, when, in a bull of 
Pope Gregory IX., dated 1231, recently published^by the 
writer in the English Historical Review, yf^ find this parish 
recorded as that of Sancti Maughaldi. In the Chronicon 
MannicB^ the greater part of which was written in the 
fourteenth century, he is on every occasion but one, 
when Maccaldus is found, called Macutus, In the ' Tra- 
ditionary Ballad,' probably written early in the sixteenth 
century, he is called Maughold, and in the manorial roll 
of 1511, Maghald. It is, of course, not possible to 
certainly connect the Maughald of the thirteenth 
century with the Maccuil mentioned by the * Book of 
Armagh,' and the phonetic change involved is im- 
probable, though not impossible, as Maccuil would 
be called Mac Coole by Manx people, and the final * d,' 
which is not sounded by them, would seem to have 
been added with the Latin termination. 

The evidence in favour of Maculus seems much 
weaker. It is simply that his name is mentioned 
in the Chronicon Mannia, and that he was a friend of 
St. Brendan's, who was supposed to be the originator 



Stti^sfmtfitral WLffixt^. 207 

of the name of the parish of Braddan. What is more 
likely than that the monks of Rushen, who, through 
Fumess, were connected with the monastery of 
Savigny, in France, should transfer the name of a 
Breton saint of some celebrity in their day to the 
name of a parish which had been called after an 
Irish saint, who, when the influence of Ireland and that 
of the Irish Church had completely passed away, 
would have been forgotten, and whose name bore a 
faint resemblance to his. On the whole, then, there 
seems to be a reasonable presumption that the parish 
of Maughold and its church were named after the 
Irish MaccuiL 

Lonan, St. Patrick's nephew, has given his name to 
Kirk LoNAN, or Lonnan ; in Manx Skeeylley 
LoNNAN, ' Lonnan's Parish Church,' the parish 
being called Lonnan. 
Connaghyn, as he is called in the * Traditionary Ballad,' 
has bestowed his name on Kirk Onchan, in Manx 
Skeeylley Connaghyn, ' Connaghan's Parish 
Church.' The name of the parish is written 
Conaghan, or Conchan, in the earliest records, 
and is to this day pronounced Conaghan by the 
Manx-speaking people. In formal documents the 
name of the parish is still written Conchan, but 
by the younger people, who do not speak Manx, 
it is usually spoken of as Onchan ; this form having 
arisen in the same way as Orry from Gorry, i.e., 
Kirk Conchan to Kirk Onchan, as King Gorry 
to King Orry. It is difficult to connect Conaghan 
with any Irish saint mentioned in the martyro- 
logies ; but he is probably identical with St. Con- 



2o8 Memx i|^toci4-£am^& 

nigen, whose name occurs in the Calendar of 
Oengus. The popular idea that Conchan was 
named after St. Concha (Lat. Concessa), St. Patrick's 
mother^ cannot be accepted philologically. 

The parish church of Marown, Kirk Marown, in 
Manx Skeeylley Marooney, * Marooney's Parish 
Church/ is dedicated to a saint called Maronog in 
the Irish Calendars, Marooney in the ' Traditionary 
Ballad/ and St. Runt (gen. case) in the manorial 
roll of 1511. In a bull of Pope Gregory IX., 
dated 1231, the church of this parish is called 
Kyrke Marona. The prefix w<?, ' my,* and the 
affix ogy * young,' in Maronog or Moronog, are both 
expressive of endearment, and are frequently 
attached to the names of Celtic saints. The old 
church of Marown is situated on the hill above 
Ellerslie. Tradition says that three bishops were 
buried there, viz. : Rooney, Lonnan, and Connaghan. 
In the parish now called Arbory there are two 
kteillsy Keeill Cairbre and Keeill Columb, 
the latter being the famous Irish missionary to 
the Scots, St. Columba. Formerly the parish was 
sometimes called after one, and sometimes after 
the other. In 1153 we find terrain Sancti Carebrie ; 
in 1231 terram Stu Columbce, herbery vocatam; in 
1291 there was a presentation ad ecclesiam Sancti 
Carber, and in the manorial rolls of 1511 we find 
Parochia Sti. Columba. In fact these records have 
the same title for this parish, though it is now 
generally called Arbory, at the present day. In 
Durham's map, published in 1595, it is written 
Kirk Kbrbbry, the Manx form of the name being 



Sitfitftettfttoal MVix^tu 209 

Skeeyixey Cairbre, which is still pronounced by 
old Manx people as Skeeley Karbery. Its 
usual modern name, Arbory, has arisen from 
Karbery, in the same way as Onchan from Con- 
CHAN. This name Arbory seems to have come 
into use at least two centuries ago, for, at the end 
of the sixteenth century, we find Sacheverell, one 
of our historians, explaining that it was so called 
from the number of trees (arbours) there formerly. 
The church of the parish of Santan, or Santon, 
in Manx Skeeylley Stondane,* * Sanctan's 
Parish Church,' now Kirk Santan, called in 151 1 
St. Sanctan, is named after St. Sanctatiy also an 
Irish saint, not from St. Ann, as the modem map- 
makers have it. Joyce, in an interesting passage 
which we quote below, tells us that exactly the 
same process with regard to this name has taken 
place in Ireland. ' Three miles above the village 
of Tallaght in Dublin . . . there is a picturesque 
little graveyard and ruin called Kill St. Ann, or 
" Saint Ann's Church ;" near it is " Saint Ann's 
Well;" and an adjacent residence has borrowed 
firom the church the name of " Ann Mount." The 
whole place has been, in fact, quietly given over 
to St. Ann, who has not the least claim to it ; and 
an old Irish saint has been dispossessed of his 
rightful inheritance by a slight change of name. 
Dalton, in his history of Dublin, writes the name 
Killnasantan, which he absurdly translates, *' The 
Church of Saint Ann." But in the Repertorium 

* The intrusive '/* is characteristic of Manx, vide strooan for 
sruthan^ etc. 

14 



2IO Manx fj^lact'lttimttu 

Viride of Archbishop Alan we find it written Kill- 
mesantan, from which it is obvious that the na in 
Dalton's Killnasantan, which he thought was the 
Irish article, is really corrupted from the particle 
wo, " my," so commonly prefixed as a mark of 
respect to the names of Irish saints. The Four 
Masters give us the original form of the name 
at A.D. 952 . , . Cill'Easpuig'Sanctain, ue., the 
church of Bishop Sanctan. So that the founder 
of this lonely church was one of the early saints 
—of whom several are commemorated in the 
calendars — called Sanctan or Santan. . . . The 
name is a diminutive of the Latin root sanct 
(holy), borrowed into the Irish.'* The parish 
church of Bride, in Manx Skeeylley Bridey, 
* Brigit's Parish Church,' now Kirk Bride, called 
in 15 1 1 St. Brigide, is dedicated to 5^ Brtgit^ 
the most famous of Irish female saints. 
We now come to the names of the parish churches 
and parishes which are of doubtful, but still probably, 
Irish origin. 

With regard to the first of these, that of German, 
which has been given to the cathedral of the diocese, St. 
German's, as well as a parish church. Kirk German, 
in Manx Skeeylley Charmane, 'German's Parish 
Church,* the parish being called German, the Tradi- 
tianary Ballad tells us that St. Patrick, before he left the 
island, 'blessed St. Germanus, and left him a bishop in it 
to strengthen the faith more and more.'t A difficulty, 
however, arises from the fact that the name of Germanus 

* * Irish Names of Places,' Joyce, 2nd series, pp. 22, 23. 
t Train, * History of the Isle of Man,' p. 52. 



Sttlwfanittral WLfflx^^ 211 

does not occur in the Irish calendars, and we have only 
the comparatively recent authority of Jocelin for his 
being St. Patrick's disciple. By way of solving this it 
may not, perhaps, be unreasonable to conjecture that 
Germanus was substituted for Coemanus by later writers, 
who would remember the famous saint of Auxerre, 
while forgetting the obscure Irishman. This Coemanus^ 
or, as he is called in Irish Martyrolog^es, Mochaefnog, 
is known to have been one of St. Patrick's disciples. 

The name of the parish of Braddan, and of its church, 
in Manx Skeeylley Vraddan, ' Braddan's Parish 
Church,' now Kirk Braddan, has been connected 
with the famous Irish saint and navigator, BrandinuSy 
or Brendinus, or with the St. Brandan, who, though 
not mentioned by the monks of Rushen Abbey, was, 
according to Manx historians, bishop from 1098-1113. 
This theory does not seem consonant with orthodox 
philology ; but, nevertheless, it may be correct. In 1231 
a bull of Pope Gregory IX. mentions terras Sti. Bradani, 
and in 1291 Bishop Mark held a synod at Bradan. 

The name of the parish church of Rushen, in Manx 
Skeeylley-Chreest-Rushen, ' Christ Rushen Parish 
Church,' now Kirk Christ Rushen, presents con- 
siderable difficulties. The earliest mention of it is in 
1408, when it is called the parish church, Sancii 
Trinitatis inter prata, ' of the Holy Trinity among 
the Meadows.' The lowlands about the church are 
still intack, not quarterland, and were therefore, 
probably, marshy, and consequently uncultivated 
formerly — hence the word prata. 

In the manorial roll of 1511 it is called Parochia Set* 
Trinitatis in Rushen, and in 1540 Kirk Criste in 

14 — 2 



312 Mmx jj^Iatie-Batiittf* 

Sheding. The most probable interpretation, though 
others are possible (see p. 160), is that Rushen has 
derived its name from St Russein of Inis-Picht, men- 
tioned in the Martyrology of Tallaght, whose name 
was probably forgotten before 1511, when, Rushen 
being regarded as a place-name, in may have been 
substituted for noo, * saint.' Rushen is also the name 
of the sheading, and of the castle in Castletown. With 
reference to the name of the church in 1540, Kirk 
Criste, or, as it is called at the present day, in Manx 
Skeeyley Chreest, * Christ's Parish Church,' or Kirk 
Christ, it is remarkable that the only two churches in 
the island which are dedicated to the Holy Trinity, 
Rushen and L,Bzayrc, are both called Christ's Church^ 
Why this is so is unlcnown to the writer, but it is 
interesting to note that the same applies to Christ's 
Church Cathedral in Dublin. 

The parish of Malew, and its church, in Manx 
Skeeyley Malew, * Malew's Parish Church,' now Kirk 
Malew, are generally supposed to have derived their 
names from St. Lupus, the pupil of St. German of 
Auxerre, who was sent to Britain to confound the 
Pelagians. In confirmation of this theory may be 
quoted the inscription on an ancient patten, now in 
Malew church, Sancte Lupe ora pro nobis, and the entry 
in the Roll of 1511, Parochia Sti. Lupi. It is equally 
probable, however, that the name may come from 
that of an Irish saint, Moliba or Molipa, the Latinized 
form of Moliu or Maliu, whose name is found in the 
Calendar of Oengus. In a bull of Pope Gregory XL, 
dated 1377, relating to a presentation to this church, 
it is called St. Moliwe. This may, of course, refer to 



StttatatiifiraX Kfix^flu 213 

either saint, as Lupus, like Roomy, may have had the 
prefix mo, though it more probably refers to the Irish- 
man, the &mous Lupus being not so likely to have his 
name changed. 

The names of the four remaining parishes and their 
churches are probably of much later origin. Both the 
parishes of Ballaugh and IJEZayre, the churches of 
which were called in 1231 Sta. Maria de Bdlylaughe, 
'of St. Mary of Miretown* (see p. 176), and Sti. 
Trinitatis in Leayrt, ' of the Holy Trinity in the Ayre,' 
respectively, were probably mainly occupied by marshes 
then, and even later. In 1423 the Charter of John de 
Stanley, which confirms that of Magnus to the Church 
of Sodor, mentions *the village of Killcrast,* now 
LEZoyrtf; in 1505 it is called Kirk Criste, and in the 
manorial roll of 151 1 the parish Sii. Trinitatis (see 
Rushen). Manx-speaking people called this church 
Skeeylley - Chreest - NY - Heyrey, ' Christ's Parish 
Church of the Ayre.' Here n has been changed into 
/, as usual, so that ny Heyrey, or ny Ayre became 
ly-ayre, or le-ayre; and, more recently, by a curious 
corruption, Lezayre. Chaloner, writing in the middle 
of the seventeenth century, tells us that it was then 
called Kirk Criste le Ayre, because it is placed * in 
a sharp ayre ' ! The name of the parish of Michael, 
and its church Kirk Michael, or in Manx Skeeylley 
Mayl, * Michael's Parish Church,' does not appear 
till 1299. The name of the parish of Andreas, and 
its church Kirk Andreas, or in Manx Skeeylley 
Andreays, * Andrew's Parish Church,' probably dates 
from the period of Scotch rule (1275-1334), as it iff 
named after the patron saint of that country. 



214 Manx j^Iace-Aatitra* 

Of the ancient kedlls, referred to above, the remains 
of more than one hundred are still to be found, the 
earliest of which probably date from the sixth century, 
and of their names about thirty survive. 

St. Patrick gives his name to six of them, called 
Keeill Pharick, or Keeill Pherick, and one called 
Keeill-Pherick-a-Drumma (y drommey), ' Patrick's 
Cell of the Hill(-back).' Near the farm of Ballakil- 
PHARic, * Patrick's Cell Farm,' in Rushen, are two 
huge standing stones, which are probably the remains 
of a megalithic monument. 

St. Bridget has seven, under the various forms of 
Breeshy, Vreeshy, and even Brickey and Bragga. 
The keeill Vreeshey on Ballaharry farm, near Crosby, 
has walls about four feet high, built of stones without 
mortar. The treen of Kilmartin, and the adjoining 
farm of Ballakilmartin, perhaps derive their names 
from St. Martin, St. Patrick's uncle. Keeillcolum 
and Ballacolum, close by, were probably called after 
St. Columba. 

The Gaelic saint Ronan has two cells called Keeill 
RoNAN ; probably this name is identical with Maronag 
when deprived of its affix and prefix. 

St. Lingan, an Irish saint, has two chapels : Keeil- 
LiNGAN, on the hill above the estate of Balla-Kil- 
LiNGAN, and Cabbal Lingan, on the farm of Bal- 
LINGAN. Cabbal Lingan is one of the best specimens 
of keeilk left. The walls are still about four feet high, 
and three feet thick, and there is a font in the north- 
east corner. The enclosure surrounding the chapel 
is one hundred and eight feet long by sixty-three 
broad, being oval in form. 

St. Trinian's, the ruins of a church of the thirteenth 



Sultttonfttoal Sffix^ 215 

century, probably on an older site, was dedicated to 
Ringan or Ninnian, of which Trtnnian is a corruption. 
This church formerly belonged to the^ priory of St. 
NiNNiAN, at Whithome in Galloway, whose priors 
were barons of the Isle. It dates probably from the 
thirteenth century. The legend of its never having 
had a roof through the mischievous intervention of a 
Buggane, or evil spirit, may be read in any guide- 
book to the island. There is a Chibber Dingan in 
the parish of Kirkmaiden in Galloway, and at Killan- 
TRiNGAN, near Portpatrick. The name of St. Crore, 
an Irish saint, is given to Keeill Crore, near Kirk 
Patrick. To the Virgin Mary there are dedicated 
several keeilk, caUed Keeill Moirrey, and Keeill 
Voirrey; to St. John, Ean or Eoin in Manx, are 
dedicated Kilane, and the Manx name of the chapel 
at Tynwald Hill, Keeillown, 'John's Cell,' and of 
the hill itself Cronk-Keeillown. St. Michael has 
several, caUed Keeill Vael, and Keeill Vail. The 
St. Michaelis mentioned in the Papal Bull to Bishop 
Simon, dated 123 1, is the Keeill Vael on the Barony 
in the parish of Maughold, the ruins of which are still 
to be seen. The Keeill Vael, on Langness, is pro- 
bably a church of the eleventh or twelfth century. 
According to the engraving of it given by Chaloner, it 
was roofless more than two centuries ago. It is thirty- 
one feet long by fourteen feet broad, the height of the 
side walls being about ten feet. There is an ancient 
graveyard round it. St Bartholomew has a keeill called 
Keeill Pharlane; St Matthew one, Keeill Vian, 
and there is a keeill called Keeill-yn-Chiarn, ' Cell 
of the Lord.' 

Closely connected with the keeills dedicated to these 



3i6 Sanx T^l0Xt-9Ltatttm. 

saints or recluses are the wells, which were used by them 
both for drinking and baptizing their converts (see pp. 
153, 154). Of (hese the names of the following remain : 
Chibber Pherick, ' Patrick's Well,* where according to 
tradition the saint stopped to drink as his horse stumbled 
there ; Chibber Maghal, ' Maughold's Well/ on the 
promontory of the same name, is one of the most famous 
wells in the island. A drink of its water, taken after 
resting in the saint's chair close by, is supposed to be 
an unfailing cure for barrenness in women. Chibber 
VoiRREY, * Mary's Well;' there are three wells of 
this name. One of these, in Ballaugh, may still be 
seen bubbling up when the tide is low, about 150 yards 
seaward from Ballakoig farm, and is thus a witness 
of the rapidity with which the land has been eaten 
away by the sea at this point; Chibber Niglas, 
'Nicholas's Well/ is close to the ancient alignement 
at Braddan ; Chibber Vreeshey, ' Bridget's Well ;' 
Chibber Vaill (Vayl), 'Michael's Well;' Chibber 
Katreeney, * Catherine's Well ;' Chibber Oney, a 
corruption of Chibber Roney, in the parish of Marony 
(Marawn), being ' Roney's Well.' Patrick again appears 
in Giau-ny-Pharick (£), ' Patrick's Cove ;' Maughold, 
in Maughold Head and Ellan-ny-Maughol (£), 
' Maughold's Isle,' the name of a small rock in the sea; 
Michael, in Rhullick Keeill Vael, * Michael's Cell 
Churchyard;' and Moirrey (Mary), in Ballaworrey, 
'Mary's Farm;' and in Purt-noo-Moirrey, 'Port 
Saint Mary,' or, as it is usually pronounced, Port-le- 
Morrough, by Manx people, the I according to Manx 
habit being substituted for n, in the same way as 
Langlish for Langness, and L.Eayre for liY-ayre. We 



Stttatantttral TtffixtB. 217 



have also Glione Keeill Crore, *Crore's Cell 
Glen ;' Struan Keeill Crore, ' Crore's Cell Stream ;' 
and Cronk-y-Croghe, formerly Cronk-y-Crore (£), 
^Crore's Hill/ a large tumulas, which, when it was 
opened in 1880, contained an urn and some calcined 
bones. 5^. Danan, or Donnan, an Irish disciple of St. 
Columba's, who was put to death with fifty companions 
in the Isle of Eig by a band of pirates in a.d, 617, 
is probably commemorated in the tumulus called 
Ardonan, * Donan's Height.* There are several places 
in the Western Isles and Scotland called Kildonan. 
TAKRAstack, the name of a detached rock in the sea, 
is possibly a corruption of Tarans Stack. There was 
a St Torannan, Abbot of Bangor (cf. Taransay, 
Hebrides). ^ 

The meaning of the name of the two mountains of 
North and South Baroole or Barrule has given rise 
to considerable discussion. Possibly it is from Ride or 
Regulus, the Abbot, who went to bring the relics of the 
Apostle St. Andrew to Scotland, and was consequently 
famous, and may therefore mean * Rule's Top ' {baare). 
Among the early legendary bishops of the island there 
is one Rotnulus, the fifth on the list, whose name may 
perhaps have been given to these mountains. In the 
'Tripartite Life of St. Patrick' he is called Romuil, 
and is stated to have been one of two holy men who 
had preached God's Word in Man. Colgan calls him 
Romailumy and Professor Rhys conjectures that in 
Manx this should become something like Rowell or 
Rowill; so Rowell may have become contracted into 
Roole^ as CoweU into Cowle, and so Baare-Roole into 
Barroole. Of these two mountains the southern. 



3i8 !Banx ^latt-Aamita* 

though lower, is the more famous. It was from its 
summit that the legendary Manannan (p. 131) performed 
his incantations by which he covered the island with a 
fog, and made one man appear like an hundred ; and it 
was here that he received the yearly rent from each 
landholder of a bundle of coarse meadow grass. In 
1316 the Manx were routed on its slopes by a band of 
Irish freebooters. Round its summit is a large en- 
closure made by a dry wall of about 150 yards in 
diameter. It was no doubt intended for a refuge by 
the people, to which they would retire with their cattle 
on the sudden landing of an enemy. From his Castle 
of Rushen to South Barrule was evidently a favourite 
walk of James, the seventh Earl of Derby, who, in his 
diary, writes as follows ^ * When I go to the mount you 
call Baroull, and, but turning me round, can see 
England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, . . . which no 
place, I think in any nation that we know under 
heaven, can afford such a prospect.' There is also a 
Knockrule, 'Rowell's or Rule's Hill,' now usually 
called Mount Rule, and a Giau Roole, * Rowell's or 
Rule's Cove.' 

We now come to the affixes from the personal names 
of ordinary men without saintly renown. They were 
for the most part, doubtless, the first recorded owners 
of the properties which bear their names. 

The name of Glentruan in the parish of Bride is 
possibly derived from the extinct personal name Druian 
or Truian found on an inscribed cross in the parish 
churchyard close by. It cannot be derived from 
strooan, * a stream,' because it is not likely that there 
was ever a stream in the glen. 



Stttetanfttial Sffbc^tu 219 

Surnames.^ 

The number of these names which, in connection 
with Balla, form the designations of our farms, is 
very large. Most of them, are perfectly intelligible, 
and can be found in the Index of Personal Names. 
In the following list, therefore, only those names which 
have either become obsolete, or so corrupt as not to 
be easily interpreted at first sight, will be explained 
sufficiently to £aicilitate reference to the Index above 
referred to. 
Ballawhannel and Ballagonnell, probably * Can- 

neFs Farm.' 
Ballacondyr and Ballacunner, *Cundre's Farm;' 

Ballakillowy, * Gillowy's Farm/ 
Ballacrine, ' Green's, or Crine's Farm.' 
Ballavartin, Ballavarteen, Ballavarton and 

Ballavarchein, * Martin's Farm.' 
Ballamacskealley, ' MacSkealley's Farm.' 
Ballaskealey, ' Skealey's Farm.' 
Ballacoarey, a corruption of Ballaquarrys, as the 

name is spelled in 1511, *Quarrys' or Quarrie's 

Farm.' 
Ballacotch, possibly * Cottier's Farm,' Cottier being 

pronounced Cotcher, 
Ballacreetch, * Creetch's Farm.' 
Ballastole, * Stowell's Farm.' 
BAhLAwhetstone, * Whetstone's Farm.' Anthony Whet- 

stonest was the owner of this property in 1670. 
Ballatrollag, ' Trollag's Farm.' 

* All surnames with Balia^ whether Celtic or ScandinaYian, are 
given here, 
t Not a Manx name. 



220 Wmx ^latv-Aam^flu 

Ballacagin, ' Cagin's or Kaighin's Farm.' 

Ballaqueeney and Ballaquinea, * Quinney's Farm/ 
On Ballaqueeney, near Port St. Mary, dgam in- 
scriptions have been discovered. Cronk Balla- 
QUEENY, on this farm was in the spring of 
1874 cut into to obtain gravel for the railway to 
Port Erin, when a large number of graves were 
discovered. They had slabs over them, and the 
interiors were lined with thin flags. From the 
dry nature of the soil, gravel and sand, many of 
the remains were found entire ; in some instances 
two bodies had been interred in the same grave, 
lying on their sides. The graves were arranged 
forming tangents to a circle, the chapel being in 
the centre. The chapel showed remains of founda- 
tions chiefly built of stones of large size without 
mortar. In some of the graves Anglo-Saxon coins 
were found, viz., Edmund (ob. 946), Edred {ob, 
955)f and Edwy (ob, 958), also a flint implement 
and a stone axe. The field has now been levelled, 
and all traces of the graves are obliterated. 

Ballakindry, ' Kinry's Farm.' The name Kinry is 
now almost universally translated into Harrison. 

Ballacarmick, 'Carmick's Farm.' This name is 
Carmyk in 1511. 

Ballakillowie, ' Gillowy's Farm.' 

Ballasherlogue, ' Sherlogue's, or Sherlock's Farm ;' 
Ballawhane, ' Quane's Farm.' 

BAhUicoyll, probably ' Coyle's Farm.'* 

Ballacunney, possibly * Guinney's Farm.' The name 
was formerly pronounced cufiyagh. 

Down, formerly Balladowan, * Dowan's Farm ;' 
* Not a Manx name. 



Berrag, formerly Ballaberrag, * Berrag's Farm/ 
The name Dowan occurs in Andreas, and Bbrrag 
is common in Jurby early in the eighteenth century. 

Ballakinnag and Ballakenag, ' Kinnag's or Kenag's 
Farm.' These names are possibly forms of the 
modern Kennaugh. 

Kew would seem to be the remains of Ballakew, 
'Kew's Farm;' Kewaigue of Ballakewaigue, 
* Young Kew's Farm.' 

Ballagilley, * Killey's Farm.' 

Ballakerbery, * Carberry's Farm.' 

Ballakgige, possibly * Keig's Farm.' 

Ballacogeen, where Cogeen is a corruption of 
Cregeen, * Cregeen's Farm.* 

Ballafaden and Ballafadine, * Faden's Farm.' 

Ballacorage, ' Corage's Farm.' The modern name 
Craig is a corruption of it. 

Ballacustal and Ballacutchal, ' Gilcreest's Farm.' 
Cregeen says that Cutchal or Custal is a 
corruption of Gilchreest. Ballavitchal is 
perhaps another corruption of the same, though 
it looks like * Mitchell's Farm.' 

Ballacaroon, * Corooin^s Farm.' 

Ballaregnelt, formerly Ballaregnylt, * Reginald's 
Farm ' (see Crellin and Crennell). 

Ballavargher, ' Fargher's Farm/ 

Ballanickle, ' Knickell's Farm.' 

Ballagorra and Ballagorry, * Gorry's Farm.* 

Ballafreer, 'Freer's Farm.' There is an ancient 
keeill called Keeill Pharic on this farm in the 
parish of Marown. There is an old tradition con- 
cerning it to the effect that, when St. Patrick and 



manx ^lace-Aam^s* 



St. Germanus passed over this spot, a briar tore 
St. Patrick's foot, lacerating it considerably, where- 
upon the saint pronounced the following anathema : 
' Let this place be accursed, and let it never pro- 
duce any kind of grain fit for man, but only briars 
and thorns, as a warning to keep off this wilderness.' 
Certainly the site of the chapel, like many others, 
is surrounded by thorns, but the farm is as fertile 
as those near it. It is said that the vicar of the 
parish was formerly wont to read prayer in this 
keeill on Ascension-day. On the south-east of the 
chapel lies its old stone font, two and a half feet long. 
There are also the following surnames compounded 
with various topographical prefixes : 
Close Vark, * Quark's Close,' and Bastin's* Close. 
One hundred and fifty years ago Bastin, though 
not a name of native origin, was very common in 
the parish of Andreas. 
Castle Ward,* the name of the curious fortification 
in Braddan, popularly called * The Danish Camp,' 
but probably of neolithic origin, was called Castell 
Mac Wade, ' Mac Wade's Castle,' in the Manorial 
Roll of 1511. 
Croit Freer, 'Freer's Croft ;' Crot-y-vedn-Bredjen, 

* Widow Bridson's Croft;' Thalloo Queen, 
'Quyn's or Quine's Plot;' Kerroo Cottle* 

* Cottle's Quarter ;' Eary Cushlin, ' Cosnahan's 
Moor/ The Manx pronounce Cosnahan as if 
spelled CusHLAHAN or Cushlan. 

Glione Kerrad, * Kerrad's or Garret's Glen;' Lhergy 
Colvin,* ' Colvin's Slope ;' Mullenaragher, 
* Not Manx names. 



'Faragher's MiU;' Boile VM^ (bwoailUe), 'BelVs 
Fold;' and Thalloo Vell,^ 'Bell's Plot;' Booilley 
CoRAGE (bwoaillee), ' Corage's or Craig's Fold.' 
Amstine, in 1511, Aresteyne {aerec or eary), * Steen's 
or Stephen's Moor;' and the name of the hill 
where this moor is, Slieu eary Stane, * Steen's 
Moor Hill.' 
BoviJLalcy,* * Daley's Fold ;' CR0NK-E-6«Ty,* * Berry's 
Hill/ now usually called Hillberry ; Creggan 
Ashen seems to be a corruption of Creggan 
Cashen, * Cashen's Rocky Ground ;' Mullen-e- 
CoRRAN is ' Corran's Mill.' 
Creg Custane, * Costain's Rock ;' Creg Harlot, a 
small rock in the sea, may possibly be a corrup- 
tion of Creg Corleot, ' Corlett's Rock ;' Gob- 
NY-HofeaK (£),* *Halsall's Point;' Lhoob-y- 
Charran (£), ' Carran's GuUey or Loop.' This 
curious name is applied to a small headland at 
Bradda. Arnycarnigan* {ari) is probably 
' Carnigan*s Height ;' Awin Vitchal, * Gilcreest's 
or Mitchell's River;' Aryhorkell, 'Corkell's 
Moor;' Cront-e-Caley (cronk), *CaIey's Hill;' 
Gob-ny-Cally (£), possibly ' Cally's or Caley's 
Point ;' Knockaloe, formerly Knockally, Knock- 
aloe - MoAR, and Knockaloe - Beg, possibly 
'Caley's Hill,' 'Caley's Big Hill,' and 'Caley's 
Little Hill;' Lhiaght-y-Kinry (£), 'Kinry's 
Grave ;' Cooil Nickal, ' Knickell's Nook.' 
For Algar, ' Alfgeirr,' the name of a farm in Bald- 
win, see the surname Mac Alcar, 
Christian names are also sometimes found as part of 

a place-name. 

* Not Manx names. 



324 fltintx ^Idt^-flUmtM* 

Balladha {.^dh), 'Hugh's Farm;' Creg Adha, 
* Hugh's Crag/ 

Creg Malin is probably * Malane or Magdalen's Crag/ 

Gob-ny-Uainaigue (£), 'Young John's Point,' and 
Ballayonaigue, 'Young John's Farm.' This 
farm has been for a long time held by people 
named Christian, and is still in their possession. 
A reference to the Register of the parish of Bride 
will show that Johnaigue was for generations the 
name of the eldest son of this family. 

Ballawill, 'Will's Farm;' Lhergy-clagh-Willy, 
' Willy's Stone Slope ;' Gob-ny-Silvas (E), ' Sil- 
vester's Point,* where Silvas appear^ to be a 
corruption of Silvester. 

Ballavarkys is possibly ' Mark's Farm,' Markys being 
the Manx for Mark. Johneoies, the name of a 
farm in Andreas, is nothing more recondite than 
'Johnnie's.' Barnell {bayr) is 'Nell's Road,' 
the name of an old woman who lived in a cottage 
by the roadside. Bully's Quarter and Jons 
Quarter, on the Mull, seem to be simply for 
'Billy's Quarter' and 'John's Quarter;' Balla- 
yemmy, ' Jemmy's Farm,' and Ballayemmy-beg, 
'Jemmy's Little Farm;' Ballayack, 'Jack's 
Farm;' Ballafageen, possibly 'Little Patrick's 
Farm ' (Phaidin). Chibber Rollin is a corruption 
of Chibber Dollin. DoUin was formerly a com- 
mon Christian name in the Isle of Man. Close 
Iliam, ' William's Close ;' Ballarobin, ' Robin's 
or Robert's Farm ;' Ballawille, ' Willy's Farm ;' 
Leany Gibbey, ' Gibby's Meadow;' Craig- bane- 
Y-BiLL-wiLLY, 'Willy BiUson's White Crag.* 



Stttelanftoal W^fixvim. 225 

Occasionally both surname and Christian name 
are found in a local name, as Ballajuanvark, 
* John Quark's Farm ;' BALLAtefiZ/yKiLLY, ' Willy 
Killy's Farm ;' Struan Kerry Nicholas,* * Kate 
Nicholas's Stream ;' Creg Willystll is probably 
a corruption of CRRG-Willy'Silvester* * Willy 
SilTester's Crag/ though it is also supposed to be 
Creg WillysKi^u * Willy Sayle's Crag;' Croit 
HoM Ralfe* ' Tom Ralfe's Croft.' 

'BhULAyockey, in Andreas, may possibly be derived 
from a nickname yockey, which appears in the 
Andreas Parish Register for generations in con- 
nection with the Corletts, who were owners of 
this property. Yockey is probably (or jockey. 
There are several affixes which can only be classed 
as doubtful for various reasons. Some because, though 
they are found in the dictionaries, and are used col- 
loquially, are, and always must have been, inapplicable 
in their present form, as far as can now be ascertained, 
to the places to which they are applied ; and others 
because, though found in the Manx dictionaries,t they 
are not used colloquially, and not found in any cognate 
language. 

In the first class we have : 
Oqyl (F), 'an apple,* which is popularly supposed to 
form part of the name of Baroole {Baare oqyl), 
'Apple Top.* There is nothing, however, in the 
shape of the summits of the two mountains so 
called to lead to this supposition, and even if it were 

♦ Not Manx names. 

t Such words are open to the suspicion of having been placed 
in the Dictionaries solely because they seem to occur in local names. 

15 



326 IDanx f^tatt-Aattmu 

so, the correct form would probably be Baareyn ooyl. 
The name of the two farms called Balladoole has 
also been connected with ooyU but this is very im- 
probable. There is a mountain in Galloway called 
DuNOOL, 1,777 f^^t high. [(I) Aghowle.] 
Lheeah-rio (F), 'hoar-frost;' in Creg-Lheeah-rio, 

* Hoar-frost Crag.* Possibly the rock may have 
the appearance of being covered with hoar-frost 
at certain states of the tide, but it would require 
a vivid fancy to think so. 

Scoltey (M), ' a split ;' in Cronk-y-Scoltey, ' Hill of 

the Split.* There is no trace of any cleft or split 

in the hill. 
Chiass, ' heat ;' in Glenchass, * Heat Glen.' This 

glen is certainly not hotter than any other glen 

in the island. 
Spyrryd (M), * the spirit, the soul ;' in Giau Spyrryd, 

* Spirit Creek.' Does this refer to a ghostly 
apparition, or to the landing of spirits of another 
sort ? It seems probable that this was one of 
the creeks which were used for smuggling pur- 
poses. 

Bretin (M), 'Wales, Britain;' in Ellan Vretin, 
' Britain Isle,' the name of a small detached rock 
in the sea. 

Mooarid (K), ' greatness ;' in Giau-ny-Mooarid, ' Cove 
of the Greatness.' This cove is a particularly 
small one. 
Under the second heading there are : 

Chuill (Cr), ' a quill ;' in Cronk-y-Chuill, ' Hill of 
the Quill;' Stroan-ny-Quill, 'Stream of the 
Quill;' Crot-ny-Quill, 'Croft of the Quill.* 



Sulraianti^al Kffbnts. 227 

Any of these names might be derived with equal 
probability from cooil, * a corner/ or Quill, a sur- 
name. 

Fedjeen (F), *the feather of an arrow, or weaver's 
quill ;' in Ballafageen, * Weaver's Quill Farm ' 
(more probably from Ballaphaidain. See Per- 
sonal Names). 

Skilleig (Cr), ' a narrow stripe ;' in Port Skilleig, 

* Narrow Stripe Port.' This little creek has a 
very narrow entrance. 

Fers (pi. Fessyn), ' a spindle ;' in Glen Fessan, 

* Spindles Glen.' 

Doagan, ' a firebrand, a burning brand, a brand,' is 
given by Gill only, not being mentioned by Kelly 
in the Triglot, or by Cregeen. No such word is 
known in Irish or Gaelic ; yet it is possible that 
the point called Gob-y-Deigan, ' Point of the 
Firebrand,' is connected with this word, for not 
only is it known colloquially as * Fire Point,' but 
there has recently been a discovery there of an 
ancient canoe, which was made by being burned 
out with red hot pebbles. Thousands of these 
pebbles, which show the action of fire, are still 
to be found at this place. 

The word Crout (F), * a trick, craft,' of very doubtful 
authenticity, would seem to occur in Keeill 
Crout, * Craft Cell,' but this name is probably 
a corruption of something quite different. 

The word Scuit (K), ' a spout, a' squirt, syringe,' would 
seem to be found in Gob ny Schoot, or Skeate 
(as it is variously spelled), * Point of the Spout.^ 

15—2 



228 illanx ^Iitte-Bamitflu 

In speaking of this place Gill* writes, * Gub ny 
Scuit, a place in St. Maughold's Parish, where 
there is a small cascade, or jet of water.' It was 
long supposed to be the abode of a Buggane, or 
monster, by the superstitious Manx people, on 
account of the wailing noises that proceeded from 
it, till it was discovered that these noises were 
caused by the wind flowing through a narrow 
cleft in the rock just above the fall. {Scuit is, 
probably, merely a corruption of spoqyt) 
Ros (I and G), *a promontory, a peninsula, or a 
wood,' is not found in our dictionaries, nor used 
in colloquial Manx. O'Donovan, in commenting 
on Ros in Cormac's * Glossary,' says : ' In the 
south of Ireland ross or rass is still used, particu- 
larly in topographical names, to denote a wood : 
rassan, a copse or underwood ; in the north ross 
means a point extending into the sea or lake.' 
Ros is probably found in Pulrose, formerly PooyU 
roish, * Wood Pool ' {roish being the genitive of ros). 
The meaning of the Sheading of Rushen, or, in its 
Manx form, yn Sheadin Rushen, is very obscure. 
Its most probable derivation has been given under 
Personal Namesy but there remains another possible 
derivation, ue., from roisheen, * of the little wood.' 
What renders it possible that ros or rassan may 
be the origin of Rushen, is the fact that this 
sheading was formerly the Lord's forest, i.^., not 
actually covered with trees, but uncultivated land, 
with copses and underwood where cattle and sheep 
would be pastured, and game would abound. We 
* Manx Society's Dictionary, p. i6o. 



may, perhaps, therefore translate yn Sheading 
RusHEN (roisheen), 'The Sheading of the Little 
Wood,' and the Parish of Rushen, which forms 
part of the sheading, yn Skeerey Rushen, * The 
Parish of the Little Wood/ There is also Castle 
Rushen in the same sheading, and the oldest 
name of Castletown was also Rushen. 

Arragh, in Cleigh-yn-arragh, 'hedge of the arrow, 
called in English, * bow and arrow hedge,* may 
possibly be a corruption of the English ' arrow/ 
Cleigh-yn-Arragh is a long earth rampart of pre- 
historic origin, extending for more than a mile on 
the north-west slope of Snaefell. 

Kimmyrky 'refuge' (not found in Irish or Gaelic), or 
SumraCy * a primrose,' in Cronk Shimmyrk, ' Refuge 
Hill,' or Cronk Sumark, ' Primrose Hill,' as the 
name of the isolated pile of rock near the entrance 
to Sulby Glen is variously spelled. The former 
derivation is favoured by the fact that on the flat 
top of this hill there is an embankment embracing 
an area of from eighteen to twenty yards, and on 
the south-east side there is a second embankment, 
both of which were evidently fortifications, and 
the latter by the fact that it is now usually called 
'Primrose Hill' in English. Neither name is 
found in any old record. These refuges on the 
summits of hills are very common in the island 
(see Barrule), and that they were made use of, or 
intended to be made use of, at a very recent 
period, is clear from a proclamation by Governor 
Wood issued in 1801, when, there being fears of 
an attack by the French, he ordered the captains 



230 name 1^lsitt'tieimt»* 



of the various parishes to tell off a portion of the 
less able-bodied men to accompany the women 
and cattle into the mountains on the first alarm 
of a landing of the enemy. The quarter-land on 
which the hill is situated is also called Balla- 

SHIMMYRK or BALLASUMARK. 

Bainney (M), * milk ;' possibly in Chibbyr-y-Vainnagh, 
' Well of the Milk ;' but this might also be a 
corruption of Chibbyr-y-Vainey, *Well of the 
Gap.' In this case the doubt applies to the 
application, not to the word bainney. 
The following, which also appear either as prefixes 
or simple names, are also doubtful : 
Bearey, in Dreembeary, * Moor back.' 
Braid, in Eairy Braid, ' Upland Moor.' 
A a, a, ah, possibly in Kenna, formerly Kinna {kione-a), 

* Ford Head.' 
Lough, possibly in Drumreloagh (ob.) {Dreeym-ny- 
Lough), * Hill-back of the Lake.' This is now 
curiously corrupted into Dreemreagh. 
There are a few names which are probably only por- 
tions of the originals to which they belonged. They 
were for the most part clearly substantival affixes 
of names in which the generic term, usually bulla, has 
disappeared. Thus such names as Vaish and Voney 
are probably the remains of Balla vaish, * Cattle Farm,' 
and Ballavoney {moaney), * Turbary Farm,' and Maase- 
MOAR, * Big Cattle,' of Ballavaasemoar, * Big Cattle 
Farm.' Cleanagh or Clanner, formerly Glannagh, a 
piece of flat land at the mouth of Sulby Glen, is pro- 
bably a corruption of glionney, the whole name having 
been Ballaglionney, ' Glen Farm.' Connehbwee 



$ttlr$fimft0al Hffix^^ 231 

{c(mney)y ' Yellow Gorse/ the name of a farm, was pro- 
bably Ballaconneybwee originally ; also Ashenmooar 
(aittin), * Big Gorse/ a farm name, was probably Balla- 
nashenmooar, ' Big Farm of the Gorse.' Kella, the 
name of a farm in the parish of Lezayre, is probably 
the remains of Ballakellagh, *Cock Farm,' or 
possibly of Ballakeylley, • ' Wood Farm ;' and 
Lewaigue, in the parish of Maughold, of Ballale- 
WAIGUE {Bulla hlieau aeg), ' Little Hill Farm.' The 
missing prefix in Geinnaghdoo, ' Black Sand,' is pro- 
bably ^rat^, 'shore,' though this name maybe complete as 
it stands. In Laare Vane, 'White Floor,' the name of 
a farm in Andreas, the missing prefix is mwyllin, * mill,' 
as we know that there were formerly small mills called 
mullin laare, the axletree of which stood upright, and 
the small stones or querns on the top of it. The water- 
wheel was at the lower end of the axletree, and turned 
horizontally under the water. There was no casing 
round the stone, and there was a peg in it, which, at 
every revolution, struck the moveable spout attached 
to the hopper. This shook the corn down into it, and 
the ground meal was swept up off the floor from under 
the stone. 



Part II. 

ADJECTIVAL AFFIXES. 

It has been found convenient to classify the adjectival 
affixes under the heads of Colour, Size and Shape, 
Relative Situation or Position, Sundry and Doubtful. 

(i.) Colour, — Among adjectival affixes colour naturally 
holds a prominent place. It is sometimes difficult to 



232 IDanx i^Iats-Aam^ 

give the exact English equivalent of our terms for the 
various colours; thus glass may mean 'gray/ as in 
Clagh Glass, * gray stone/ or ' green,' as in Magher 
Glass, ' green field,' and Cronk Glass, * Green Hill/ 
while AwiN Glass means ' pale blue, bright, or gray 
river/ 

Doo, * black, blackish, or very dark,' is very 
common. It is used chiefly in connection with boggy 
lands, as in Moaneydoo, 'black turbary,' or with 
heather-clad hills, which look dark at a distance, as 
in Bare-doo (Baare), ' black top.' There is a Kerroo- 
Doo, * black quarter (-land),' in almost every parish; 
such farms are usually on the hillsides, which are, 
or have been, covered with heather, and are often 
boggy as well. Doo is frequently found compounded 
with liargagh, *the slope of a hill,' in such forms 
as Lhergydoo and Largee-doo ; Knock-doo and 
Cronk-doo, 'black hill,' are common; Rhendoo 
(W»»), ' black ridge ;' Cooildoo, ' black nook ;' Balla- 
Doo, ' black farm ;' Glendoo, ' Black Glen,' a 
modern corruption of the same, Glenduff, and 
Stuggadoo (stuggey), ' Black Portion,' are also found. 
BooLDOHOLLY {BwoatlUe - doo - Keylley) is probably 
'Black fold of the Wood.' The dark colour of 
peaty water is recorded in Loughdoo, * Black Lake,* 
and Lhoobdoo, ' Black Gully (loop)/ is a small moor- 
land heather-clad gully between two mountain sides. 
AwiN-DOO, ' Black River,' is a dark muddy and sluggish 
stream, which joins the more rapid and brighter 
AwiN-GLASS, about a mile above the town of Douglas. 
Mullen-Doway (doo-aa), ' Black ford Mill,' is the old 
name of the place, now called Union Mills. Creggan 



Kiijiicfttral Kflfbc^*. 233 

Doo, 'Black Rocky Hillock;' Creggyn Dog, 'Black 

Rocks ;• Baie Doo, ' Black Bay ;' Ghaw Doo, ' Black 

Cove ;' Ooig Doo, ' Black Cave ;' and Gob Doo, * Black 

Point/ are found on the coast. [(I) Ballydoo.] 

Bane, * white,' is even more common than doo. The 

whitish and sparkling quartz, which so plentifully 

sprinkles our hillsides, has probably given rise to 

the names Cronkbane and Knockbane, * White 

Hill ;' Earybane and Earyvane, * White Moor ;' 

Claughbane, Claghbane, and Claughvane, 

* White Stone ;' Ballaclaughbane, ' White Stone 

Farm;' . Booilleyvane, 'White Fold;' CooiL- 

Bane, ' White Nook ;' Cregbane, ' White Rock,' 

and Ballaclybane, ' White Hedge Farm.* 

Cronk-y-Clagh-Bane, ' Hill of the White Stone,' 

is a tumulus with a white stone on top of it. 

Near Druidale there is a huge piece of white 

quartz, called The Sharragh Vane, ' The White 

Foal.' 

The prevalence of corn or white crops has 
perhaps originated the names Ballabane and 
Ballavane, ' White Farm,' and Maghervane, 
'White Field.' Traie Vane, 'White Shore,' 
and Geinnagh vane, ' White Sand,' are from the 
sparkling white sand. Spooyt Vane, 'White 
Spout,' is the name of a pretty little waterfall. 
Larivane (laare) 'White Floor,' is explained 
under laare (see p. 231). Bane also occurs in the 
curious name Craig-bane-y-Bill- Willy, 'Willy 
Bill Son's White Crag.' Bane and Vane are, in the 
north of the island especially, corruptly pronounced 
and spelled bedn and vedn, as in Carnane Bedn, 



234 tUanx l^to^-Aam^flu 

' White Cairn/ which marks the boundary between 
the parishes of Onchan and Braddan in the moun- 
tains ; in Cregbedn, * White Rock/ and Eary 
Vedn, ' White Moor.' [(I) Loughbane.] 

Ruy, *red/ is not so common as the preceding. 
AwiN RuY, 'Red River/ Gob-ny-Traie-ruy, 
' Point of the Red Shore / and Glen Roy, ' Red 
Glen/ appear to have been named from ferrugin- 
ous deposits in the water. Lhargee Ruy, ' Red 
Slope/ and Cronk Ruy, ' Red Hill,' become ap- 
propriate in autumn, when the bracken turns red. 
[(I) Owenroe, (G) Culroy.] 

Jiarg, *red,* also, but of a deeper red than ruy. 
Brough-jiarg-Moor, ' Big Red Brow,' is a con- 
spicuous raised beach in the parish of Ballaugh. 
The soil of Ballajiarg, ' Red Farm,' has a red 
colour and is very rich. [(I) Belderg, (G) Bar- 

JARG.] 

Dhoan, ' brown,' has the same signification as the 
cognate English dun. Carrick Dhoan, ' Dun 
Rock,' has probably been so called from being 
covered with seaweed, as it is under water at 
high tide ; also in Lag-dhoan, ' Dun Hollow.' 
[(I) Barnadown.] 

Glass, as already stated, has several meanings accord- 
ing to its application. Thus Ballaglass, ' Green 
X Farm,' in the parish of Maughold, contains Glione 
Glass, * Green Glen/ one of the most beautiful glens 
in the island. There are also in this sense Kerroo- 
Glass, * Green Quarter,' Ary-Glass {aeree), ' Green 
Moor,' and Curragh-Glass, ' Green Bog.' This 
latter is a small pool surrounded by the vivid 



WihittSifal Hflfbc^su 235 

green of a quaking bog. It is said that reputed 
witches were formerly ducked there, and if they 
floated they were rolled down Slieauwhuallian in 
spiked barrels. Gob-ny-Creggyn-Glassey, * The 
Gray Rocks' Point/ is a correct representation of 
the locality. The Awin-Glass, ' Gray River/ or 
' Light-blue River/ is a bright stream flowing rapidly 
over a gravelly bed, and is as different from its 
muddy neighbour, the Awin-doo, as the Rhone from 
the Saone. In cloudy weather the water looks gray, 
in sunshine light-blue. These rivers are usually 
called colloquially The Dhoo and The Glass, 
awin being dropped. There is a s^jring in the 
Ballaugh Curragh called the Chibber Glass,* 
* Bright Spring,' which derives its name from the 
sparkling nature of the water, which bubbles up 
from the gravel underlying the peat. [(I) Kinglas.] 

Gorryw, * blue/ is only found in Gob-Gorrym, 'Blue 
Point,' the sandy headland north of Jurby Point. 
It must have been so-called from its appearance 
at a distance, as it is certainly more yellow than 
blue, when near it. [(I) Cairngorm.] 

Lheeah is a rather different gray to glass, a duller gray 
would perhaps be the best description. It is found 
in Corlea, * Round Gray Hill,' and in Carrick- 
lea and Creglea, * Gray Rock/ [(I) Roslea, 
(G) Craigenlee.] 

Ouyr is a lighter dun than dhoan, and is even occasion- 
ally equivalent to 'pale gray.' It occurs in the 
names of two mountains, Slieau-Ouyr, * Dun 

* Pronounced chibber lesh. 



2z6 Mecnx f^lAtn-Vieim^^ 

Mountain,' and Mullagh-Ouyr, ' Dun Top.' [(I) 

CORROWER, (G) BeNOWR.] 

Breac (K), breck (C), 'speckled/ or * spotted/ is an 
epithet applied to ground sprinkled with quartz 
rocks, as well as to the appearance presented by 
the varying colours of vegetation. Thus : Lhergy- 
Vreck, * Speckled Slope / Cronkbreck, and 
Cronaback, formerly Cronkbreck, * Speckled 
Hill ;' Carnanebreck, ' Speckled Cairn / GoB- 
Breac, ' Speckled Point' The farm of Cronk- 
breck is said to have been formerly held on the 
tenure of providing a piper for the lord of the Isle. 
[(I) Kylebrack, (G) Benbrack.] 

Buigh, 'yellow,' is usually applied to places where 
gorse or furze grows freely, as in Reeast Bwee, 
'Yellow Moor/ Close Buigh, 'Yellow Close/ 
BiNG-BuiE {binn), ' Yellow Tops / Stroin Vuigh, 
'Yellow Nose,' the name of the point under 
Cronk-ny-arrey-Lhaa ; Coan Bwee, * Yellow 
Valley ;' Balla-conneh-Bwee {conney), ' Yellow 
Gorse Farm/ Ballabuiy and Ballabouigh, 
' Yellow Farm / also GulleiBViGH, ' Yellow Gullet/ 
on Langness. [(I) Owenwee, (G) Ballabooie.] 

Size and shape are naturally very common epithets 
in place nomenclature. 

The antithesis of big and little, mooar and begj is 
used to compare unequal divisions of land, and 
the difference between one natural feature and 
another in its neighbourhood. Thus there is a 
Balla Moar, 'Big Farm,' and a Ballabeg, 'Little 
Farm,' in every parish; a Cronk Moar, ' Big Hill/ 
will be found in juxtaposition with a Cronkbeg, 



Bbfertttiat Kfbotflu 237 



'Little Hill ;' a Moaney Moar, 'Big Turbary/ with 
a Moaney Beg, * Little Turbary ;' and a Glen 
Moar,' Big Glen,' with a Glen Beg, ' Little Glen,' 
though these names also exist when there is no 
idea of comparison. There are also Arey Moar, 
' Big Moor,* and Arey Beg, ' Little Moor ;' 
Ballamona Mooar (Moainee), ' Big Turbary 
Farm,' and Ballamona Beg, * Little Turbary 
Farm ;' Lheeaney Vooar, ' Big Meadow,* and 
Lheeaney Veg, ' Little Meadow ;' Purt Moar, 
'Big Port,' and Purt Veg, 'Little Port,' and 
KiONE Veg, 'Little Head/ There are many 
others, which will be found in the index. Beg is 
occasionally corrupted into fneg and mig, as 
in Ballameg and Ballamig, 'Little Farm.' 
Clychur is perhaps a corruption of Cleiy-Mooar^ 
'Big Hedge/ It is pronounced Clyhur. [(I 
and G) Ballymore, Bal£ybeg, (G) Balmeg.] 

Foddey, ' long,' is only found in Ballafadda, ' Long 
Farm.' This looks as if the Manx/oii^y was only 
a recent corruption of the Irish fadda, the name 
of the farm having been given before the change. 
Most of the old quarter-land properties are long 
and narrow, having an intack on the mountain 
on the one side, and on the seashore on the other. 
The object of this was that each property might 
share in the advantages of the common pasturage, 
and of the seaweed, which was and is used as 
manure. [(I) Killfaddy, (G) Drumfad.] 

Liauyr, 'long;' in Creg Liauyr, 'Long Rock/ and 
Magher Liauyr, ' Long Field.' 



33^ meinx i^Iapct-Aam^s. 

Giare, * short ;' in Ballagyr and Ballagare, ' Short 
Farm.' [(I) Glengar.] 

Lhean, ' broad ;' in Slieu-Lhean {slieau), * Broad 
Hill;' Eary-Lhean, 'Broad Moor;' Beeal- 
feayn-ny-Geay, 'Broad entrance of the Wind.' 

[(I) GORTLANE.] 

Kiel, ' narrow ;' in Thalloo Kiel, ' Narrow Plot ;' 
Magher Kiel, 'Narrow Field;' and Kerroo- 
KiEL, ' Narrow Quarter(-land).' [(I) Glenkeel,] 

Coon, * narrow ;' in Traie Coon, * Narrow Shore ;' 
and Nascoin, formerly Nascoan, a corruption of 
yn-eas-coon, * The Narrow Fall ;' an appropriate 
description of this pretty little fall in the parish of 
Ballaugh. 

Cam, ' crooked, curved, winding ;' in Glencam, ' Wind- 
ing Glen ;' Cooilcam, ' Winding Nook ;' and 
Giaucam, 'Winding Creek.' Shakespeare uses 
the phrase * cleam kam ' for wholly awry. [(I) 
Glencam, (W) Morecambe.] 

Jeeragh. ' straight ;' in GAaw-jeeragh, ' Straight Cove ;' 
and perhaps in Ballajerai, ' Straight Farm.' 

ScMt or scoiliy ' cleft ' or ' split ' (past participle of dy 
scoltey, ' to split ') ; in Renscault, formerly Ren- 
SKELT, ' Cleft Ridge.' This farm is at the end of 
the ridge of high land which divides the east and 
west Baldwin valleys. There was also a Cronk- 
Skealt, ' Cleft Hill,' a tumulus, in the parish of 
Ballaugh, which contained several urns thirty years 
ago. It has since then been carted away to improve 
the land for agricultural purposes. [(I) Knock- 
SGOiLT, (G) Clacksgoilte.] 



Klriietffiral Kffbctsu 239 

Cruinn, ' round ;' in Kerroo Cruinn, * Round Quarter- 

Oand) ;' Creg Cruinn, ' Round Crag.' 
Birragh (C), * pointed / in Ballabirragh, * Pointed 
Farm/ and probably in Ballaberrag or Balla- 
birrag. It should be mentioned that Birrag was 
formerly a common surname in the parish of Jurby, 
where this latter name occurs, and so it may possibly 
take its name from that of a former proprietor. 
Both Ballabirragh and Ballabirrag are very 
long and narrow farms. 
The relative situation or position of one place with 
respect to that of others, has given rise to several 
place-names. 

The adverbs heose and heese, 'above* and * below, 
are used adjectivally in local nomenclature with the 
meaning 'upper' and 'lower,' as in Baldromma-heose, 
* Upper (Hill).back Farm ;' Baldromma-heis, * Lower 
(Hill)-back Farm ;' Barroose (Bayr-heose), ' Upper 
Road ;' Garey cheu llEKSK(garee), * Upper Side Stony 
Place,' and Garey cheu Heese (garse), * Lower Side 
Stony Place,' and in Gretch Heose, * Upper Gretch.' 
[(G) Barhoise.] 

Eaghtyragh, * upper ;' in Ballyaghteragh, * Upper 
Farm,* and possibly in Balleigeragh with the 
same meaning. [(I) Ballyoughteragh, (G) 
Auchnotteroch.] 
Fo (adverb), 'beneath;' in BALLAFO^tg^^, in 162 1 
BAi^LA'FO'hague (hatigr O.N.), ' Beneath How 
Farm ;' and in TowLFO^gy ifo-haugr), * Beneath 
How Hole.' 
Meanagh, 'middle,' is very common, being generally 



240 Manx ^larie-Bmtutsu 

used to denote the middle quarter-land of a treen 
or the central farm in a parish, as in Balla- 
MEANAGH or Ballamenagh, * Middle Farm/ 
This word may be sometimes confounded with 
managh, 'a monk' (see p. 189). There are also 
Slieau Meanagh, * Middle Mountain;' Burrow 
Meanagh, ' Middle Burrow,' (?) a pile of rocks 
on Cronk-ny-arrey-Lhaa ; and Creg Venagh, 

* Middle Crag.' [(I) Drummenagh, (G) Bal- 

MEANACH.] 

Tessyn (K), Tessen (C), * across' or * athwart,' is 
generally applied to farms part of which lie on 
one side of a highroad, and part on another, as 
in Ballaterson and Ballatersin, * Athwart 
Farm.' The r in the* Manx place-names is pro- 
bably correct, as it agrees with the Irish and 
Gaelic forms. [(I) Kiltrasna, (G) Baltersan.] 

Ard, ' high ;' in Dorlish Ard (doarlish), * High Gap ;' 
Cronk Ard, *High Hill.' Clagh Ard, 'High 
Stone,' is the name of two standing stones or me- 
morial pillars. [(I) LOCHANARD.] 

Dowin, * deep, low ;' in Glendowne, * Deep Glen ;' 
BwoAiLLEE DowNE, * Deep Fold.' Balladoyne, 

* Low Farm,' is low-lying land by the river 
Neb. Also possibly in Baldooin, 'Low Farm,' 
and Baldwin, formerly Boayldin {Boayl dowin) ^ 
' Low Place.' Both East and West Baldwin are 
deep valleys. • 

Injil, * low ;' in Cooilingil, ' Low Nook,' and Cronk- 
iNjiL, ' Low Hill.' Cronkinjil is close to Cronk- 
ard. Injil is probably a corruption of the Irish 
iseal or Gaelic iosaly as in (I) Agheesal, for the 



ittKJi^tfitel itffbcesu 241 

Manx s is often hardened into j in pronunciation. 
Thus booisal is pronounced booijal. 

Sodjey, 'further;' in Burrow sodjey, ' Further Burrow (?), 
near Burrow Meanagh (see p. 246). 
The only cardinal point which is found in local 

names is sheear, ' the west/ (yn neear with the article), 

in Nerlough (yn neear), ' the west lake.' This place is 

on the ' White House ' property in Michael. There is 

no lake there now. [(I) Ardaneer.] 

The remaining adjectival epithets are too varied to 

be placed under any special heading : 

Garroo, 'rough, rugged,' is very common; in Balla- 
GARROW, ' Rough Farm;' Kerroogarroo, * Rough 
Quarter-(land) ;' Baregarroo (Bayr), * Rough 
Road ;' Cronkgarrow, * Rough HilL' [(I) Tor- 

GARROW.] 

Mollagh, ' rough,' is used in connection with swampy 
grounds; while garroo is usually applied to dry 
uplands. Thus : Moaney-Mollagh (Moainee), 

* Rough Turbary.' 

Creggagh, * rocky ;' in Ballacregga and Ballacragga, 

* Rocky Farm ;' Gobcreggagh, * Rocky Point ;' 
and in Chibbyrt-chroga, * Rocky Well.' 

Claghagh, * stony;' in Kerrooclaghagh, * Stony 
Quarter-(land).' 

Cloaie, ' stony ;' probably in Cold Clay, a corruption of 
CooilCloaie, 'Stony Corner;' and in Cloaie H^^, 
formerly Kione Cloaie, * Stony Head,' in the parish 
of Rushen. This word is not now used in colloquial 
Manx, but it occurs several times in the Manx Bible. 

Breinn, ' putrid, stagnant ;' in Poyllbreinn, ' Stag- 
nant Pool' One of the pools, so called, is at 

16 



242 nSatnx I^Iarit-Banteflu 

Langness, and the other at Poolvash. They are 
only filled with water by exceptionally high tides, 
so that in the meantime they stagnate. 

Geinnee, * sandy ;' in Ballagenny, ' Sandy Farm.' 
This farm is near the sandy shore of the parish of 
Bride. [(I) Glengannah.] 

Shliggagh (Trig. C. CI.), * shelly ;' in Rhullick-y-lagg- 
SLiGGAGH, ' the shelly-hollow graveyard.* This is 
the Manx name of the Mull Stone Circle. 

Aalin, * beautiful ;' in Knockanalin, * Beautiful Hillock.* 
[(I) Glashawlin.] 

Sallagh, * dirty, filthy ;' probably in Ballasalla, for- 
merly Ballasallagh and Ballasalley, 'Dirty 
Town or Farm.' There is a village of this name 
in the parish of Malew, and a farm in the parish of 
Jurby. 

Broigh, Broghe, also * dirty ;' in Glenbroigh, * Dirty 
Glen.' 

Curree, * boggy ;' in Ballacurry, Ballachurry, and 
Ballachurree, 'Boggy Farm,' a very common 
name ; also in Balicure, the old name of Bishop's 
Court. There is an earthwork on Ballachurry, 
in the parish of Andreas, dating probably from the 
seventeenth century, which is a rectangle fifty yatds 
in length by forty in breadth, with walls six yBxds 
thick, having a bastion at each corner. 

Grianagh, Grianey, Greinagh, Greiney, 5 sunny ;' in 
Ballagraney, ' Sunny Farm ;' Glen Greenaugh, 
* Sunny Glen;' and Port Greenaugh, 'Sunny 
Port.' The older name of Port Greenaugh was 
the (O.N.) Greenwyk. [(I) Ballygreany.] 

Rennee, * ferny ;' in Nellan Renny (yn-ellan), * The 



it^rittfttraJ itffx^ 243 

Ferny Isle ;' Lhergyrenny, * Ferny Slope ;' BuL- 
RENNY and BoLRENNY (Bwoatllee), ' Ferny Fold ;' 
and Barna-Ellan-Renny, * Ferny Isle Gap.' 
Rennee may also be the plural of renniagh, * fern.' 
[(I) Drumrainy, (G) Blawraine.] 

Fluigh, 'wet, moist ;' in Garey Fluigh, * Moist, Stony 
Place.' [(I) KiLLY Fluigh.] 

Moanagh, Moaney (C), 'turfy ;' Moainec (K), ' belonging 
to turf;' in Ballamona, * Turfy Farm;' formerly 
Ballamoaney, which is a very common name 
(this is frequently, but incorrectly, translated 
' Farm of the Turbary,' which is Ballanamona) ; 
also in Thalloovoanagh, 'Turfy Plot.' There 
is a Glenmona, a modern name, which simply 
means ' Mona (or Isle of Man) Glen.' [(I) Bal- 
lamona.] 

Losht, ' burnt ;' in Slieau Losht, ' Burnt Mountain ;' 
and Cronklosht, ' Burnt Hill ' (both these bills 
are remarkably dry) ; in Thalloo Losht, ' Burnt 
Land or Plot ;' and in the modern name, Cabbal- 
yn-oural-losht, ' Chapel of the Burnt Sacrifice.' 
[(I) Ballyhusk, (G) Craiglosk.] 

Creoi, ' hard ;' in Kerroo-creoi and Kerroocroie, 
' Hard Quarter-(land).' This epithet is applied to 
lands which are hard to till. [(I) Cargacroy.] 

Creen, ' withered or ripe ;' in the curious name CRO- 
CREEN^ 'withered or ripe fold.' Creen is used 
colloquially more generally as 'ripe' than 'withered.' 
[(G) Slewcreen.] 

Brisht, ' broken ' (past participle of dy brishey, to 
break) ; in Traie Brisht, ' Broken Shore ;' pro- 
bably so called from being covered with rough 

16—2 



344 nUanx I^Iatie-Baitteff. 

stones ; and in Brough Brisht, ' Broken Brow/ 
Here brisht seems to refer to a landslip. 
Rea, * flat, smooth, even ;' in Drim-Reiy (pronounced 
I'^y)^ * Flat (Hill-)back/ the old and appropriate 
name of St. Marks, [(I) Inchaffray, (G) Auch- 

RAE.] 

Roauyr, ' fat, swollen ;' in Kione Roauyr, ' Fat Head.* 
This is the somewhat fanciful name of a broad 
headland. 

MecHf literally *mild, meek,' has in local names the 
signification * smooth or soft ;' as in Gareemeen, 
* Soft Sour (or Rocky) Land ;* and Ballamine and 
Ballamin, * Soft Farm.' * Soft ' here means boggy* 
[(I) Clonmeen.] 

Meayl, 'bald,' generally speaking, means anything 
bald, bare, or hornless. Thus a hornless cow is 
called a mealey. In the only local name in which 
it is found it means *bare,' as Slieau Meayl, 
' Bare Hill.' [(I) Knockmoyle.] 

Chirrym or tirrym, * dry ;' in Ballachirrim, formerly 
Balytyrym, *Dry Farm;' Closechirrym, 'Dry 
Close;' and possibly in Baltrim, * Dry Farm.' [(I) 

TULLYHIRRIM.] 

Feayr, ' cold ;' in Chibber Feayr, * Cold Spring.' [(I) 

OWENURE.] 

Lajer, ' strong ;' in Cashtal Lajer, ' Strong Castle.' 
This is an ancient earthwork on Cronkould. It 
is forty yards in diameter, the outside mound 
being about eight feet high, and the raised em- 
bankment sixteen or seventeen feet thick. There 
are numerous barrow-mounds within the enclosure. 

Reagh, 'merry, laughing;' in Strooan Reach, 



HMKttitral Witfixt9. 245 

* Laughing Stream/ in Sulby Glen. This is a 
trickling mountain stream, which, when its water 
is glancing in the sunlight, might well deserve the 
above epithet. 

Coar (C), ' pleasant, agreeable ;* in Ballacoar, * Plea- 
sant Farm;* Cronkcoar, * Pleasant Hill;' Kerroo- 
COAR and Kerroocoare, * Pleasant Quarter 
(-land) ;' and Slieaucoar, * Pleasant Mountain,' 
If old Manx people are asked the meaning of the 
name of this mountain, they will say, * It is called 
the kindly mountain, because it gives such good turf.' 

Tonnagh (C), *wavy;' in Ballathonna, *Wavy 
Farm.' The ground of this farm, in the parish of 
Andreas, is undulating. 

Geayee, * windy,' is properly the genitive case of geay^ 

* wind,' but is used as an adjective. Cronk Geayee, 

* Windy Hill.' 

Noa, ' new ;' in Garey Noa, * New Garden.' 
Skeeani, 'holy, blessed;' in Rhenshent, 'Holy 
Ridge,' in the parish of Malew ; perhaps so named 
from its proximity to a treen chapel. There are two 
large boulders, called * The Giant's Grave,' on this 
place, which probably formed part of a stone 
circle. [(G) Clayshant.] 
Casherick, ' holy ;' in Keeill Casherick, ' Holy Cell,' in 
the parish of Maughold. Its walls are barely trace- 
able, but the grave-yard enclosure still remains. 
Kelly gives ab abban, A.,* belonging to an abbot or 
abbey ; as thalloo-ab, ' abbey-land ; ' quaiyl-ab, ' a 
court baron ;' keeill-abban, ' an abbey church ;' while 
Cregeen gives ' abb, A,* abbey,' only. 
* Adjective. 



246 Ittanx ll^Iar^-ftantttf. 

We find it in local names, inKEEiLL Abban, * Abbey 
Church,' and Cronk-keeill- Abban, 'Abbey Church 
Hill;' both in Baldwin, near the abbey lands of 
Braddan. Close by was the site of the ancient 
T3aiwald, where a Court was held in 1429. All traces 
of it have now disappeared. 

Braar^ (K), ' belonging to a prioiy or abbey,' a deriva- 
tive of braar, 'brother;' probably in Balla 
Vraarey, 'Priory Farm.' This is by Bimaken 
Friary, and is abbey land. 
Screbbagh, 'scabbed, scabby;' in Sloc-na-Cabbyl- 
ScREEVAGH, ' Pit of the Scabby Horse.' This pit 
is below the cliffs in the parish of Maughold, over 
which it was formerly the custom to throw diseased 
animals. 
Marroo, ' dead ' (a past participle) ; in Clagh-ny- 
Dooiney-Maroo, • Stone of the Dead Man.' It 
was said that a man, who had been murdered, 
was left lying on this slab. 

Doubtful. 

These may be classed in the same way as the doubt- 
ful substantival affixes (see pp. 225-30). 

The following are used colloquially, and are found in 
Irish and Gaelic : 
Gartagh, 'hungry;' in GiAU Gortagh, 'Hungry 

Creek,' a very absurd name as it stands. 
Bouyr, ' deaf;' in Cronkbouyr, ' Deaf Hill,' a tumulus. 
It appears that the corresponding Irish word, 
bodhar, corrupted, into bowery is used in local 
names in Ireland in the same way. Joyce* 
* Joyce, ' Irish Names of Places,' second series, pp. 46, 47. 



WCbitttiifeil Wiffixi^ 247 

surmises that, as some of the places so called 
have an echo, their names arose from your 
having to speak loudly to them and get a loud 
answer, exactly as happens when you speak to a 
deaf person. This is an ingenious explanation, 
but its application in the case of Cronkbouyr 
would seem doubtful [(I) Glenbower.] 

The following is found in Manx, Irish, and Gaelic, 

but is not known colloquially in Manx : 

Ceabagh, * cloddy ;' in PuiRT Ceabagh, * Cloddy 
Port.* This curious name would seem to be 
derived from the appearance of the small rocks 
there. 

The following are found in Manx, and are known 
colloquially, but are not found in Irish and Gaelic : 
Mea, * fat, luxuriant,' in the sense of fertile ; possibly in 
Glenmay, formerly Glenmea, Glenmeay, and 
Glenmoij, * Luxuriant Glen.* This is very doubt- 
ful, because it is always pronounced by old Manx 
people as if spelled Glenmoy, or Glenmy. 
Gerjotlf 'joyful;' in Carn Gerjoil, * Joyful Cairn,' 
a name also applied to the mountain on which the 
cairn stands. It may commemorate some public 
thanksgiving. 
Skibbylt, * active, nimble ;' in Cronk Skibbylt, * Nimble 
Hill.' No explanation of this absurd name is 
possible. It is probably a corruption of some- 
thing quite different. 
Foalley^ ' treacherous,' is found in our dictionaries, but 
not in Irish and Gaelic, unless fealltach, with the 
same meaning, has a remote connection. It occurs 



243 Meatx fj^tecoi'limntsi. 

in Traie Foalley, * Treacherous Shore/ pro- 
bably so named from quicksands. 
The two following are found in our dictionaries, and 
are used colloquially, but seem utterly misplaced in the 
compound names in which they are used. The 
former does not occur in Irish or Gaelic, but the latter 
does. 

Dooie, 'kind;' in Pooildhogie, 'Kind Pool;* and 
KiONDHOOiE, ' Kind Head.' Colloquially, dooie is 
generally used in the sense of 'patriotic,' as in 
Manninagh Dooie, ' A patriotic Manxman.' 
Tustagh, ' sensible, intelligent ;' in Keeill Tustag. If 
we may suppose the name to have been originally 
Keeill Dooiney Tustagh, ' Wise Man's Cell,' it 
could be explained as having originated from the 
occupancy of the cell by some anchorite of far- 
famed wisdom. The present occupant of the 
farm of this name, the old keeill having disap- 
peared, is skilled in charms. 

Imperfect Names. 

The names Crogga and Renny are certainly part of 
Ballacrogga (creggah), 'Rocky Farm;' and Balla- 
RENNY, ' Ferny Farm.' In the case of Crogga, the 
adjoining estate, of which it probably once formed 
part, is called Ballacregga. 

ADJECTIVAL PREFIXES. 

Our grammarians tell us that drogh, * wicked,' and 
shen, ' old,' are the only adjectives which precede their 
substantives ; but in local names we find, besides shen, 
ard, *high,' coar, 'pleasant,* and doo, 'black.' These, 



WLl^t(tlVoal pvntfix^tu 249 

however, are usually affixes, and only exceptionally 

prefixes, while shen is always a prefix. 

Shen, in Shenvalla, * Old Farm ;' Shenthalloo, *01d 
Ground or Plot ;' and Shenmyllin, ' Old Mill.* 
[(I) Shangort, (G) Shin Value.] 

Ard, in Ardvalley, 'High Farm;* Archollagan 
{ard'Chiollagh-een)f 'High Little Hearth;' and 
Arderry (ard-eary), * High Moor.' 

Coat, in Corvalley, ' Pleasant Farm.' 

DoOf in Douglas {Doo-glaise), * Black Stream ;' Dol- 
LAUGH MooAR {Doo4ough), ' Big Black Lake,' and 
Dollaugh Beg, * Little Black Lake.' [(I and 
G) Douglas.] 

The name of the farm Camlork, in 1511 Camlorge, if 
cam is here the adjective 'crooked,' should be 
placed under this heading; but it seems more 
probable that it is of Scandinavian origin (see 
post). 

The abverb/o, 'beneath,' is found in two names with- 
out a preceding substantive : Fochronk (probably 
for Balla-fo-yn-chronk), '(Farm) under the Hill;' 
and Folieu (probably for Balla-fo-yn-hlieau), 
' (Farm) under the Mountain.' 

The preposition eddyr occurs in the name Edremony, 
a corruption of Eddyr-daa-Moainee, ' Between Two 
Turbaries or Marshes,' which exactly described its 
situation formerly. There are only faint traces of 
the marshes now, [(I) Ederdacurragh.] 



CHAPTER IV. 

GENERIC TERMS FOR TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES, 

The Scandinavian place-names in the Isle of Man are 
always descriptive, and are usually compound words, 
consisting of a local substantive term with an attribu- 
tive prefixed. The attributive is usually a common or 
proper noun in the genitive case, rarely an adjective. 
In some few cases a substantive term is used simply 
or emphatically, and without any adjective, as Kneebe, 
Mull, in which case the definite article would be 
either expressed or understood in English. The 
generic terms, being affixes (not, as in Celtic languages, 
prefixes), have been placed in alphabetical order for 
convenience in reference, but otherwise it will be seen 
that the Scandinavian names are treated under the 
same headings as the Celtic. 



Part I. — Simple Names. 

The simple names in the Scandinavian, as well as in 
the Celtic place-names in the Isle of Man, are much 
fewer in number than the compound. 

The following are only found as simple names : 



Stmplje Wiam^tu 251 



Gnipa (F), 'a peak;' in Kneebe, formerly Gnebe or 
Knebe. This name is found on the western slope 
of Greeba Mountain, and is most probably the 
original name of the whole mountain, as ' n ' is 
frequently corrupted into * r.' The River Neb, 
which has its source near Knebe, may also take 
its name from it. 

Grof (F), *a pit, hole;' probably in Grauff, This 
treen, at Laxey, is actually in a deep hole between 
two steep hills. A quarter-land in this treen is 
now called Grawe, a modern corruption of grof. 
[Grof, Iceland; Graven, Shetlands; Grawine, 
Orkneys ; Graffnose, Hebrides.] 

Kringla (F), ' a dish, circle ;' possibly in Cringle, but 
this name is more probably taken direct from the 
proper name Cringle (see p. 86). [Cringle- 
beck, Lincolnshire ; Kringletoft, Denmark.] 

Mon (gen. Martar)^ 'The Isle of Man.' This is the 
invariable form of the name in the Sagas. On 
a runic stone at Kirk Michael the word Maun is 
found in the following inscription : * Gout : cirpi : 
pane : auc : ala : imaun,* ' Gout worked this (cross) 
and all in Maun.* This Maun exactly corresponds 
in sound with Mon. 

Muli (M), literally * a muzzle, snout,' is used in local 
names of a headland or jutting crag. In the Isle 
of Man The Mull, * The Headland,' is applied to 
the high rocky district at the extreme south. It is 
now spelled The Meayll in maps, though still 
called The Mull. [Mull of Galloway, Mull 
(Island) ; Muli, Iceland.] 

Nabbi (M), ' a knoll ;' in The Nab, ' The Knoll' [Nab, 



35^ WHanx pUaai-fB^amtB* 

Orkneys; Nabwood, Lincolnshire; The Knab, 
Shetlands.] 
The following are also found as afifixes : 

£y, ' an island ;' in The Eye, a rock off the Calf of 
Man, which has been completely pierced by the 
action of the waves. It is popularly supposed to 
mean literally * The Eye.' 

Eyrr (F), 'a gravelly bank ;' in The Ayre, the sandy 
and gravelly expanse extending along the north 
coast of the island. 
The following are also found as prefixes : 

Holmr (M), 'a holm, islet;' in Holm (ob.), the Scandi- 
navian name of the islet off Peel Harbour. In 
a Papal Bull of 1231 this islet is referred to as 
*HoLM, SoDOR, vel Pile ;' and in the charter con- 
firming the grant of Thomas, Earl of Derby, in 
1505, of churches and lands in the Isle of Man 
to Huan, Bishop of Sodor and Man, it is called 
* Holme, Sodor, vel Pele.' [Holmar, Iceland ; 
Flatholme, England ; Stockholm.] 

Klettr (M), *a rock;' in The Clytts {hlettar), *The 
Rocks.' 

Skat^ (N), *a notch, chink,' used in Icelandic local names 
of a mountain pass ; in Skard, which is high land. 
[SkarC, Iceland. Skar^ is also found as a prefix.] 

Shor (gen. skarar), ' a rim, edge ;' in Scara, * Edge.' 
This is, perhaps, only a portion of the original 
name. Scar or scaur is used in Scotland of a 
clifif, or precipitous bank of earth. Scara is on the 
edge of a cliff. Skor may possibly also occur in 
The Skoryn, * T^e Edge.' [Scar, Ireland ; The 
Skaur, Scotland.] 



(twsxpwxvUb TUdviUftu 253 

The following are both affixes and prefixes, and are 
explained under the former : The Garth, * The En- 
closure;* The How, 'The Mound;' The Stack, 
* The Detached Rock ;' Holm, ' Islet ;' the old name 
of Peel, and Rig, ' Ridge/ 

Part II. — Compound Names. 

i4'(F), * a river ;' as in Laxey {Lax-d), * Salmon River.* 
It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between 
d and ey, * an island.' The only guides are the 
ancient form of the name and the appropriate- 
ness of the appellation in each case. [Laxa, 
Iceland.] 

Bar, bxr, byr, 'a farm or landed estate;' as in 
Crosby (Krossa-byr), ' Cross Farm.' In the Isle of 
Man it is invariably found in the Swedish and 
Danish form, by, though its general meaning is, as 
in Iceland, a farm, not, as in Scandinavia, a 
town or village. This word is a certain sign of 
permanent colonization, and wherever it is found 
it marks out the limits and extent of Scandi- 
navian immigration. It is the commotiest Scan- 
dinavian affix in the Island. 

Bali (M), * a soft, grassy bank,' used especially of a 
bank sloping to the sea-shore ; only in Bibaloe, 
formerly Byballo (v/-balli), ' Grassy Bank House.' 

Brekka (F), 'a slope;' as in Corbreck (Kora-brekka), 
'Cori's Slope.' Brekka is common in Icelandic 
local names. It was the name given there to 
the hill where public meetings were held and 
laws promulgated. [Sandbrekka, Iceland.] 



254 Ittftttx ipiaoe-tt«ttt«su 

Dalr (M), 'a dale;* as in Narradale (Narfa-dcUr), 
' Narfi's Dale.' Baldwin, in the parish of Braddan, 
was in 151 1 called BuIdaia., ' The Mill of Ba/DALL* 
being mentioned, as well as the farms of Baldall 
Chrisie,' BallDALi. Brew, and BatoALL Reynylt. 
Thus Ba/DALL seems to be a combination of the 
Celtic Balla and the O.N, Dalr. [Brei«dalr, 
Iceland ; Borrowdale, English Lakes ; Laxdale, 
Lewis.] 

Ey (gen. and plu. eyjar), 'an island;* as in Liggea 
(Ldg-ey), *Low Island.* [Flatey, Orkney, 
Chelsea, Alderney, Cambray.] 

Eyrr (F), * a gravelly bank ; either of the banks of a 
river or of a tongue of land running into the sea ;' 
as in The Point of Ayre, 'The Point of the 
Gravelly Bank,' the long, low promontory at the 
north-eastern extremity of the Island, Eyrr is 
also found compounded with Celtic prefixes, in 
BallanAYRK (BaHa-yn-^rr), 'Farm of the Gravelly 
Bank ;' Bayr-ny-AYRA, ' Road of the Ayr,* the road 
leading to the Point of Ayre ; and in the name of 
the parish L^zayre, formerly Le Ayre, which is 
probably a corruption of ny ayre, ' of the eyrr.* In 
1231 the Church Sancta Trinitatis in foAYRE is 
mentioned in a Papal Bull, and in the sixteenth 
century the parish church was called Kirk Christ le- 
Ayre, ' Christ*s Church of the Ayre.* The sub- 
stitu tion of ' r for ' n ' is not, as we have already seen, 
uncommon in Manx pronunciation. The greater 
part of this parish was, till the middle of the 
sixteenth century, under water, as the curragh was 
then undrained, and the land was consequently of 



(C0mp0tm2» Wiamttt. 255 

very little importance. - It may, therefore, have 
been regarded merely as an appendage of the 
Ayre. [Aers of Sellivoe, Shetland ; Point of 
Ayr, Wirrall, Cheshire.] 

Fjall (N), * a fell, mountain ;' as in Sn^efell (S«^- 
fjall), * Snowfell,* the name of the highest mountain 
in the Island. [Dofra-fjall, Norway; Goatfell, 
Arran; Copeval, Harris; Fairfield, English 
Lakes.] 

Fjordr (M), * a firth, bay ;' possibly in BallaFVRT. This 
is the sole instance of the even possible occurrence 
in the Isle of Man of a word so common in Scandi- 
navia; but it should be remarked that the word 
fjordr is applied to deep inlets, which are not found 
here, while the small crescent-shaped creeks or 
viks are common. In Celtic, BallaFVRT would mean 
' port farm,' and is probably the correct derivation. 
It is, however, just possible that furt may be a 
corruption of fjordr, which in the Hebrides takes 
the forms port, fort, forth, furt. [Erisport, 
Hebrides.] 

Gar^r (M), ' a yard, an enclosed space,' as in Fishgarth 
{Fiski'garfSr), * Fish Enclosure (or Pond) ;' and pos- 
sibly in the corrupt Fistard, with the same mean- 
ing. Garf5r takes this form of garth in the Orkneys 
and Shetlands ; but in the Hebrides it usually be- 
comes garry, which form is also commoner than 
garth in thelsle of Man, as in Amogarry, ' Asmund's 
Enclosure.' (Compare Anglo-Saxon ^^ari, English 
yard and garden, and provincial English garth,) 
[Grass-garth, English Lakes ; Ashmigarry, 
Hebrides ; Fiski-gar«r, Iceland.] 



256 WSiecxtx l^tote-Bamittf* 

Gata (F), * a way, path, road ;* probably in Keppell 
Gate {Kapal-gata)^ * Horse-road.' 

Gil (N), * a deep, narrow glen, with a stream at the 
bottom;' as in GlenGiLL (glione), * Ro-vine Glen;' 
and Traie-ny-'GiLi^, * Strand of the Ravine.' This 
word has been adopted into Manx, though, doubt- 
less, originally of Scandinavian origin, and is used 
in just the same sense as in Iceland. Ghyl and 
Gill are common in local names in the North of 
England and in Scotland, as well as in Iceland. 
[Dungeon Ghyll.] 

Hamarr (M), literally * a hammer,' is used in Icelandic 
local names of a hammer-shaped crag—a crag 
standing out Hke an anvil. In the Isle of Man it 
is only found in Cornama (ob.) (Korn-hamarr), 
'Corn Crag.' Cornama is mentioned as being 
one of the abbey boundaries in the parish of 
Malew, in the Chronicon Mannia. The same place 
is now called Cordeman, a curious corruption. 
Hamarr is common in Icelandic local names, but 
always as a prefix. 

Hatigr (Ml), ' a how, mound,' is properly used of the 
artificial earthen mounds which were piled over the 
bodies of deceased Scandinavian chieftains, who, 
in the phrase so common in the Landndma-boc, 
were ' bowed ' (heygfir) ; but in the Isle of Man it is 
also used of headlands by the sea, where, however, 
these chieftains were usually buried ; hence probably 
how became the usual name for such headlands. 
We have it in Swarthawe {svart-haugr), 'Black 
How ;' and in the northern headland of Douglas Bay, 
Banks*s Howe, so called from a family of that time 



Cxntt|i0ttti)i Aitntstf* ' 257 

who held property there. It also occurs with Celtic 
prefixes, as in Balla How, BalnaHOV/t or Balne- 
HOW, * How Farm ' or ' Farm of the How ;' in 
BallafoGiGK, a curious corruption of BaHa-fo-haugr, 
* Below How Farm ;' and in the equally curious cor- 
ruption TowItoggy, * Below How Hole,' an exact 
description of the cave on Perwick beach. Haugr 
is found in combination with Cronk, which has 
occasionally much the same meaning, in Cronk- 
HOV/E-moarf * Big How Hill,' commonly called ' Fairy 
Hill.' [FoxHOWE, English Lakes; Redhaugh, 
Northumberland ; Ardnahoe, Islay ; Muckle 
Heog,* Shetlands.] 

H611 (M), ' a hill, hillock;' as in Strandhall {Strandar- 
hdll), ' Strand Hill.' [Arnol, Hebrides.] 

Holt (N), * a wood, copse-wood ;' as in Dalliot {Dalaf- 
holt), * Dales' Wood.' Holt was the usual word 
for a wood in Middle English. [Brantarholt, 
Iceland,] 

Hryggr (M), * a ridge ;' possibly in Brerick (Bruar- 
hryggr), * Bridge ridge.' This, and perhaps Bar- 
rick {Berr-hryggr), ' Bare ridge,' are the only names 
in which hryggr certainly appears as an affix, 
though it would seem to occur in Aldrick, Spald- 
rick, Soldrick, and Rarick, the names of small 
creeks. As, however, there is no connection with 
a ridge in these creeks, we can only suppose that 
the rick is a corruption of v{k. In Middle English 
a ridge was called a rigge, and in the north of 
England, at the present day, ridge or rigg is con- 
stantly used of a hill. 

Kdlfr (M), literally * a calf,' is used in local names of a 

17 



35^ Wttanx ipiars-Aami^ 

small island near a large one. We have it in Calf 
of Man, which is a translation of Manar-kAlfr, 
as it is written in the Sagas. [Rastar-kalfr, 
Hebrides ; Isle of Calf, Ireland.] 

Klufi (F), 'a cleft;' possibly in Scarlet, formerly 
ScARCLOWTE (Scarar-kluft) , * Cleft Edge/ 

Land (N), * land ;' possibly in Kitterland, ' Kitter's 
Land.' [Jotland.] 

Lundr (M), ' a grove,' only occurs in Little London 
(Littill lundr), * Little Grove.' This place consists 
of two or three houses in a wooded dell in the 
midst of the mountains. Lundr is very common 
in Danish and Swedish local names, and it is also 
found in the north of England. [Little London, 
Lincolnshire ; La Londe, Normandy.] 

Nes (N), literally ' a nose,' is used in local names both 
of long, low points and high cliffs, but usually of 
the former, as in Langness {Langa-ncs), * Long 
Nose.' This name is pronounced Langlish by old 
Manx people, and thus furnishes an instance of 
the change of ' n ' to * 1.' [Langanes, Ice- 
land; Dungeness, England; Grisnez, France; 
AiGNiSH, Hebrides.] 

Pollr (M), ' a pool, pond,' is only found in Duppolla, 
(ob) (Djup-pollr), ' Deep pool,' which was one of the 
abbey-land boundaries in the parish of Lezayre, 
mentioned in the Chronicon Mannia. Pollr is cognate 
with the Manx pooyll, Irish and Gaelic poll, Welsh 
pwl, and English pool. [Liverpool ; Brakapollr, 
Iceland.] 
Rani (M), literally * a hog's snout,' used in local names 



QTrnitirimnty Wi«mtsu 259 

of a * hog-backed ' hill, possibly occurs in the name 
of the mountain Golden, formerly Coldran 
(Kuldi-rani), ' Cold Hill.' 

Ripr (M), *a crag;' only in Skeirrip {Skerja'ripr)^ 
' Skerries' Crag.' Ripr becomes reef in Lewis, 
South Uist and the Orkneys. 

Setr (N), (i) ' a seat, residence,' (2) * mountain pasture, 
dairy lands,' may possibly be found in Gryseth 
(ob), (Grjdta'Seir), ' Stones pasture.' This place, 
which appears in the abbey-land boundaries in the 
parish of Lezayre, mentioned in the Chronicon Man- 
nice^ is now called Kella. In the Hebrides this 
word takes the form shader, as in Grim-shader ; 
in the Orkneys, Seater^ as in Grim-seater; and 
in the Shetlands, setter, as in Greem-setter. In 
the Shetlands setter is often contracted into ster^ 
as in Cruster. In Norway the modern saters 
are shepherds' huts on the mountain pastures. 

Stadr (M), *a stead, place, abode,' as in Grettest 
{Greta-stadr), now Gretch, ' Grettir's Place.' In 
the Shetlands, by 1576, stadr had usually been 
shortened to sta, and in the Orkneys, in 1502, it 
was represented by stath, staith, stayth, and in 
1595 sta. In the Isle of Man, early in the six- 
teenth century, the termination sta is sometimes 
found, but est is more usual. Stadr forms the 
termination of sixty-one names in the Landndmabdc, 
It is cognate with stead in English, and statt in 
German. [Grymestath, now Gremisten, Shet- 
lands; Mealista, Hebrides.] 

SkSgr (M), ' a shaw, a wood ;' in the obsolete Mirescoge 
(Mymr-sW^r),* Wood bog,' the name of a monastery 

17 — 2 



fl6o Ittanx TfiUftSi'^^txttsL 

which was formerly situated on an island in the 
Lezayre Curragh, at a place now called Balla- 
MONA. In the Chronicon Mannia, under date 1176, 
we find that Godred gave to the Abbot Silvanus 
a piece of land at Mirescoge, where he soon 
built a monastery. In the account of the limits 
of the church lands appended to the Chronicle 
*The lake at Myreshaw' is mentioned. In 
North English and Scotch, a wood is called a 
shaw; in Middle English, schawe, shawe; and in 
Anglo-Saxon, scaga. 

Skor (F), (gen. skarar)^ * a rim, edge ;' probably in Skin- 
scoE, formerly Skinneskor, ' Skinni's Edge.' 
This aptly describes the place, which is on the 
edge of steep cliffs by the sea, in the parish of 
Lonan. 

Stakkr (M), literally * a stack of hay,' is used in local 
names of columnar-shaped detached rocks in the 
sea ; as in Bate Stakkr, * Stack Bay.' 

Toft, * a green tuft or knoll, a green, grassy place ;' as 
in Trollotoft {Trolla-toft), * Troll's Knoll,' in the 
parish of Malew. In Norway tuft means a clearing, 
a piece of ground for a house, or near a house. In 
Middle English toft is a knoll. Thus in Piers Plow- 
man we find ' a towne on a toft.* In Later English 
it came to mean a piece of ground, a messuage, 
a homestead. 

Tun (N), ' a hedge, an enclosure, a house,' whence the 
English town. Possibly town in Holm Town, 
* Islet Town ' (ob), the old name of Peel, is merely 
the English form, and not derived from Tun. 

Vdgr (M), 'a creek, bay;' as in Ronaldsway (Rogn- 



Cinnp0unl)r Aamm 261 

valds-vagr)^ ' Reginald's bay.' [Stornoway, Heb- 
rides ; Scalloway, Shetlands.] 

Va6 (N), * a wading-place, a ford ;' as in Santwat 
(Sand'Va6), * Sandford/ near Jurby Point, the scene 
of an internecine struggle between the Manx in 
A.D. 1098. It should be noted that in the Chronicon 
Mannice, Ronaldsway (see above) appears in the 
forms Ragnaldswath, Rognalwath and Ronald- 
WATH, so that it may possibly be derived from vafi. 
[Holta-va«, Iceland.] Compare English wade. 

Vik (F), 'a small creek, inlet, bay,' as in Garwick 
(Geir-vik), * Spear Creek,' is very common in the 
Isle of Man, which shows how frequent the visits 
of the Vikingr^ or Creekmen, must have been 
to its shores. In Islay vik is corrupted into aig 
and ag^ and agg is found in the Shetlands ; so it is 
possible that the same corruption may appear in 
Shellag, ' Shell Creek,' on the east side of the 
Point of Ayre. 

Vollr (M), *a field ;' found only in the compound term 
TiNWALD or Tynwald ifing-vdllr), which was ex- 
plained as follows by the late Dr. Vigfusson :* 

* In the Isle of Man, as in any ancient Norse 
Moot-place, three things are to be noticed : a plain 
[voU], whereon there were to be found the hillock, 
brink or mound, and the court. The court is due 
west of the hill. The procession on the 24th of 
June [5th July, N.S.] proceeds from the court to 
the mound. The king, seated on the hill, had to 
turn his " visage unto the east." The Manx Tin- 

♦ Manx Note Book, vol. xii., p. 174. 



262 IDanx ^to^-Aantq^* 

WALD and the Icelandic All- moot correspond in 
each particular point : 

'The Tin-walld answers to the Icelandic fing- 
volUr ; the Tinwald-hill to the Icel. Log-berg,* or 
Log-brekka y-f the House of Keys to the Icel. Log- 
r/ttal (court) ; the chapel to the temple of heathen 
days. 

' The 24th June procession answers to the Icel. 
Logbergis-gangUy^ or D6ina'Ut'f£ersla,\\ on the first 
Saturday of every session, the distance between 
hill and court being about 140 yards in each case. 
The path, being fenced in like the court and hill, 
and used for this solemn procession when the 
judges and oflBcers go to and fro between them, 
would answer to the Icel. ^ingvallar-tra^er.^ 

*The Manx Deemsters {Ddm-stiSrar, deem- 
steerers) answer to the Icelandic Law-man or 
Speaker. There were two Deemsters in the Isle 
of Mann, because its central Tinwald is a union 
of two older separate Tinwalds, each of which 
kept its Law-speaker when the two were united 
in one central Moot. The Keys answer to the 
bench of godes, being two benches of twelve godes, 



* Ld^'derg, ^ the law hill, law rock,' where the Icelandic legisla- 
ture was held. 

t Log-brekka, * law slope or brink,* the hill where public meet- 
ings were held and laws promulgated. 

X Log-rdtta^ ^ law-mending,' the name of the legislature of the 
Icelandic Commonwealth. 

§ Logberfris'ganga, *' the procession to the law rock.' 

II Ddma-Ht'fcBrsla^ 'the opening of the courts.' The Judges 
went out in a body in procession, and took their seats. 

IT Vingvallar-trc^er, * Tinwald enclosure or lane.' 



C0itt);r0uiiti Hmxsitu 263 



just as in Iceland there were four benches of 
each twelve godes,* 

*The Hill and the Temple were the two holy 
spots, not the Court. The king sat on the hill, 
not in the court. Even at the present day the 
Manx look on the Tinwald hill as their hill of 
liberty, and rightly so. Antiquarians wanting to 
dig into the mound are warned off as right-minded 
Englishmen would forbid digging into Shakespeare's 
grave. In days of old. Hill and Court were, as it 
were, twins. Discussions, enactments of laws and 
decisions of law points took place in the Court, but 
anything partaking of proclamation, declaration, 
publication, was done from the Hill. It was the 
people's place. 

* The arrangement of the Manx Tinwald and 
the Icelandic All-moot is one that no doubt ob- 
tained in other Teutonic nations, the hill for pro- 
clamations standing due west of the high court. 
This Court in early days was no doubt held within 
the temenos of a temple, as the Keys still sit in the 
southern transept of the Chapel of St. John.' 

The two older Tinwalds, mentioned by Dr. 
Vigfusson, are situate at Cronk Urley, or Re- 
NEURLiNG, near Kirk Michael, for the northern 
part of the Island, and at Keeill Abban, near St. 
Luke's Church in Baldwin, for the southern part of 
the Island. We learn from tfie Statute Law Book 
that there was a Tinwald Court held at the for- 
mer place in 1422, but since that date the summer 

* The ^odes composed the Log-r/tta, and were the Tlaw-givers 
of the country. 



264 IDanx ^focie-Aatn^ 

courts have usually been held at St. John's, while 
mid-winter courts were held between the gates at 
Castle Rushen till 1610, after which date the 
practice has been to promulgate the laws from the 
central Tinwald at St. John's, and usually once a 
year only, on Midsummer-day, June 24th, being the 
feast day of St. John the Baptist, which, since the 
change in the calendar, has been altered to the 
5th of July. Of late years the greater amount of 
legislation has occasionally necessitated a winter 
promulgation as well, from the same spot. 

This Tinwald at St. John's is held on a little 
artificial hill in the central valley between Douglas 
and Peel, about eight miles from the former and 
two and a half miles from the latter. This hill is 
said to have been originally composed of earth 
taken from all the seventeen parishes. It is 
circular in form and consists of four terraces, the 
lowest of which is eight feet broad, the next six 
feet, the third four feet, and the topmost six feet. 
There are three feet between every terrace. The 
circumference of the hill, which is covered with 
grass, is 240 feet. The promulgation of the law 
was formerly attended with considerable ceremony 
and state. The king sat upon the summit of the 
hill with his face to the east (i.e., towards the 
chapel), his sword being held with the point 
upward before him. Round him were assembled 
the barons, deemsters, clergy, knights, esquires, 
and yeomen ; and without the fence, which was 
formerly a wall about a hundred yards in circum- 
ference, the Commons. Then the Deemster, or 



dmnpjcmHtf tttam^^ 265 

Deemsters, with the permission of the king or his 
lieutenant, chose the worthiest of the freeholders 
to assist in deciding difficult or doubtful points of 
law, as judicial questions were then decided as well 
as legislation passed. These keise, or chosen, who 
afterwards became the legislative body called the 
House of Keys, only existed in olden times by the 
lord's will, and were selected as occasion arose. 
The Court having been thus constituted, the 
Coroner of Glenfaba Sheading ' fenced * the Court, 
proclaiming that no man should make any dis- 
turbance on pain of hanging and drawing. The 
Court then proceeded with the business before 
it, but it seems clear that no legislation was valid 
without the assent of the Commons assembled 
outside the fence. Thus we find that there existed 
a true primitive folk-moot in the Isle of Man, the 
nearest parallel to which is the Landesgemeind of 
Uri and Unterwalden. 

At the present day the Commons legislate only 
through their representatives, the Keys, and the 
procedure, too, has been shorn of much of its 
ancient circumstance and display. The Governor, 
representing the English sovereign, the Council, 
and the Keys assemble for Divine service in St. 
John's Chapel, after which the laws are signed. A 
procession then starts for the hill in the following 
order : (i) Four sergeants of Police, (2) the six 
coroners, (3) captains of the parishes, (4) the 
clergy in file, (5) the four high bailiffs, (6) mem- 
bers of the House of Keys in file, (7) clerk to the 
Council, (8) members of the Council, (9) the 



266 IDdnx l|9(ax]^-1EtftUi00* 

Bishop, (lo) the sword-bearer, who is the officer 
in command of the troops, (ii) the Lieutenant- 
Governor, (12) surgeon of the Household, (13) 
Government chaplains, (14) the chief constable 
— passing through the ranks of a company of 
English soldiers, who have their barracks at 
Castletown. On arriving at the hill, the Southern 
Deemster calls upon the Coroner of Glenfaba to 
fence the Court, which he does in the following 
words : * I fence this Court in the name of our 
Sovereign {j2Sj;SS§i2n}- I do charge that no 
person do quarrel, brawl, or make any disturb- 
ance, and that all persons answer to their names 
when called ; I charge this audience to witness 
that this Court is fenced ; I charge this audience 
to bear witness that this Court is fenced ; I charge 
this whole audience to bear witness that this Court 
is fenced.' The coroners are then sworn in by the 
Southern Deemster, who after this proceeds to 
read the marginal notes of the laws in English, 
being followed by the Coroner of Glenfaba, who 
repeats the same in Manx. No law is binding 
unless thus proclaimed from Tinwald Hill. It 
then becomes ' an Act of Tinwald.' The pro- 
cession being re-formed, the Court returns to the 
chapel, where certain necessary money votes are 
passed, any subject on which a debate is likely to 
arise being adjourned. [Thingwall, Wirral; 
TiNGWALL, Shetlands ; Dingwall, Scotland ; 
PiNG-voLLR, Iceland.] 
Vorr (F), used in Icelandic local names of *a fenced-in 
landing-place,' is cognate with the English weir. 



Compmntir JDLecmtt^ 267 

The Crossag Bridge is called, in one edition of the 
Chronicon Mannia, Crosyvor (Krossa-vorr), * Weir 
Cross.' This bridge spans the Silverburn stream 
close by Rushen Abbey^ and it is quite possible 
that the monks had both a weir as well as a cross 
there. [Skerryvore, Ireland.] 
porp (N), ' a hamlet, village ;' in Northop {NorlSr-^orp), 
*The North Village.' [Nythorp, Denmark; 
NoRTHORPE, Lincolnshire.] 




CHAPTER V. 



NAMES OF DIVISIONS OF LAND, NOT TOPOGRAPHICAL. 

The name of the largest division of land in the Isle of 
Man, The Sheading (S*««ar-f*»^), 'War-ship Dis- 
trict/ is clearly of Scandinavian origin. The following 
account of it was given by the late Dr, Vigfusson : 

* What does tUe division of the Isle of Man into six 
Sheddings or Sheadings mean, and what is the 
origin of the word ? 

*It cannot be related to the Anglo-Saxon sceadan^ 
whence Modern English to shed (to part or divide), 
for sheading would mean rather the act of dividing than 
the thing divided ; further, this word of this family is 
unknown to the Scandinavian tongues, and how could 
such a word have got there among a population purely 
Norse and Celtic ? 

' It is a political word, denoting the secular division 
of the Island. Hence it is to the Norse language and 
to Norse institutions we have to look for the explana- 
tion thereof, I take it to be a compound word, the 
second component part whereof is ^ng, thing (a moot, 
or even shire, district) ; the first component part would 



9\\fisA0tX0 iif Tdtitr* 269 

be a monosyllable, ending in d or ih, beginning in sk. 
The dd is due to the association of t$ and th, 

' So much for the grammar. Let us next have a 
look at the state of things in Scandinavia in olden 
days. 

' Ancient Scandinavia, with her vast coast -line, 
measuring thousands of miles, indented with countless 
fjords and bays, and the Baltic estuary, stocked with 
islands, was from time of yore a land of mariners; 
the sea was their high-road, and from the sea rather 
than from the land they drew their sustenance ; their 
first vessels were war-ships — galleys. Hence it comes 
that, from Lofoden down and along the coast of the 
Baltic, the land, as far inland " as the salmon runs," 
was divided into " ship-shires," districts, each of 
which, for defence or war at home or abroad, had to 
supply, man, and fit out a certain number of galleys. 
Every freeman born, between twenty and sixty years of 
age, was bound to serve. The names differ : in 
Norway this division is called skip-ret^a (skip and rei^a, 
to fit out, pay, discharge) ; in Sweden, skips-lag (ship- 
districts) or snekkja-lag (galley-districts). Observe that 
sneikja and skei^ are synonymous words for the ordinary 
swift war-galley, and that the average number of oars 
in these galleys was sixteen or twenty. We have here, 
I think, got the right word, skei^a-thing or skeiHar-thing, 
a division into ship hundreds, each of which had to 
furnish so many skeiiSs to the king. This would hold 
good for the Isle of Man. The Norse kings of Man 
and Sodor were essentially the lords of the sea, and 
would have established the same division that, since 
time out of mind, had obtained in their old home. In 



270 IDftttx !|^Iatit-1Etftin^0* 

old Norse, in the tenth century, sk was undoubtedly 
sounded as in English skin, but in the course of time it 
changed into the present Norwegian sound, resembling 
English sh. The Manx, we take it, followed the Norse 
pronunciation, at least up to the date of separation in 
the thirteenth century, at which date the present 
Norse sound had obtained ; hence the word is sheading, 
not sheading, as it would be if no change had taken 
place. 

' Practically the sheadings answer to the hundreds or 
herdds of Scandinavia. We know that in Upland 
(Sweden) every hundred had to fit out four ships. The 
Manx levy would, on the same scale, have been twenty- 
four galleys, and, taking the average crew to be forty, 
the full levy of the Island {i.e., the male population 
between twenty and sixty) would make about one 
thousand. This would make the whole population 
some four or five thousand.'* Though the name is of 
Scandinavian origin, the amount of land represented 
by the Sheading would appear to correspond with the 
Irish cantred, hundred, or barony, containing 120 
quarters of land; for each Sheading, except Garflf, 
contains three parishes, each parish, on an average, 
ten treens, and each treen, on an average, four quarters, 
i.e., 3x10x4=120 quarters in the sheading. We are 
told that in the age of the world 3922, * OUamh Fodla, 
king of Ireland, appointed a chieftain over every cantred 
and a brughaid over every townland.'t Now in the 
Isle of Man the Sheading is still a division for judicial 
purposes, and has its ofiicer, the coroner. Its court 

* Manx Note Book, vol. xii., p. 175. 
t Four Mast., vol i., pp. 53, 54. 



9itri«iinteE vf fan)r« 271 

formerly formed part of the Court of Common Law. 

In it was kept the registry of the names and titles of 

the lord's tenants, and it had cognizance of actions 

between tenants and felonies committed by tenants. 

Its manorial business is now transacted in the Courts 

Baron, presided over by the Seneschal. 

Skeerey^ * a parish,' is probably a name of Scandinavian 
origin, as it has retained the hard ' k ' sound. It 
appears to be derived from skera, ' to cut, divide,* 
which is akin to the English shcar^ Anglo-Saxon 
^re^ and English shire. It is only in connection 
with keeilley (see below) that it comes under the 
heading of a prefix, as in the only word in which it 
occurs uncompounded, Dreem Skeerey, ' Parish 
Back,' it is an affix. Dreem Skeerey is the name 
given to a long hill-ridge in the parish of Maughold. 
Skeerey is in use colloquially, and is found in 
the Manx dictionaries. It is used of the civil 
parish ; but, when the Manx wish to express the 
ecclesiastical parish, they use the word skeeylley, 
which is probably a corruption of Skeerey KeilUy, 
' Church Division,' though it may be from the 
(O.N.) skilja, ' to part, separate, divide.' 



CHAPTER VI. 

DISTINCTIVE PREFIXES, 

Part I. 
SUBSTANTIVES. 

By far the larger portion of distinctive prefixes in 

Scandio-Manx names are substantives. The following 

are prefixes as well as affixes : 

Brekka, * a slope ;' possibly in BRACKAbroom, formerly 
BRECKAbroom (?) and B^^CKbooilley, * Slope of the 
Fold ;* but the breck in these names may be from 
the Celtic brecky ' speckled, spotted/ though, in that 
case, the position of the adjective is unusual (see 
p. 236). 

Dalr, ' a dale ;' in Dalliott (Dalar-holt), * Dales* 
Wood ;' and in Dalby (Dalar-byr), ' Dales' Farm.' 
Dalr, however, is not found in Iceland as a prefix 
in local names ; so that these derivations are per- 
haps doubtful. Captain Thomas derives such 
names as DALEwor^ and DaleJ^^, in Lewis, from 
dal, ' a little dale.' 

Eyrr, ' a gravelly bank ;' possibly in Orrisdale, for- 
merly Orestal {Eyri'dalr)y 'Gravelly Bank Dale.' 



Stttafanfttial :pinfbc»u 273 

The objection to this derivation, however, is the 
' s ' in Orrisdale ; and the same objection would 
apply to the derivation from the Danish ore^ * un- 
cultivated land, forest/ Orestal, in Kirk Michael, 
is found in 1511; but Orrisdale, in Malew, is a 
modem name, and was probably named after the 
traditional King Orry (see p. 88) ; it is, of course, 
possible that Orestal may have the same origin. 
In the Hebrides and Islay, eyrr becomes Enra^ 
Eorif EaYy Ire, or /ure ; so that it may possibly 
form the first syllable in /urby (Jure-byr), 'Gra^ 
velly-bank Farm,' which would be a very suitable 
derivation. [Erribol, Sutherlandshire ; Orby, 
OwERSBY, Lincolnshire ; Oreby, Denmark.] 

Haugr, ' a how, mound ;' in Howstrake (Haugr ? ). 
[Haugsness, Iceland; Hougham, Lincolnshire; 
HoRGiBOST, Harris.] 

Hryggr, * a ridge ;' in Regaby, formerly Regby {hrygg- 
jar-byr), * Ridge Farm ;' and Cregby, probably a 
corruption of Regby. [Rigsby, Lincolnshire] 

Holmr, ' a holm, islet ;' in Holm Town {holma-tun), 
corrupted into Hallam Town, ' Islet Town,' the 
Scandinavian name of Peel, so called from the 
island just at the mouth of its harbour. In 15 11 
Huan Worthyngton paid lis. 8d rent for the miU 
of Holmtown, as per record. [H6lm-gar«r, 
Russia and Iceland.] 

Skat^, in Skarsdale {Skari^-dale), 'Mountain-pass dale.' 
[SKARtJs-DALR, Iceland ; Scarf-gap, Cumberland.] 

Skdgtf ' a shaw, a wood ;* in Skyehill, a modern cor- 
ruption of Skogar-fjall, * Woodfell,' which we find 
written in the Chrontcan Mannia, under date a.d. 

18 



1077, as ScACAFELL, where Godred Crovan 
conquered the Manx. [Sk6gar-StrOnd, Iceland ; 
Skaga-fi£r9, Landndma-Mc] 

Stakkr, ' a stack/ used of a columnar rock in the sea^ 
is found as a prefix in Stack Indigo (?), and Stack 
mooar, ' Big Stack.' [Stacks of Duncansby, Scot- 
land ; Stacks-eyrEi Landndtna-bSc.'] 

Shot (gen. skarar), * a rim, edge ;' probably in Scarlet, 
formerly Skarcloute, which is probably a corrup- 
tion of Skarar-Kluft, 'Cleft-edge.' [Scour-na- 
MADAIDH, Skye.] 

Toft, ' a green tuft or knoll ;' in Tosaby or Totaby, 
formerly Totmanby, a corruption either of Toftar- 
asmund-byr, * Osmund's Knoll Farm,' or of Toftar- 
mana-byr, ' Mani's Knoll Farm.' 
The following are prefixes only : 

(a) Mountains, Hills, Rocks, etc. 

Brim (F), * eyebrow,' used in local names of the brow 
of a fell or moor ; possibly in Brundal, * Dale- 
brow.' 

Egg (F), (gen. eggjar), ' an edge,' used in local names of 
the ridge of a mountain ; in Agneash (eggjar-nes), 

* Ridge Ness.' There are the remains of a kedll 
on this farm. [Aignish, Hebrides.] 

Enni (N), * the forehead,' used in local names of a steep 
crag or precipice ; possibly in Ennaug (enna-guag), 

* Cave Crag.' (Guag is a corruption of ooig, see 
ogr, p. 277.) [Ennaclete, Hebrides.] 

Galtr (M), ' a boar, hog,' used in local names of a hog- 
backed hill ; in Gartedale (ob.), formerly Galte- 
dale, * Hogback Hill Dale.' This place, in the 



$tttefattlttiftl T^xtfix!^ 275 

parish of German, is now called Sandall. [Galt- 
NESs, Iceland.] 

Kamhr (M), * a comb,' used in local names of a crest, a 

ridge of hills ; in Cammall {Kambafjall), ' Ridges' 

Fell ;' and probably in Camlork, formerly Cam- 

' LORGE (Kamb ? ). [Kambsnes, Iceland ; Cam- 

NESS, Landndmorhdc ; Camfell, English Lakes.] 

Kollr (M), ' a top, summit ;' possibly in Colby {Kolla- 
byr), ' Summits' Farm,' in Arbory and Lonan. It 
should, however, be mentioned that in both these 
parishes Colby is on the side, not on the summit, 
of a hill ; so possibly the derivation from the proper 
name Kol or Koll is the true one. [Colby, English 
Lakes, Pembrokeshire, and Essex; Coleby, 
Lincolnshire ; Colsetter, Orkneys ; Kulby, 
Denmark ; Koldby, Samsoe.] 

Slakki (M), * a slope on a mountain-edge,' exactly de- 
scribes the position of Slegaby, formerly Slekby 
(Slakka-byr), 'Slope Farm,' in the parish of Onchan. 
There is a Sleckby, with the same meaning, in the 
parish of Jurby. [SlakkA-gil, Iceland.] 

Stein (M), * a stone ;' in Staynarhea (ob.), a corruption 
of Steina-haugr, * Stones' how.' This name, which 
appeared in 1540 in the computus of the Rushen 
Abbey tenants in Malew, attached to the Chronicon 
MannuBy is not now used, its place being taken 
by the Celtic Shenvalla. [Steinar, Iceland ; 
Stennis, Orkneys ; Stenness, Shetlands.] 

fromr (M), (gen. yramar), 'the brim, edge, verge;' 
possibly in Tromode, formerly Tremott (frawar- 
holt)^ * Copsewood-edge.' There was a miU at Tre- 
mott in 1511 ; and in Tremmissary, formerly 

18—2 



276 Iftanx T^tac^'JUam^k. 

Tremsare (framar'setr), * Pasture Edge.' This 
trem comes to the edge of the cliflfs by Burnt Mill 
HiUy near Douglas. 

(6) Sea Coast 

Alda (F), (gen. oldu), ' a wave;' in Aldrick (pldu-vik), 

* Wave Creek.' This name looks as if it should be 
derived from oldu-hryggr, ' Wave Ridge ;' but it is 
certainly a vik, not a hryggr. 

Bora (F), 'a bore hole;' in Burrow (boru-^) Head, 

* Bore Island Head.' This headland is opposite 
to the small island off the south-east end of the 
Calf Island, called The Eye, through which a 
hole has been bored by the action of the waves. 
[BoRERAY, Hebrides.] 

Gja (gen. gjar), * a chasm, rift.' This word has been 
adopted into Manx in the forms ghau and giau, 
but with the meaning 'creek or cove.' In the 
Orkneys it is found in the forms geo and geow. 
We have it with the following Celtic afi&xes : Ghaw 
cabbyl, * Horse Cove ;' Giau cam, 'Winding Cove;' 
Giau gortaghij), 'Hungry Cove;' Giau jeeragh, 
' Straight Cove ;' Giau lang* ' Long Cove ;' Giau 
ny kirree, *Cove of the Sheep ;' Giau ny moarid (?), 
'Cove of the Greatness;' Giau ny Pharick (e), 
' Patrick's Cove ;' Giau Rool, * Rool's Cove ;' Giau 
spyrryd, * Spirit Cove;' Giau veg, 'Little Cove;' 
Giau yiam, ' Iron Cove.' 

Giau is used in the Isle of Man, as in the Shet- 
lands, of a smaller and narrower creek than vik. 

KleUr (M), ' a rock, cliff' (by the sea) ; in Clet Elby, 
* Fireplace Rock.' A clet is usually a rock broken 
* Lowland Scotch. 



Sttbtffdntfirdl T^mfbctj^ 277 

off from the adjoining rocks on the shore ; a small 
rock in the sea. It is used in this sense in the 
Orkneys and Shetlands. 

Mart (F), 'a borderland,* usually by the sea ; probably 
in Mary voar and Mary vegy formerly Meary voar 
and Meary veg, * Big Borderland ' and * Little 
Borderland.' These farms are on the coast. 
[MiBRi, Norway.] 

dgr (N), * an inlet, a small bay or creek/ is almost 
certainly the original from which the Manx ooig, * a 
den, cave, cavern,' is derived ; as ooig resembles 
ogr much more closely than it does the Irish and 
Gaelic uamh. We find it in Ooig doo, 'Black 
Cave;' OoiG-NY-5eyr, *Cave of the Carpenter;* 
OoiG'Y'Veeal, * Cave of the Entrance ;' Ooig veg, 
' Little Cave ;' and Ooigyn doo, ' Black Caves.' 
[UiG, Lewis ; Ogur, Iceland.] 

Sker (N), * a skerry, an isolated rock in the sea ;' in 
Skerrip (Sker{s)'npr), ' Skerry Crag;' Sker vreacy, 
' Speckled Skerry ;* in Skerrisdale, formerly 
Skaristal (SkerS'dalr or Skerjordalr), ' Skerry Dale 
or Skerries Dale ;' and probably in Keristal. The 
word sker having been adopted into both the Eng- 
lish and Celtic languages, as Skerry and Skerries, 
it seems probable that such names as Skerrisdale 
are derived from the Anglicised form, not from the 
Scandinavian original The name Skerranes, 
given to some small detached rocks off Langness, 
seems to be an attempt to combine the O.N, sker 
with the Celtic diminutive an. Skerranes would 
be appropriately translated ' Small Skerries.' [The 
Skerries, Ireland ; SkerjafjOrdr, Iceland.] 



273 WHemx 1|^lat^r9if^xta(JBu 

Strand (F), * a strand, coast, shore ;' in Strand-hall 
{Strandar-holl), 'Strand Hill.' [Strond, Harris 
and Iceland ; Strand, Shetland.] 

(c) Glens, Lowlands, Rivers, etc. 

Brunnr (M), * a spring, well ;' possibly in Brondal, 
formerly Brundal (Brunna-dalr), * Spring Dale.' 

Fles (F), * a green spot among bare fells and mountains,' 
a most appropriate description of Fleswick (Fles- 
vik\ ' Green Spot Creek,' the little creek on the 
north side of Bradda. 

Hvammr (M), *a grassy slope or vale;' probably in 
Bemahague {Hvamma ' haugr), 'Slopes' How.' 
The land of this estate slopes gently towards the 
sea. [HvAMMSDALR, Iceland.] 

Krdkr (M), ' a hook, anything crooked,' used in local 
names of a nook ; probably in Cregneish, formerly 
Croknes (KrSks-ness), ' Nook Ness.' Cregneish 
is the name of a headland and village near the 
Calf It is one of the most primitive and secluded 
places in the Island. 

Myrr (F), (gen. myrar), ' b. moor, bog, swamp;' in 
Mirescoge (ob.) (Myrar-skogr), 'Wood Bog;' and 
possibly in Morest (Myrar-staiSr), 'Moor Stead.' 
Mirescoge was formerly a wooded island, sur- 
rounded by a lake, which must have been of consider- 
able size, as the fishing of it was let. When the 
Lhen trench was made the lake was drained, but its 
bed was still boggy, and the island became simply a 
piece of higher and drier ground. It is now called 
Ballamona. All this district was called *The 
Mires.* [M^rar, Flatey. Compare English mireJ] 



SubsEffttifitral ^^infbc^su 279 

ROi ' a corner, nook ;' in Raby (Rdr-byr), * Nook Farm ;' 
in Rarick (Rdr-vik\ * Nook Creek ;' and possibly 
in Raggatt (Rdr-gata), * Nook Path.' These are 
the remains of an ancient Keeill on Raby Farm. 
[Vraaby, Denmark ; Wramilna, Lincolnshire.] 

Saurr (M), ' mud/ used in local names of sourland, or 
swampy tracts of moorland ; in Surby, formerly 
Saureby (Saura-byr), ' Sourlands' Farm ;' in Sand- 
brick, formerly Saurebreck (Saura-brekka), ' Sour- 
lands' Slope.' A fine bronze axe-head was found 
on SuRBY, and there are a curious monolith and 
the remains of an ancient keeill on the same farm. 
[SAURBiBR, Iceland; Sowerby, Yorkshire and 
Westmoreland ; Scarby, Lincolnshire ; SOrby 
Denmark ; Sorbie, Dumfries.] 

Shautm (M), poetically ' a shield/ used in local names 
of fertile meadow-land, is possibly found in Sho- 
NEST {Skauns-sta^r), * Meldow-land Stead.' The 
small treen of this name is now all highland, but 
it may at one time have extended into the valley 
(see also derivation from proper name, p. 297). 

Strengr (M), ' a string, a cord,' used in local names of 
a narrow channel of water ; possibly occurs in 
Streneby {Strengjar-byr), ' Narrow Channel Farm.' 
A small stream flows by this farm. 

(i) Artificial. 

Braut (F), 'a road;' possibly in Braust, formerly 
Brausta {Brautar-stafhr), * Roadstead.' There is 
a farm called Ballybruste in 1231, and Bally- 
BRUSHE in 1505, which may be identical with 
Braust. 



I 



2S0 M$mx Ij^Uaat-Wiamte* 

Brii (gen. bruar), *a bridge;' probably in Brerick, 
formerly Breryk {Bruar-htyggr), 'Ridge of the 
Bridge ' or * Bridge-ridge/ This farm is on the 
north side of Ramsey, close by the Sulby river, 
over which there was probably a bridge then, as 
now. [Brugarth, Shetlands ; Brogar, Orkneys.] 
Gata (F), ' a way, road, path ;' possibly in Gat-e-whing 
(Gotu-whing), ' Yoke Path/ though it is a curious 
compound. In the east of England gat is still 
frequently used for a road or path, as in Gatb 
Burton (Lincolnshire). Gata has been adopted 
into Manx in the form gtatt. 
Kirkja (F), 'a kirk, church;* in Kirby (Kirkju-byr), 
* Church Farm/ In a Papal Bull of 1231 the ter- 
ras de Sti. Bradani et dt Kyrkbye were mentioned. 
In 1405 this place, which adjoins the churchyard 
of Braddan, was called Villa de Kerry. One of 
its quarter-lands is subject to the entertainment 
of the Bishop, whenever he leaves or comes to 
the island. At present the tenants pay a yearly 
commutation of los. in lieu of this service, and'^ 
they are let off cheaply. Our parish churches, \ 
with two exceptions, have the prefix kirk, as in \ 
Kirk Braddan (see Index). The word kirk is V 
found in every place where the Norsemen settled 
and became Christians. [Kirkjub^r, Iceland; 
Kirkwall, Orkneys; Kirkerup, Denmark; 
Kirkby and Kirby, North of England ; Querque- 
viLLE^ Normandy.] 
Kro$s(M), 'a cross;' in Crosby {Krossa-byr), 'Cross 
Farm ;' and in Crossag, found in one copy of the 
Chronicon Mannia as Crosyvor (Krossa-varr), * Weir 



Cross ;• and in another, Cros-ivar, * Ivar's Cross/ 
The occurrence of Cross in local names is also a 
sign of the settlement and subsequent conversion 
of the Northmen, but it is not so widely distri- 
buted as Kirk. [Krossdale, Iceland ; Crosby, 
Lincolnshire ; Crossbost, Lewis ; Crosebister, 
Shetland ; Crosspoll, Islay.] 

KrS (F), ' a small pen or fence ;' in CROcreen, ' Withered 
Fence/ The word krS, however, seems to have 
been originally Celtic ; but it was adopted by the 
Northmen. [Croigarry, Hebrides.] 

Skdli (M), * a hut, shed,* used of temporary shepherds' 
huts erected in the mountain pastures ; in Scolaby, 
formerly Scaleby (Skdla-byr), * Shed Farm.* There 
is a word sheal or shieling in Scotland, used of a 
hut for those who have the care of cattle or sheep. 
[SkAlaholt, Iceland ; Scalloway, Shetlands ; 
ScALLOW, Lincolnshire.] 

Skip (N), * a ship ;' possibly in Skibrick {Skipa-hryggr), 
* Ships* Ridge.* [Skeba, Islay.] 

Vi (N), *a mansion, house;' in Bibaloe, formerly 
Byballo (Vi'balli), 'Grassy Bank House;' in 
Begoad, formerly Begod {VZ-Godi), * Godi's 
House, or Priest's House;' and perhaps in 
Bemaccan, Bymaccan, Bimaken, Brymaken, or 
BowMAKEN (Ve-Maccan), ' Maccan's House,' Maccan 
being a possible corruption of Magnus. A monas- 
tery was founded here in 1373. It would appear 
that in 1368 Bishop Russell received an intimation 
from Pope Urban V. to the effect that William 
Montagu, Earl of Salisbury, the then Lord of the 
r proposed to assign a site for an oratory of 




a82 WBtanx ^^lars-ftdmra* 

Franciscan Friars Minor in the village of St. 
Columba (Arbory), and that, if the site was a suit- 
able one, he had granted the Provisional Prior 
and brethren of the Province of Ireland permission 
to erect buildings there, which they did, as above 
stated. In 1553 it, together with Rushen, was 
confiscated by the English Crown. In 1606 it 
was leased to Sir Thomas Leigh Knightly and 
Thomas Spencer, and in 1626 its annual rent was 
granted to Queen Henrietta Maria for life. It was 
then called ' The Lesser Brotherhood, commonly 
known as the Gray Friars of Bimaken, otherwise 
Brimaken.' It shortly after this passed into the 
hands of the Tyldesley family by purchase, and 
still belongs to their descendants in the female 
line. The old chapel, which is the only portion now 
remaining, is used as a barn. The large arched 
window in the east gable, and the positions of doors, 
windows^ and of a piscina, are clearly traceable. 

(e) Animal f Vegetable^ and Mineral Kingdom. 

Dyr (N), 'an animal, beast, usually of wild beasts;' pos- 
sibly in JuRBY (Dyra-byr), * Beasts* Farm.' If the 
tradition stating that in Scandinavian times the 
Sulby River flowed out at the Lhen is correct, 
which seems hardly possible, Jurby Point might 
have been a peninsula, and therefore useful as a 
game preserve. In the Shetlands cattle that are 
not housed are called joor. [Dyra-fi^rd, Land- 
ndma-Mc ; Derby, England. Compare Greek ^lyp, 
Anglo-Saxon deor^ English deer, German thier.l 

Hross (M), 'a horse;' in Rgzefell (ob.), a corrup- 



Stttetantitoal il^ftx^su 283 

tion of hross'^all, * Horse Fell.' [Hrossey, 
Orkneys.] 

Kapall (M), ' a nag, hack ;' probably in Kepell Gate 
(Kapal'gaia), * Horse Road.' Both this and the 
Manx cabyl are derived from the Late Latin cabal- 
lus. [Keppolls, Islay.] 

Lamb (N), * a lamb ;' in Lammall, formerly Lambfell, 
{Lamba-fjalt), 'Lambs* Fell ' (seep. 296). [Lambey, 
Flatholm.] 

Smali (M), ' small cattle ;' possibly in Smeale, the name 
of a farm in the parish of Andreas. This name, 
which was probably a compound one originally, 
may have been SMALA-STAtSR, * Cattle Stead.' 
[Smailholm, Roxburghshire ; Smaull, Islay.] 

Uxi (M), *an ox;' in Oxwath (ob.) (Uxa-vafi), *Ox 
Ford,' which is mentioned in the ChroniconMannia 
as being one of the Rushen Abbey land boundaries. 
It is now called Orrisdale. [Oxney, Iceland.] 

Hrafftf often spelled hramn (M), ' a raven ;' in Ramsey, 
which is either (Hramns-d), * Raven's Water,' or 
(Hramns-ey), * Raven's Isle ' (or from a personal 
name, see p. 294). It is sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish between d and ^ in local names, as before 
stated. In this case the difficulty is increased by 
the early spelling being contradictory. The name 
in one of the editions of the Chronicon Mannia 
is Ramsa, and it is pronounced by Manx people as 
if spelled in this way, while in the other edition it 
is Ramso, and old maps show the town of 
Ramsey on an island, cut off from the mainland 
by two branches of the Sulby River. A raven was 
the traditional war standard of the Danish and 



s84 IDanx T^latB'WLeims». 

Norwegian vikings. [Hrafna-bjorg, Iceland ; 
Ravensburg, Yorkshire] 

Krdka, * a crow ;* possibly in Cregneish, formerly 
Crokness (Kraku-nes)^ * Crow's Ness ' (see Krokr, 
p. 278, and Krakif p. 296). [Crackpool, Lincoln- 
shire ; Krakgaard, Denmark ; Krak-nese, Land- 
ndma-Mc] 

Shag, a word which seems to be connected with 
the Icelandic verb skaga, * to stand out/ is used 
colloquially for the crested cormorant. At the 
beginning of spring there rises on the middle of 
the head of the bird so-called a tuft of feathers 
one and a half inches high, capable of erection, 
hence the name. We have it in The Shag Rock, 

* The Cormorant Rock.* 

Skatfr (M), 'a cormorant;' possibly in Scarlet, 
formerly Scarcloute (Scarfa-klufi), * Cormorant 
Cleft • (see Skdr, p. 274). In Scotland a cormorant 
is called a skart, and in the Shetlands a scarf. 
[Skarfa-nese, Landndma-hdcJl 

Fiskr (M), * a fish ;* in Fishgarth, formerly Fysgarth 
{Fiski-gar6r), * Fish Pond ;* possibly in Fistard, a 
corruption of Fishgarth. [Fiskigar«r, Iceland ; 
FiSGARTH, Trent ; Fishguard, Pembrokeshire.] 

Lax, *a salmon;' in Laxey, formerly LaxA (lax-d), 

* Salmon Water.' [Laxa, Iceland; Lachsay, Skye; 
Laxay, Lewis.] 

Skel (gen. skeljar), * a shell ;' possibly in Shellag 
(Skeljar-vik), * Shell Creek,' or (Skelja-vik) 'Shells' 
Creek.' The sandy cliflfs at this place are com- 
posed of a curious, comparatively recent, shell 
conglomerate. [Shelibost, Harris; Skelbuster, 
Orkneys ; SkeljavIk, Iceland.] 



Sutafattiti^al pj^pxtsk. 285 

Gras (N), 'grass, herbage ;* in Gresby (Gras-byr), ' Grass 
Farm.' [Gresmark, Iceland; Grassfield, 
Shetlands ; Grasby, Lincolnshire ; Greasby, 
Wirral.] 

Hagi (M), ' a pasture, or an enclosed field ;' probably 
in Hegnes (Hagornes), 'Pasture Ness.' [Hagi, 
Iceland ; Haganes, Landndma-btfc] 

Hris (N), ' shrubs, brushwood,' is a possible derivation 
of the first syllable of Rushen ; in Rushen, the 
old name of Castletown, and Rushen Sheading, 
though the derivation firom 5/. Russein (see p. 
212) is much more probable. A large portion of 
the sheading of Rushen was at one time the Lord's 
forest. Ris, or tys, for brushwood, is found in 
Chaucer. [Risby, Lincolnshire and Denmark ; 
HrI SHOLL, Iceland ; Rushigarry, Harris.] 

Kjarr (N), ' copsewood, brushwood ;' in CARDLE-i;oay, 
formerly Cardal {Kjarr-dalr), 'Big Copsewood 
Dale ;' and CAKDLn-veg, ' Little Copsewood Dale.' 
[Carnish, Hebrides ; Carness, Orkneys ; Kjarr- 
dalr, Iceland.] 

Korn (N), * corn, grain ;' in Cornay, or Corna {Corn'd)^ 
'Corn-water;' and Corrony, a corruption of 
Cornay.' There is a stone circle near Cornay, 
the remains of which cover an area of sixty-five 
feet by sixty-three feet. A stone, with the follow- 
ing inscription, has recently been discovered by 
Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, at CabbcU Keeill Woirrey 
on CoRNA : Ki : Kris]» : Malaki : Ok Ba]»rik: 
AfANMAN : Unal : Sau^ar : Iuan : RiSTi : I : 
KuRNAfAL. '(Here lie in) Christ Malachi and 
Patrick Adanman O'Neil. Sheep's John carved 



286 fllanx |^Iac4-Bam«0u 

(this) in Cornadale.'* Also in Cornama (ob.) 
{Kom-hammarr), 'Corn Crag,* now corrupted into 
CoRDEMAN. There have been corn-mills on the 
CoRNAY stream from time immemorial. [KornsA, 
Iceland; Cornabus, Islay; Cornquoy, Orkney; 
CoRNAiG, Tyree.] 

Esja (F), ' clay ;* in Eschedalr (ob.) (Esju-dalr), ' Clay 
Dale.' Godred II. is said to have given Esche- 
DALA to the Priory of St. Bees. This name be- 
came obsolete at an early date, as in 151 1 it is 
called Crawdall, in 1794 Crowdale, and now 
Groudle ; also in Escheness {Esju-nes), * Clay 
Ness,' now called Clay Head, which is in the 
same district. [Esjuberg, Iceland.] 

Jorfi (M), ' gravel;' possibly in Jurby, formerly Joraby 
(Jorfa-byr), * Gravel Farm.' This long promontory 
is a mixture of gravel and sand. 

GrjSt (H), 'gravel, pebbles;' in Gryseth {GrjSta-setr), 
'Stones' Pasture.' This farm consists of rocky 
upland pasture. 

Mol (F) (gen. malar), ' pebbles ;' in Malar Logh (ob. 
after 1673), now called Logh Mollo, ' Pebbles' 
Lake.' This lake, having been drained, is now a 
farm in the parish of Leza3rre. 

Sandr (M), 'sand;' in Sandall (Sand-dalr), 'Sand 
Dale ;' in Sandwick (Sand-vlk), ' Sand Creek ;' in 
Sandwick Boe (Sand'V^-boe), ' Sand Creek Cow,' 
an islet in Castletown Bay (see Boe) ; and in 
Santwat (ob.) (Sand-va^), ' Sand Ford,' where an 
internecine struggle between the North and South 

* Reading and translation of inscription by Mr. P. M. C. 
Kermode. 



Sutefanfi^al ^vtftxsi»* 287 

Manx took place, 'and those from the north 
obtained the victory' (Chron. Mannice). In 1693 
this place was called Stantway, a * t,' as usual in 
Manx, having been inserted. It is on the sandy 
shore close to Jurby Point [Sandvik, Iceland; 
Sandwich, Kent ; Sanday, Orkneys ; Sand-felle, 
Landndma-bdcl 

if) Sundry. 

Prestr(M), 'a priest;' possibly in Dreswick {Prests- 
vik), ' Priest's Creek.* There is an old chapel 
close by. [Presgarth, Shetlands; Presthus, 
Iceland.] 
Folk (N), ' people, folk ;' in Foxdale, formerly Folks- 
dale {Folks-dalr), ' Folks' Dale.' 
The beacons, which were formerly lit to warn 
the inhabitants that invaders were coming, are com- 
memorated in the names Wardfell and Elby. 
Var^a (F), * a beacon, a pile of stones or wood.' In 
Iceland variSa is the popular name of the stone 
cairns erected on high points on mountains and 
waste places, to 'warn' the wayfarer as to the 
course of the way. Wardfell (ob.) (VorfSu-fjalf), 
' Beacon Fell,' now South Barrule, was pro- 
bably used as a place for a beacon, from its com- 
manding position. The treen bordering on South 
Barrule is still called Warfield, a corruption 
of the same word. [Vordu-fell, Iceland.] 
Eldr (M), 'fire, a beacon ;' in Elby (Elda-byr), * Fires' 
Farm;' and Elby Point, 'Fires' Farm Point.' 
Close to this place there is a curiously sculptured 
monolith. 



388 IKtintx ^lat^'T^^mv^ 

Snar (M), * snow/ usually found in place-names in the 

older form stue; in Snjsfell {Sna-fjall), * Snow 

Fell/ the name of the highest mountain in the 

island. The names of the highest mountains in 

all countries have usually some connection with 

snow. [Sn-BFELL, Landndtna-Mc] 

SSI (F), ' the sun / probably in Soldrick (SStar^-vik), 

*Sun Creek.' Solar-hryggr, *Sun Ridge/ would 

seem the more probable derivation if it were not 

for the fact that Soldrick is a creek. [S6lar- 

FJALL, LandndmohMc] 

Scandinavia was pre-eminently a land of strange 

and weird superstitions. Among these the fairies and 

giants, or elves and trolls, naturally played a prominent 

part, and we consequently find that they have left some 

mark on our local names, though scarcely any on the 

superstitions that have been handed down by tradition, 

which are almost entirely of Celtic origin. 

Alfr (M), *an elf, fairy/ possibly in Alchest (i4//a- 

siadr), * Elves' Stead.' 
Troll (N), * a giant, fiend, demon, trolle / in Trollaby 
(Trolla-byr) (ob.), * Trolls' Farm;' and Trollatoft 
(ob.), 'Trolls' Knoll' [Trolla-gata, Iceland; Trol- 
LHiETTAN, Sweden ; Trollhoulland, Shetlands.] 
Gandr (M), * magic ;' possibly in Gansey (Gands-ey), 

* Magic Isle,' though the strip of land so called, 
along the shore of Port St. Mary Bay, is not an 
island. Perhaps, however, it may be Gands-d, 

* Magic Water.' The old name of the White Sea 
was Gand-vik, * Magic Bay,' probably because the 
Lapps who lived on its shores were notorious 
sorcerers. 



Sutafanltiial ^i^fixsifgu 2S9 

ping (M), literally * a thing/ is found only in the com- 
pound word, ping'vollr, ' Parliament field * (see 
p. 261). 
We find ' the South/ ' the North/ and * the East ' 
in our Scandinavian local names, but not ' the West.' 
Siar (N), ' the south ;' in Soderick (Su^r-vik), ' The 
South Creek,' now known as Port Soderick, and 
in the name of the old Scandinavian diocese of 
SoDOR, which appellation was incorrectly given to 
Peel Island. The history of this word is an in- 
teresting one, and may therefore be examined in 
detail. The Scandinavian diocese aforesaid, called 
SoDOR (Su^Sr-eyjar), or The South Isles, in contradis- 
tinction to the NorSr-^jar, or The North Isles, the 
Orkneys and Shetlands, included the Hebrides, all 
the smaller Western Isles of Scotland, and Man. 
Both were under the suzerainty of Norway and 
the archiepiscopate of Throndjheim. Before 1145, 
except, perhaps, for a brief period under Magnus, 
at the end of the eleventh century, the bishoprics 
of SutJR-EYjAR and Man were distinct; but from 
that date till 1458, when, by a Bull of Pope Calixtus, 
Man was placed under the archiepiscopal rule of 
York, while the Scotch Isles were formed into a 
distinct diocese, they seem to have been united, 
though the political connection with Norway was 
severed in 1266, and with Scotland in 1334. As 
proof of this it may be mentioned that Pope 
Urban V., in writing to Bishop William (who is 
known to have also been Bishop of Man) in 1367, 
speaks of a nobilis mulieris Maria de Insulis .... 
ttuE dicecesis. The bishops of this diocese were 

19 



390 Manx |^Iai:ie-Bame0* 

usually styled Sodorensts, though Insularum and 
Mannia ei Insularum are occasionally found. 
The title of Sodor seems to have been perpetuated 
in connection with Man by the fact, which the 
recent discovery of a modern transcript of a Bull 
of Pope Gregory IX., dated 1231, by the present 
Bishop of the diocese, places beyond a doubt 
that Peel Island was also called Sodor — in the 
words of the Bull, Holme, Sodor vel Pile vocatum, 
* Holme (Island), called Sodor or Pile.' In a charter 
of Thomas, Earl of Derby, to the Bishop of Sodor, 
dated 1505, these words are repeated ; but this, 
which, previously to the above-mentioned dis- 
covery, was the first mention of Sodor vel Pile or 
Pele, might have been explained by the argument 
that, the old diocese having so long ago passed 
away, the true meaning of Sodor had been for- 
gotten, and that, by way of getting an application 
for the name, it had been given to this little Island 
of Peel. But this explanation will not now serve, 
for in 1231 it was a title given in a formal docu- 
ment of the time of Scandinavian rule, and when 
the Scandinavian language must have been used 
by at least the ruling class. The true explanation 
appears to be that Peel Island, being the seat of 
the cathedral of the diocese of Sodor, took its 
name from the diocese instead of giving it to it, as 
is usually the case. For it is not likely that Sodor 
was the original name of an island to the west, 
not to the south, of another. Its earliest name 
seems to have been the Celtic Peel or Pile, mean- 
ing ' fort,' so called, no doubt, from the ancient 



$ufr0lantibal ^it^fbc^s. 291 

round tower on it. Then the Norsemen called it 
Holme (O.N. holmr), their usual name for an island 
at the mouth of a river. Later still, as we have 
seen, the ecclesiastical name of Sodor was given to 
it, and in all formal secular documents, after 1505, 
relating to it these three names are recited. Having 
thus accounted for the permanence of the name 
Sodor, it will be interesting to trace how Man be- 
came associated with it. The modem name 
of the Bishopric of Man, 'Sodor and Man,' 
seems to have arisen from a mistake of a 
legal draughtsman in the seventeenth century. 
It would appear that by the latter part of the 
sixteenth century the terms Sodor and Man had 
clearly become interchangeable, for in a docu- 
ment of Queen Elizabeth's, dated 1570, mention is 
made of * the bishopric of the Island of Sodor or 
Man.' In 1609 a grant of the Isle of Man was 
made to William, Earl of Derby ; and in the docu- 
ment conveying this grant all the possible titles of 
the bishopric are recited with a precision which 
leaves no loophole for error: *The patronage of 
the bishopric of the said Isle of Man, and the 
patronage of the bishopric of Sodor, and the 
patronage of the bishopric of Sodor and Mann.' 
The then bishop, Philips, at once took advantage 
of this new title, as in the following year he signs 
himself ' Sodor et de Man.' In 1635 Bishop Parr 
is called ' Bishop of the Isle of Man, of Sodor, 
and of Sodor and Man.' No signature of his 
can be found, but his successors, up to the time of 
Bishop Levinz, who was appointed in 1684, usually 

19 — 2 



292 Wieatx l^Utt-WiAmtB* 

signed themselves ' Sodorensis/ occasionally ' Sodor 
and Man ;' but since 1684 the signature has been 
either * Sodor and Mann ' or ' Sodor and Man.' 
The full title of the see at the present day is 

* Bishop of the Isle of Man, of Sodor, of Sodor and 
Man, and of Sodor of Man/ which accentuates 
the application of the name Sodor to Peel Island. 
[SutJREY, Iceland ; Southrey, Lincolnshire ; 
Sutherland.] 

NoriSr (N), ' the north ;' in Northop (Nord-forp), * The 
North Village.' [Nor«ra, Iceland.] 

Austr (M), ' the east ;' in Aust,* the name of a tumulus 
near Ramsey. An urn has recently been discovered 
there. [Austacre Wood, Lincolnshire.] 

Geirr (M), *a spear;' probably in Garwick {Geir-vik), 

* Spear Creek.' Geirr is also a man's name (see 

p. 293). 
Hangi (M), *a body hanging on a gallows ;' possibly in 
Hango Hill {Hanga-holJ), ' Hill of the Hanged,' 
on the shore opposite King William's College ; and 
Hango Broogh, * Brow of the Hanged,' a little 
further along the shore to the north. There are 
remains of fortifications at both these places, that 
at the former having been erected in 1642 by 
James, seventh Earl of Derby, which seems to 
have been used for executions. We have it re- 
corded that William Christian {Iliam Dhoan) was 

* shott to death ' on Hango Hill in 1662. This 

interesting place, which consists of a mass of 

boulder clay and drift gravel, is rapidly being 

washed away by the sea. 

^ This is placed under prefixes instead of simple names, as it is 
probably only part of the original name. 



Stttafanfitral ^i^^ttxi^s* 293 

The following Scandinavian proper names,* though 
obsolete as such in the Isle of Man, are found as pre- 
fixes in local names : 

Asmund (the change of which into Casement has been 

traced at p. 79), probably in Amogarry {Asmundar- 

gariSr), ' Asmund's Enclosure.' [Ashmigarry, 

Hebrides ; Oshmigarry, Skye.] 

A ust msiy possibly be a man's name» as stated under 

austr, ' east ' (p. 292) ; and the tumulus so called 

may commemorate the burial place of a warrior of 

this name. The Norsemen were called the Ostmen 

or Eastmen in Ireland. The English used the 

word Easterling in the same sense. 

Brun, in Brundal (Bruns-dal), ' Brown's Dale/ maybe 

from a man's name (see pp. 274, 278). [Brunsvik, 

Flatey.] 

Cleppr, a man's name, from kleppr, * a rock ;' possibly in 

Cleps, the name of a farm in Onchan parish, which 

was perhaps originally Cleppsby, * Clepp's Farm.' 

CornCf possibly in Cornaa (Corna-a), ' Corne's water ' 

(see iorn, p. 285). 
Gaite, possibly in Gartedale, (ob.) formerly Galte- 
DALE {Galta-dalr), * Galte's-dale ' (see p. 274). 
[Galtadalr, Landndma-boc.'] 
Gcirr, as a proper name, is perhaps found in Gar\vick 
'{Geira-vik)y ' Geirr's Creek ;' but Garwick is more 
probably derived from geirr, * a spear ' (see p. 292), 
as geirr, though very common in compound proper 
names, as Siggeir, is rare uncompounded. [Gar- 
BOST, Lewis ; Geirab6lstadir, Iceland ; Geira* 
ST^D, Landndma-bSc.'] 

* They are all found either in the Landndma-bdc^ Flatey jarb6c^ 
or the Sagas, unless it is stated to the contrary. 



294 Manx Ij^latSi'tiefmtsi. 

Grettir, used poetically in the Eddas of a dragon, is 
found in the Landndma-hoc as a surname, and as 
such it possibly occurs in the Isle of Man in Gretch, 
formerly Grettest {Gretiis-sta6r), 'Grettir's Stead;' 
in Gretch voar (big), and Gretch veg (little), in 
Gretch heose (upper), and Gretch heis (lower), 
and perhaps in Grest, another contraction of 
Grettest. On Gretch veg is the ancient tomb 
where an iron sword was found, which is popularly 
called * King Orr/s grave.' [Grettishaf, Iceland.] 

Haraldr (M), (Her-valdr), ' Host wielder,' was a common 
Scandinavian name, which became Harold in 
English. There were several kings in Man so 
called. It seems to have been applied to the mill 
and treen now called Horalett, but formerly 
HoRALDRE, which is probably part only of the 
original name. 

Haringr (M), * a hoary man,' {ham, * gray-hair, hoari- 
ness ; in the old name of one of the Rushen Abbey 
land boundaries, H^ringstadt (ob.) {Hcerings 
staiir), * Haering's Stead.' This place is now called 
Kerroo-moar. 

Hogni (M), 'a tom cat ;' possibly in Hegnes or HoA- 
nes (Hagnis-nes), ' Hogni s Ness ' (see p. 285), the 
name of a treen in the parish of Lonan. Hogni is 
the name of a hero in the tale of Beolwulf, and is 
common in Iceland. Honey Hill in the parish of 
Onchan, which ingenious philologists might derive 
from Hogni, is a modern name. 

Hrafn (M), * a raven,' is a common proper name, and 
may occur in Ramsa or RamsOe (Hra/ns-a or 
Hrafns-ey), now Ramsey, 'Hrafn's Water, or 



Sufr«!anti0al il^Xitfixt». 295 

Hrafn's Isle ' (see p. 283). [Hrafns-toft, Land- 
ndma-Mc] 

Hrolfr (Hrod'Ulfr), ' brother wolf/ which has become 
Ralf in English, and Rudolph in German, possibly 
occurs in Rauff,* the name of a treen in the 
parish of Lonan. The name of Roolwer, who was 
Bishop of Man from 1050 to 1065, may be a cor- 
ruption of HrSlfr, and if so it is the only instance 
of the name in the Insular records. [Rowsay, 
Orkneys.] 

Ingimarr, contracted into Ingvar and Ivar, possibly 
occurs in Jurby, sometimes written formerly 
IvoRBY, 'Ivar's Farm/ This derivation is sug- 
gested by Worsaae in his * Danes and Northmen/ 
The knight Ivar was killed in 1275, when the 
Scotch conquered the Isle of Man. [Irby, Yerby, 
Yorkshire ; Irby-in-Marsh, Lincolnshire.] 

Kilter, a name of Teutonic, if not of Scandinavian origin, 
is found in Kitterland, which is a small island 
midway between the Calf and the mainland. 
According to Manx tradition this islet derived its 
name from Kitter, a great Norwegian baron, who 
resided in the Isle of Man in Olave Godredson's 
days, and who was wrecked here. 

KoIy and kollr, the former from kol^ * coal,* the latter 
from koll, * a summit,' may either of them originate 
the name of the places called Colby in the 
parishes of Lonan and Arbory (see p. 275). In 
fact the derivation from a proper name is more 
probable, as neither of these places is on a summit, 
and there is no coal in the Isle of Man. 

* Probably only part of the original name. 



296 Manx ^latie-Aam^fi* 

Kori, or Care, as the name is spelled in the Landndma- 
b(fc, where it is stated to be the name of an Irish 
thrall in Iceland, is probably found in Corbreck 
{Kora-brekka), * Kori's Slope/ and in Cor Stack 
{Kora-stakkr), * Kori's Stack.' [Cora-nese, Land- 
ndma-bdc.'] 
Kraki (M), *a pale, stake,' used as a proper name; 
possibly in Cregneish, formerly Crokness {Kraka- 
nes), * Kraki's Ness.' It was a nickname of the 
famous mythical Danish King, Rolf kraki, from his 
having been tall and thin (see p. 284). [Kraka- 
NESE, Landndma-b6c,] 
Kraun, probably in Cranstall (Krauns-dalr), ' Kraun's 
Dale,' and in Cranstall Lough, * Kraun's Dale 
Lake.' This lake, which probably never exceeded 
the dimensions of a pond, has now almost dis- 
appeared. [Krauns-dal, Landndma-bdc] 
Lambe, possibly in Lammall, formerly Lambfell 
{Lamba-fjall), ' Lamb's Fell ' (see p. 283). [Lamba- 
STiED, Landndma-bdcl 
Libi, probably the same as the old Teutonic word lebd, 
* people,' possibly occurs in Leodest, now Low- 
das (LiotS'Sta!6r), ' Liot's Stead.' We have lidi 
compounded in the extinct name Liutwolf on 
the Ballaugh Cross, and in the common name 
Corlett. 
Narfi, in Narradale (Narfa-dalr), ' Narfi's Dale.' [Nar- 

FAEYRR, Iceland ; Narfa-sker, Landndma-bdc,'] 
Ormr (M), * a snake, serpent,' a common proper name 
in Iceland, is found in Orm's House (ob.), men- 
tioned as being on the boundary of the church 
lands near Laxey, in the Chronicon Mannice ; and 



Sufralantttial ^r^ftxi^a* 297 

in Ormeshan (ob.), on the site of Onchan village, 
which was granted by Reginald to the Priory of 
St. Bees. [Ormst^d, Landndma-hdc ; Orms- 
DALE, Iceland ; Ormissary, Kintyre ; Ormysdill, 
Arran ; Ormskirk, Lancashire.] 

Petr^ the Icelandic form of Peter, is probably found in 
Perwick {PetrS'Vik)y * Peter's Creek.' 

Rognvald (see Crellin), 'Gods' wielder;' in Ronalds- 
way, formeriy either Rognvaldsvagr, * Reginald's 
Bay,* or Ranaldwath, 'Roland's or Reginald's 
Ford' (see vdgr and va6). From the Chronicon 
Mannia we learn that *in the year 1316, on Ascen- 
sion Day, at sunrise, Richard de Mandeville, with 
his brothers and many others of note, and a body 
of malefactors from Ireland, put into the port of 
Ronaldsway* (portum de Ranaldwath in the 
original). They then proceeded to defeat the 
Manx in a combat on the slopes of Wardfell 
now called South Barrule. The port here men- 
tioned is now called Derbyhaven, while the farm 
close by retains the name of Ronaldsway. On 
it there are two tumuli near the shore, which 
perhaps contain the remains of those who fell in 
the various combats which have taken place there. 
An iron gauntlet was dug out of one of these in 
1836. This name was a common one in Scan- 
dinavia, and was borne by several of both the 
Manx kings and bishops. [Ragnvaldsvaag, 
Ronaldshay, Orkneys.] 

Skarfr (M), ' a cormorant,' is perhaps found in Scarlet, 
formerly Scarcloute (Skarfs-kluft), ' Scarfs Cleft 
(see Scarfs p. 284). 



298 Manx !piatje-ietant^0. 



Skaunn (M), * a shield,* possibly occurs in Shonest, 
the name of a treen in the parish of Lonan 
(Skauns-sta^r), * Skaun's Stead.* 

S kauri, from skari (M), ' a young seagull ;' possibly in 
Skerrisdale, formerly Skerristal {Skauris-dalr), 
* Skauri's Dale ;' and in Scarista (Skauris-stcAr), 
' Skauri's Stead ' (see Skcr, p. 277). [Scarista, 
Harris; Scarrabus, Islay; Scrabster, Caithness; 
SkarastaBr, Iceland.] 

Skinni, * a skinner/ a nickname in the Landndma-bdc ; 
in Skinscoe, found in the Chronicon Mannitz as 
Skynnescor {SkinniS'Skar), ' Skinni's Edge.' 
[Skinnybocke, Lincolnshire.] 

Solvif possibly meaning * the swallow ;' in Sulby, 
formerly written Sulaby, Soulby, and Solbee 
(Solva-byr), ' Solvi's Farm.' This is the name of 
the largest river in the Island, and of two farms in 
the parish of Onchan. It is also found in SuL- 
BRiCK (Solva-brekka), ' Solvi's Slope or Brink.' 
[SoLVA-DALE, Landfidma-bSc,'] 

Ullr, or Ulli, ' akin to Gothic wulpus, " glory," * the 
name of one of the gods, the stepson of Thor ; in 
Ulist {Ulls-staiir)/U\Vs Stead.' 

porkell {porketill, * Thor's kettle,' see Corkhill, p. 82) ; 
in Thorkelstad (ob.) (porkelVs-staiir), 'Thorkell's 
Stead,' or villa Thorkell, as it is called in the 
oldest manorial roll, which was the ancient name 
of the village of Kirk Michael. 

The proper name Cringle, which is still in use as 
a surname, from kringla (F), ' a dish, circle, orb,' is 
found as a farm name without either prefix or affix, 
and is therefore probably only a portion of the 



9ubsdeitdi\fal HfPxtsu 299 

whole name. The name of the farm may, how- 
ever, be derived immediately from Kringla, *a 
circle (see p. 86). 
Goree, or orree (see p. 87), is a proper name still in 
existence as a surname in the Isle of Man, and, as 
it was the name of several of the Scandinavian 
kings of Man, it would seem not unlikely that it 
has survived in local nomenclature. The farm 
called Orrisdale, in the parishes of Michael and 
Malew, is said to have obtained its name in this 
way, but the derivation is a very doubtful one. 
Orrisdale, in Michael, was spelled Orestal in 
1511, and at a later period it was for a time called 
NoRRiSDALE, having been the property of a vicar 
of the parish named N orris. Orrisdale in Malew 
is comparatively a modern name, and may have 
been named after the traditional King Orry. 
Nearly all the Scandinavian surnames which are in 
use at the present day are found in local names as 
affixes, with the Celtic prefix Bulla ; such local names 
are for the most part of comparatively recent origin. 
These names are Castelj., Cottier, Corkhill, 
CoRLETT, Christian, Garrett, Gorry, Lace, and 
Leece (see pp. 79-92). 

There are also a few obsolete Scandinavian names 
found as affixes : 

Asmund, possibly in Totaby or Tosaby, formerly ToT- 
MANBY, according to Munch, a contraction of 
Tofiar-asmundS'byr, * Asmund's Knoll Farm.' 
ToTMANBY, however, may be more simply derived 
from Toftar-mdna-byr, * Mani's Knoll Farm.' Mani 
(M), ' the moon,' is a common proper name in the 



300 WHe^nx 1^latt'Ttam^9* 

Landndma-bSc. [Manaberg, Iceland ; Manish, 
Skye ; Manby, Lincolnshire.] 

Godi^ * a priest/ used as a proper name ; in Begoad 
{Vi'Godi), • Godi's House.' 

Olafr^ ' Olave,' a very common proper name in Iceland 
and Scandinavia, which was borne by several of 
the kings in Man (see Cowley, Kewley), is 
possibly found in KnockoLD, formerly KnockOLJS,, 
'Olave's Hill.' This name is found in the form 
Oidaib on the Ballaugh Cross. [Balole, * Olaf 's 
Farm,' Islay.] 

Ullr, or Ulli (see p. 298), in Co/ooneys, formerly 
CooU-Ulist (Ulls'staiSr), ' UU's Stead Nook.' 

In Johnstone's translation of the ChronicU of 
Man, Crosyvor is called Cross Ivar, or * Ivar's 
Cross ' (see p. 281). 

There is a farm in Baldwin called, in 1511, 
Baldall Reynylt (? Balla-i^alr), ' Reginald's Dale 
Farm.' It is now corrupted into Ba//aREGNiLT. 

Part II. — Adjectives. 

Adjectives in Icelandic or Old Norse, as in English, 
invariably precede the substantives which they qualify- 
There are comparatively few adjectives found in 
Scandio-Manx names : 
Berr, * bare ;' probably in Barrick (Berr-hryggr), ' Bare 

Ridge.' 
Bla (F), * blue ;' only in the compound bld-ber, * blea- 

berry or blueberry,' which is found in A win 

Blaber, 'Bleaberry River.' [BlA-skogr, Land- 

ndma-bdc] 
Brattr, 'steep;' in Bradda, formerly Bradhaugh 



flbiiedttral tpit^tbcw* 3^1 

(Bratt-haugr), * Steep How;* in Bretby (ob.) 
{BraiUhyr), * Steep Farm/ now corrupted into 
Bretney. Brant and hrcnt are used in the 
North of England for steep hillocks. [Bratta- 
HLID, Greenland.] 

Djupr, * deep,' usually of water ; in Duppolla (ob.) 
{Djup'pollr), * Deep Pool/ now called Nappin, in 
the parish of Lezayre. [Depedale, Lincoln- 
shire ; Dieppedal, Normandy.] 

GrcBitn, * green / in Grenaby, formerly Grenby {Grcm" 
byr), * Green Farm/ in Grenea (Gr^^n-ey), * Green 
Isle / and in Greenwyk (ob.) {Gran-vik), * Green 
Creek/ now called Port Greenaugh, or Port 
Greenock. 

Hv/tr, 'white/ in White Hoe (Hvita-haugr), 'White 
How/ near Douglas. [Hvita-dalr, Iceland; 
Whitby, England.] 

Kuldi, ' cold / possibly in Golden, formerly Coldren 
(Kuldurani), ' Cold Hill.' 

Lagr, * low, low-lying ;' probably in Liggea (Lag-ey), 
' Low Isle.* [Lagey, Iceland.] 

Langr, * long / in Langness (Langa-nes), ' Long Nose or 
Long Ness,' the name of the long promontory 
forming the northern side of Castletown Bay. 
[Langanes, Iceland.] 

Ltiill, ' little / in Little London (Lttill4undr), ' Little 
Grove / and perhaps in Little Ness {Litill-nh)^ 
' Little Headland,' though this is probably 
modern. 

Me^al, 'middle/ in Middle Sheading, formerly 
called Medal. [Me«al-fell, Iceland; MEtJAL- 
LAND, Strelinga Saga ; MEt5AL-B-£R, Flat^-jarbSc] 



302 Manx ipiacie-Bamita. 

Svartr, ' black ;' in Swarthawe (Svart-haugr), ' Black 
How;' and probably in Sartfell, or Sartell 
{Svart'fjalf), * Black Fell.' These names record the 
dark colour of the heather. It is notable that 
the Icelandic word ling is commonly used for 
heather by Manx people at the present day. 
[Sort Hill, England; Svarta-haf, Iceland; 
SoTERUP, Denmark.] 



CHAPTER VII. 



ENGLISH NAMES. 



A NUMBER of English or semi-English names have 
gradually crept into Manx nomenclature during the six 
centuries of English rule. Of these only the more 
interesting are given. The semi- English names are 
for the most part affixes to the Celtic Balla, while the 
others are either translations of original Manx names^ 
or purely English. Under the first heading we have 
BALhA'paddag, a corruption ofBAi^LA-paddock, ' Paddock 
Farm ;* BALLA-strang, where Strang is one of the titles 
of the Derby and Athol families ; BAhhA-fletcher, 
'Fletcher's Farm,' originally applied to a property 
consisting of five quarierlands in the parish of Braddan, 
owned by the Fletchers, a Lancashire family, who were 
one of the most influential families in the Island during 
the seventeenth century ; BALLAvafe, * Valley Farm/ 
in the parish of Santon, where there is a Standing 
Stone; BALlaughton, where the affix is doubtful, was, 
in the eighteenth century, usually spelled Balliaghiin. 
We have also Castle Mona, where Mofia is the early 
name of the Island, which was the name given by 
the Duke of Athol to his residence near Douglas, 



304 Manx T^leccsi-TI^Amtjf^ 

completed by him in 1804. It is now an hotel. 
GtUlet BuiGH, * Yellow Gullet,' a small inlet on Lang- 
ness, is probably so called from the colour of the sea- 
'weed. BAiK'HY-Breechyn, * Bay of the Breeches/ where 
hreechyn is simply a corruption of the English word, is 
so called because it divides into two branches, or, 
rather, legs. Creg Mill is ' Rock Mill,' and Creg-y- 
Leech is * The Crag of the Leech, or Doctor.' The 
meaning of CoiA^oo-way, ' Calf Wisiy ' or ' Calf Bay (?)/ 
is uncertain, as way may, perhaps, be a corruption of 
O.N. vagr, and not English. CKOiiKbourne is ' Hill River.' 
RusHEN Abbey, founded in 1134, of which very little 
now remains, is notable as having been the last monas- 
tery dissolved in the British Isles.* Thousla Rocks are 
the small rocks in the Sound of the Calf. It is not 
known to what language Thousla belongs. 

Of Scandio-English names there are : 

Little Ness, * Little Nose,' the name of a headland. 
Ness has practically been adopted as an English local 
name. Little Ness may, however, be a translation 
of the Scandinavian L/till Nes. GiAv4ang is * Long 
Cove.' 

Of translations we have the following, which are 
known to be so, either because the Manx name for the 
same place is still in use among old people, or because 
it is found in the Records : 

St. Anne's Head, in the parish of Santon, is a 
translation of Kione Sanctain, ' Sanctan's Head ' (see 
p. 209). Castletown, the ancient metropolis, was 
formerly called Balleycashtal, from its Castle 

* A full account of it is given by Gumming in Vol. XV. of the 
Manx Society's Publications, pp. 36-42. 



/ 



tfnglfsl^ Jtelm^tt. 305 

1. Rushen. Port St. Mary is a translation of Purt- 

y. NOO-MOIRREY. It is Still Called PORT-LE-MURROUGH 

a- by Manx people. The name seems to have been taken 
re from an ancient Keeill Moirrey, close to the Port. 
is Clay Head was formerly Kione Cloaie ; and Grou- 
,r, DALE or Crowdale was called Eschedala (O.N.), 
y. * Clay Dale.' Hillbery is a translation of Cronk-e- 
le berry. Highton was, till recently, Ballanard. 
)/ Blue Point was Gob Gorrym. Mount Karrin or 
of Mount Carrin was probably Slieau Karrin or 
r.' Slieau Carrin, ' Karran's or Carine's Mountain,' for- 
le merly. A little to the west of its highest point there 
s- is a tumulus forty-four feet in diameter, about six feet 
j-e above the level of the field. It is surrounded by 
3t upright schist stones at short intervals. Awin Lagg 
is now usually called The Lagg River. 
Oatlands is a translation of Ballaoates, ' Gates' 
I Farm.' On this farm, in Santon, there is a stone 
jl circle, and on the outer surface of one of the stones 
^ composing it there are some eighteen cup markings, 
^ methodically arranged in five rows. Mount Rule 
was formerly Knock Rule, * Rule's HilP (see p. 218). 
g Rue Point is a remarkable rendering of Gob Ruy, 

g * Red Point.' Black Head is a translation of Kione 
3 Doo, and Black Rocks, of Creggyn Doo. The Silver 
Burn, the modem name of the Castletown River, is a 
^ translation of Awin-argid. Greenland is a transla- 
tion of Thalloo Glass. Sky Hill, formerly Skyall, 
. is a corruption of the Scandinavian Scaccafell (Skogar- 
fjall)y ' Wood Fell.' White Bridge is a translation of 
Drodhad Bane, and White Strand, of Traie Vane. 
The Island, a field of triangular shape, cut off by three 

20 



306 TKiscnx ^Uctti'TteivxtB* 

roads, is a translation of Nellan. St. John's, at Tyn- 
wald, is the modern name of the chapel formerly called 
Keeilloun, 'John's Church.' Of considerable historical 
interest are the names of the ancient ecclesiastical 
Baronies or Manors. They were the Bishop's Barony, 
the Abbey Barony, the Barony of Bangor, and the 
Barony of Saball, now Saul, which were usually 
united; the Barony of St. Trinian's, the Barony 
OF St. Beade or St. Bees, and the Priory of 
Douglas. They were all freeholds, having been grants 
made by the rulers of Man from time to time. The 
Bishop was the Chief Baron. He possessed igj 
quarterlands, chiefly in the parishes of Ballaugh 
and Michael. Much the largest ecclesiastical pro- 
perty in the island was, however, held by the Abbey 01 
Rushen, called the Abbey Barony, which was foundec 
in 1 134 by the Cistercian Abbey of Furness, of whicl 
it was an appendage. It had altogether ggj^ quartei 
lands, called Thalloo-ab, ' Abbey Land,' 6 mills, an 
77 cottages, in the parishes of Malew, Germai 
Lezayre, Lonan, Braddan, and Rushen. Bangc 
and Saball were two monasteries in County Dow 
Ireland. They had 6 quarterlands in the parish 
Patrick. The Barony of St. Trinian's belonged 
the monastery of St. Ninnian, at Whithorn in Gal 
way. It had 5 quarterlands in the parishes of Germ 
and Marown. There is a ruined chapel, probably 
the thirteenth century, on this Barony, which is cal 
St. Trinian's. The Priory of Douglas seems, at 
early date, to have been converted into or amal 
mated with a Nunnery, containing 5 quarterlai 
where there was an ancient foundation, dedicatee 



dngliBfi Tteantsu 307 

St. Bridget. All the above Baronies had courts of 
their own (even the Prioress of the Nunnery is said to 
have held a court), in which they had the privilege of 
trying all crimes committed in their districts or by their 
own people, by a jury of their tenants. The Barony 
of St. Bees, in the parish of Maughold, which be- 
longed to the Priory of that name in Cumberland, 
consisted only of i^ quarterlands, and was therefore 
naturally considered too small to have a court. It 
is more usually called the Barony of the Hough, 
The Barony, or Christianas Barony, from its pre- 
sent proprietors. This Priory also possessed lands in 
the parish of Onchan at an early period, but seems to 
have lost them even before its dissolution. 

In all these Baronies, or Manors, the ecclesiastical 

proprietors had the same manorial rights as the lord, 

though they held of him as paramount by homage and 

fealty, as we learn from the Statute Book, under date 

1417, when the Deemsters informed Sir John Stanley 

that if any of his ' Barrons be out of the Land, they 

shall have the space of fourty days. After that they 

r are called in to come and show whereby they hould 

^ and clayme Lands and Tenements within * (his) ' Land 

of Man ; and to make Faith and Fealtie, if Wind and 

Weather served them, or to cease their Temporalities 

f into' (his) 'hands.' And in 1422 we find that the 

f Bishop of Man did his faith and fealtie, also the 

^ Abbot of Rushen and Prior of Douglas; while 

* the Prior of Withorne, in Galloway, the Abbot of 

Furnace, the Abbot of Bangor, the Abbot of 

, Saball, and the Prior of St. Beade, in Copeland, 

were called in, and came not; therefore they were 

20—2 



3o8 Msaxx )9tecie-Bmn]Q0* 

deemed by the Deemsters/ that, if they did not come 
within forty days, they were to * loose all their Tem- 
poralities.' It would seem, however, that they did 
come within that period, as their temporalities were 
not confiscated at that time. 

When the monasteries were dissolved in King Henry 
the Eighth's time, all the above lands, except the 
Bishop's, were taken possession of by him, together 
with that belonging to The Friary, also called 
BiMAKEN Friary (see Bemaccan, p. 281), the Prior of 
which had no baronial rights, and granted to private 
subjects under leases from the Crown. They still, 
however, remained distinct baronies, and were not 
subject to lord's rent. The number of quarterlands 
in all these Church properties is about 136, there 
being about 640 quarterlands of lord's land in the 
island ; so that the Church formerly held a very con- 
siderable proportion of the whole. The Abbey Rents, 
as they are called, are still collected separately by dis- 
tinct oflBcers, the Serjeants, although they, as well as 
the Lord's Rents, are now received by the Crown. 

There are two small properties, one in the parish 
of Patrick and the other in the parish of Maughold, 
the former of which, first mentioned in a Papal Bull 
of 1231 as terram dc bactdo SH. Patricii, * The land of 
the Staff of St. Patrick,' has long since disappeared 
as a separate property ; the latter, which is part of the 
Barony of St. Bees, still survives under the name of 
The Staffland.* This place is considered to be 
freehold, inasmuch as no rent or service is rendered in 

* The writer is indebted to Sir James Gell, Attorney-General, 
for information about the Stafflands. 



(Snj0ltel^ Battutf. 309 



respect of it to the lord. The service on which these 
lands were held seems to have been that of the pre- 
sentation of a staff or crozier, which the proprietors 
had to produce for the annual processions on the day 
of the saint to whom the parish church was dedicated. 
This in the former case would be St Patrick, in the 
latter St. Maughold, or possibly St. Bede, as the 
barony of which it formed a part belonged to the 
priory dedicated to that saint.* 

The service of the Staff of St. Patrick seems to have 
been commuted for a money-rent at the time of the 
Reformation, while the StafHand in Maughold fell into 
the hands of the Christians of Milntown. How they 
acquired it no one knows, but there is an old tradition 
that, prior to the dissolution of the religious houses, the 
Christians acted as agents for the Priory of St. Bees in 
Cumberland, and that, when that priory was dissolved, 

* It will be seen that these tenures are not peculiar to the Isle of 
Man from the following : 

' Grant of lands in Free Alms in the Isle of Lismore, with the 
custody of the Staff of St. Moloc. 

Deed of Confirmation. 

To all and singular, etc. We, Archibald Campbell, feudatory Lord 
of the lands of Argyle, Campbell, and Lorn, with the consent and 
assent of our most dear father and guardian, Archibald, Earl of 
Argyle . . . have granted, and as well in honour of God omni- 
potent, of the Blessed Virgin, and of our holy Patron Molec, and 
have mortified^ and by this present writing have confirmed to our 
beloved John McMolmore, and the heirs male of his body lawfully 
begotten or to be begotten, all and singular our lands ... in the 
Isle of Lismore . . . with the Custody of the Great Staff (Baculi) 
of St. Moloc, as freely as the . . . other predecessors of the s^ John 
had from our predecessors ... in pure and free alms.' (Dated 
9th April, 1544.) 



3IO Manx ^toiQ-Aamra* 

the barony in Maughold was so small that it escaped 
the notice of the Crown officials, and so the Christians 
continued in possession without being disturbed, and 
their possession became ownership. According to 
Hooper's Survey, however, the quit-rents or dues of 
the Staffland were paid to the lessee of the im- 
propriate tithes of Kirk Maughold ; but if this were so, 
it is at least certain that no rent has been paid during* 
the last two centuries. 

The following objects of antiquarian interest have 
English names : 

GoDRED Crovan's Stone, near St Mark's, once a 
huge granite boulder, has during the last forty years 
been broken up. According to tradition, Godred 
Crovan, when in a passion with his termagant wife, 
threw this stone at her and killed her. As it weighed 
between twenty and thirty tons, this can be readily 
believed ! This stone is mentioned by Sir Walter 
Scott in his novel, * Peveril of the Peak,' as is the 
Black Fort, an ancient earthwork in the same dis- 
trict, which has disappeared, though its name remains. 
The Cloven Stones are the only two stones remain- 
ing of a small stone circle, which was nearly complete 
less than a century ago. They were probably so- 
called from a supposition that they had originally been 
one. 

King Orry's Grave, near Laxey, where a large iron 
sword was discovered some years ago, is a long barrow. 
The Saddle Road, at Kirby, is so called from a stone 
shaped like a saddle, which is fixed in the wall close by 
a stile. It is supposed to have been used by the 
fairies in their nocturnal equestrian excursions. 



(SngllBfi Ham^fBu 311 



Fairy Hill, in Rushen, otherwise called Cronk 
MoAR, or Cronk Howe Moar, is the largest tumulus 
on the Island. Its base is 474 feet in circumference, 
and its height about forty feet. Its form is like that of 
a cone, truncated at the summit, and there are indica- 
tions of its having been surrounded by a ditch. It 
probably contains an interior chamber, so that its 
excavation would be very interesting to antiquarians. 
It is somewhat larger that the great tumulus of Mashowe 
in the Orkneys. 

Saint Maughold's Chair, a hollow scooped out of 
the rock, is close by the same saint's well. 

Giants' Fingers is the popular name of several 
large blocks of quartz, near the summit of the hill 
above Lhergydhoo, in the parish of German. 

St. Luke's Chapel,* at Lag-ny-Keeilley, is sup- 
posed by Gumming to be identical with the St. Leoc 
mentioned in the Bull of Pope Eugenius III., dated 
1 153. It is traditionally known as the church and 
cemetery of the Manx kings. 

There are a few names which owe their origin to the 
Derby Family, such as Derbyhaven, which was their 
usual landing-place, as being the nearest landing-place 
to the usual residence of the later earls when on the 
Island, Castle Rushen. Derby Fort, on Langness, 
close by, was built by James, the seventh earl, in 1645. 
Derby Castle, near Douglas, now a place of popular 
resort, is a name dating from the present century. 
Mount Strange, also called Hango Hill, on which 
there was a block-house built by the seventh earL 

* It is fully described in VoL XV. of Manx Society's Publica- 
tions, pp. 89, 90. 



Balla Strang and The Strang are also from one of 
this family's titles, though it is also a title of the 
Athols. 

Their successors, the Athols, have only Mount 
Murray, formerly Cronk Glass; Lord Henry's 
Well, on Laxey beach; and some street names. 
Balladuke may possibly have belonged to the Duke 
of Athol. 

The following depict natural and artificial fea- 
tures : 

The Chasms are deep rents in the cUffs, the result 
of landslips caused by the undermining action of the 
sea. The Anvil and The Castles are detached 
rocks. Granite Mountain is the name of a hill near 
South Barrule, where a boss of granite crops out. 
Head Gullet is on Langness. The Sugar Loaf 
Rock is a detached stack in the sea shaped like a sugar- 
loaf. The Sound is the narrow channel between the 
Calf and the mainland, where there are rapid currents. 
The Chicken's Rock is the name given to the small 
rock off the Calf, where there is now a lighthouse. 
St. Mary's Rock, or Connister, is the large rock near 
the entrance to Douglas Harbour. The meaning of 
Connister is obscure. The Round Table is a 
stretch of level upland between South Barrule and 
Cronk-ny-Arrey-Lhad. 

The following are from events or circumstances 
connected with their origin : 

BuRNTMiLL Hill speaks for itself. Spanish Head 
is said to have been so-called from a vessel belonging 
to the Spanish Armada having been wrecked there. 
Grave Gullet, on Langness, is probably so called 



iSnglbekfi HxmBsu 3^3 



from a body which was washed ashore having been 
buried there, while Tobacco Gullet smacks of 
smuggling. Glen Helen commemorates the con- 
version of the lovely glen of Rhenas into a pleasure 
resort, the name being taken from that of the wife 
of one of the directors of the company who purchased 
it ! The Smelt is the name of a hamlet near Port 
St. Mary, where smelting lead was formerly carried on. 
The Forester's Lodge, now in ruins,, was on the 
mountains, and belonged to the lord's forester, who 
paid a small quantity of oats yearly as an acknowledg- 
ment. Sir George's Bridge, in Braddan, was so 
called from Sir George Drinkwater, a recent proprietor 
of Kirby, who had a weakness for being the first person 
to cross a new bridge. It is now very usually called 
St. George's Bridge ; in a short time the process of 
canonization will be complete, and then a legend wiD 
be attached to account for it ! Corrin's Folly is 
a conspicuous tower on Peel Hill. Such buildings, 
for which there is no practical use, are called Follies. 
Bushel's House is the name given to the ruins of a 
small hut on the summit of the Calf Islet, which, 
according to tradition, was built by a hermit of that 
name. (For story, see Brown's Isle of Man Guide, 
pp. 283-4.) Bushel's Grave, on the same Islet, is 
really a look-out post. 

Horse Leap commemorates a hunting feat, and 
Horse Gullet and Cow Harbour are places where 
cattle can be easily swum ashore. 

King William's College, near Castletown, the 
principal insular public school, was opened in 1830, and 
named after the reigning sovereign. A. much more 



314 fDanx l^Iars-Bantesu 

appropriate name would have been Barrow College, 
from the Bishop of Sodor and Man of that name, who 
was virtually its founder. Albert Tower com- 
memorates the landing of Prince Albert at Ramsey, 
who ascended to that spot in 1847. About six miles 
east of Ramsey there is a sandbank, on which there is 
a lightship, called The Bahama Bank, called Bahema 
Bank in 1673. It is also called King William's Bank, 
from King WiUiam III., who was nearly wrecked there 
on his way to the battle of the Boyne. 

MiLNER Tower, a conspicuous object on Brada 
Head, was erected to the late Mr. Milner, of ' Safe * 
renown, in acknowledgment of his charities to the 
poor of Port Erin, and his efforts for the benefit of the 
Manx fishermen. 

The Tower of Refuge, on the St. Mary's, or 
CoNNiSTER Rock, in Douglas Bay, was erected in 
1834, stt the initiative of Sir William Hillary. 

The origin of the name Cromwell's Walk, which 
is near the shore to the south of Scarlet, is un- 
known. It is certainly fanciful, as the great Protector 
was never in the Isle of Man. For St. Patrick's 
Chair, in Marown, see Magher-y-Chiarn. 

The Nuns' Chairs is the name given to two holes 
in the rock on Douglas Head, to which, according to 
tradition, the unfortunate inmates of the nunnery were 
compelled to climb if they had committed any fault. 
The Nuns' Well is close by. 

The Pigeons' Cove, also in this neighbourhood, 
speaks for itself. The Pollock Rock, firom whence 
whiting pollock may be caught, will be shortly en- 
tirely covered by the extension of the Victoria Pier 



Cnglta^ Barnes* 3^5 



in Douglas. There was formerly a fort on this rock, 
which was removed in 1818. 

From mills we have Milntown, formerly Altadale, 
and Union Mills, formerly Mullen Doway. 

From various causes are : Poortown, a hamlet near 
St. John's, possibly so called from the poverty of its 
inhabitants ; and Newtown, an ambitious name 
given 150 years ago to some cottages near Mount 
Murray. 

St. Michael's Isle, at the northern extremity of 
Langness, where there is an ancient chapel dedicated 
to St. Michael, seems to have been so called from 
an early date. 

All the town churches and country chapels now in 
use are comparatively recent dedications. 

Purely fanciful and of recent origin are Bailie 
Gullet, Spire Gullet; Druidale, which is a 
portion of Airey Kelly ; Richmond Hill, formerly 
BuLRENNY Hill, 'Ferns' Fold Hill;' Brither Clip 
Gut, Farm Hill, Ash Hill, and Eyreton Castle. 

From surnames* there are : Kallow Point (Cal- 
low) ; Gordon, the name of a large property in Pat- 
rick ; Southampton, in Braddan, from the name of the 
proprietor, Hampton^ also Hampton's Croft; and 
Ivy Cottage, from a Lieutenant Ivy. 

From Christian names: Port Jack, Bullys 
Quarter, or 'Billy's Quarter;' Jons Quarter, or 
'John's Quarter ;' and Martha Gullet. 

The following names have been given by those who 

have lived or visited other lands : 

* AH surnames and Christian names, forming partly Celtic and 
partly English place-names, have been put under Celtic personal 
names. 



3^6 Memx pUvct'lBLamtsu 

Madeira was the name given to a small piece of 
mountain clearing by a young man who was impressed 
for the navy at the end of last century, and who spent 
a large portion of his time at sea off Madeira. On his 
return he bought this property and improved it. 

Minorca was so called by a sailor who had served in 
the siege there. 

Kilkenny, Nassau, Wigan, and Virginia are 
names that have probably arisen from the connection 
of the persons who gave the names with those places, 
but perhaps they are merely fanciful. 

Ohio, the name of a field in the parish of Michael, 
received its name for the curious reason that the man 
to whom it belonged, and who sold it, emigrated to 
Ohio. 

California has an even more remarkable origin. 
It is a piece of land near Ballameanagh, in the abbey- 
lands of Braddan, which was formerly very marshy. A 
man undertook the draining of it on a contract, and it 
was so much more easily done than was expected, and 
consequently at such a profit, that it was said that he 
had made a perfect California out of it. This name was 
given at the time when fortunes were made in mining 
in California. 

Antigua and Bolivia are names given by returned 
travellers. 

Annacur was probably originally so named by an 
Irish owner, who perhaps came from Annagar {Ath-na- 
Gearr, * Ford of the Cars ')• 

GiLGAL, though seemingly Scriptural, is merely a 
corruption of Guilcagh, ' broom.' 

Staward was a name given by the Bacon family to 



i5n0tt0^ Baimts. 317 



a farm in Sulby Glen, it being the name of their estate 
in Northumberland. 

The following names, probably of English origin, are 
obscure : 

Amulty Point, Atnaugh, Bellabbey, Bulgum 
Bay, Caigher Point, Claberry, Claram, Culberry, 
Point, Dalenra, Daleveitch, Gibbdale, Loch- 
field Ned, Manusan Rocks, Martland, Piscoe, 
Rheboeg, Scottean. 

The French name, Mont Pelier, was, for some 
unknown reason, given to a mountain early in the 
present century. 

Kilkenny, the name of a farm in Braddan, is com- 
paratively a modern name, and was probably given by a 
patriotic Irish settler. If old, it might have been derived 
from Keeill Caineach, * Caineach's or Kenny's Cell.' 

Under divisions of land we have the English word 
parish, which has been generally adopted instead of 
sie^Uy, as, for instance. The Parish of Andreas for 
Skeeley Andreays, and so for all the other parishes. 
Colloquially, however, the parishes are usually called 
simply Bride, Andreas, Jurby, Lezayre, Maug- 
hold, Lonan, Onchan, Braddan, Marown, Michael, 
Ballaugh, German, Patrick, Santon, Malew, 
Arbory, Rushen. 

The old Manorial Records, being vrritten in Latin, 
are responsible for the term alia, 'other,' which is 
given when there are two treens of the same name, 
thus : Dalby, * Dale Farm,' and Alia Dalby, * Other 
Dale Farm.' It is frequently corrupted into all. 

Small portions of land which, though not intacks, 
were, for some unknown reason, not included in the 



31 8 Slmtx Ij^tectt-meanvs^ 

designation of Quarterlandy are called Particles. In 
1403 King Henry IV. gave to ' Luke Macquyn, of the 
Island of Man, Scholar, certain alms called particles, in 
the Island aforesaid, vacant, as said, and in our gift, 
and which alms are appropriated to the support of 
certain poor scholars of the Island aforesaid, and which 
were given, confirmed, and conceded perpetually to the 
scholars by our predecessors, former kings of England ; 
to have and to hold to the said Luke the alms afore- 
said, as long as he shall remain a scholar for the benefit 
of the Church, and shall not be promoted.'* In 1429 
it would appear that, through the fault of the Bishop 
Pully, these Particles had been 'dealt into other 
uses,'t and they are now on the same footing as the 
Quarterlands, 

Another land division is called an Intack, or Intake. 
These Iniacks are usually either mountain land or 
strips by the shore. Licenses to enclose or take in 
were granted by the lord proprietor, or by the governor 
acting for him. This license was subject to the approval 
of the Great Inquest, or Jury, as to public ways, waters 
and turbaries, and the Inquest affixed a rent upon the 
intack thus acquired and caused it to be entered on the 
Manorial Roll. Many of the old quarterlands were 
long narrow strips, having one intack abutting on the 
common pasture in the mountains, and another intack 
abutting on the shore, whence seaweed was obtained 
for manure. 

* Manx Soc, VoL VII., pp. 225-6. 
t Statute Law Book, p. 24. 



INDEX OF CELTIC ROOT WORDS. 



Manx. English, 



Irish, 



Gaelic. 



Welsh. 



Aah 


a ford 


ith 


ath 




Aalin 


beautiful 


alain 


aluinn 




Abb 


an abbot 


abb 


abb 


(L. abbas, 
Syr. abba) 


Aeree or 


a moor 


airidh (hill 


airidh 




Ai?e^inil)« 




pasture) 






fire 


aibhle 


eibhle 




Ain 


circle, ring 


fainne 


fainne 




Aittin 


gorse 


aiteann 


aittin 


eithin 


Alt 


a mountain 
stream or 
glen side 


alt 


alt 


allt(L.altus) 


Arbyl 


a tail 


earbull 


earbull 




Ard 


a height, 

hicrh 


ard 


ard 


(L. arduus) 


Argid 


11 1^11 

silver, money airgead 


airgiod 




Armyn 


arms 


arm 


armachd 




Arrey 


a mill race 








Arrey 


a watch 


aire 


aire 




Asncy 


a rib 


aisne 


aisne 




Aspick 


a bishop 


easpoc 


easbuig 


(L. episco- 
pus) 


Astan 


an eel 


easgan 


easgann 




Awin 


a river 


abhainn 


abhainn 




Baare 


top, end 


ban- 


barr 




Baamcy 


a gap 


beam, 
bearna 


beam 




Baase (bays) death 


bas 


bas 




Baatey 


a boat 


bad 


bad 




Baih 


a bay 


bad 


bagh 


(E.bay,L.L. 
and Basque 
baia 


Bainney 


milk 


bainne 


bainne 





* All words in brackets in the first column are from Bishop 
Philips' Manx Prayer-book, written about 1628. 



320 



Jntn^x 0f lK00t Wnr(bm^ 



Manx, 


English. 


Irish, 


GaelU, 


W^lsh. 


Balla 


a farm, a 
town 


baile 


baile 


(L.L. l>alli- 
vum) 


Bane 


white 


ban 


ban 




Barnagh 


a limpet, 
barnacle 


baimeach 


faimeach 


(L.L. bema- 
cula) 


Bashtey 


baptism 






(Gk. bap- 
tisma) 


Bayr 


a road 


bothar 






Beaynee 


a reaper 


buanidhe 


buanaiche 




Beeall(b8eal] 


an entrance, 
mouth 
little 


bel, beul 


beul 




Beg 


beag 


beag 


bach 


Beinn 


top, summit 


beann 


beinn 




Beisht 


beast 


biasd 


beist 


(L. bestia) 


Billey (bille 


) a tree 


bile 






Bing 


a jury 








Birragh 


pointed 


biorach 


biorach 




Boa 


a cow 


bo 


bo 


bu (L. bos) 


Boal, boalley a road 








Boallagh 


a road 


bealach (a 
pass) 
balla 


bealach 




Boayl (ball) 


a wall 


balla (a wall) 


Boght 


a poor person bochdan 


bochd 






a stony dis- 


boireann 








trict 








Bollan 


a carp 








Bouyr 


deaf 


bodhar 


bodhar 


byddar 


Brack 


a trout 


breac 


breac 


brwych 


Braid 


upland 


braid 


braigh 




Breac 


speckled, 
spotted 
a kiln 


breac 


breac 


brwych 


Brebag 








Breinn 


stagnant 
broken 


brean 


brean 




Brisht 


brisde 


briste 




Briw (briu) 


a judge 


breithcm 


breitheamh 




Broighe 


dirty 


brogach 


brogach 




Broogh 


a brow (of 
hill) or a 
bank 


bru, bruach 


bruach 




Brott 


broth 


broth 


brot 




Buigh 


fellow 


brudh 


brudhe 




Bun 


end 


bun 


bun 




Bwoaillee 


a fold 


buaile 


buaile 




(buely) 










Caashky 


cheese 


caise 


caise 


caws 


Cabbagh 


sourdock 


copog 


copogach 




Cabbal 


a chapel 









Jnlnex 0f Havt Ww(^9u 



321 



Manx, 


English, 


Irish, 


Gaelic, 


Welsh, 


Cabbyl 


a horse 


cappalt 




(L.L. cabal- 


(kabyl) 








lus) 


Caggey 
(kagy) 
Callin 


a battle, war cogadh 


cogadh 




a body 


colann 


colunn 




(kaUyn) 










Cam 


crooked 


cam 


cam 


cam 


Cam 


a cairn, pile 
of stones 


cam 


cam, caim, 
cuim 


cam 


Carrick 


a rock 


carraig 


carraig 




Casherick 


holy 


coisreactha 


coisrigte 




Cashtal 


a castle 


caiseal, 
cashel 


caisteal 


(L. castel- 
lum) 


Cass (kass) 


afoot 


coss 


coss 




Cassan 


a path 


casan 


casan 




(kassan) 










Catt 


a cat 


catt 


cat 


cath (and 
Comish) 


Ceabagh 


cloddy 


caobach 


caobach 


Chiarn 


a lord 


tigheama 


tigheama 




Chiass 


heat 


teas 


teas 




Chibbyr 


a well 


tobar 


tobar 




(chibbyrt) 
Chirrym 


dry 


tirim 


tioram 




Chleigh 
(kleyi) 
Chuill 


a hedge 


cladh 


cladh 


clawdd 


a quill 

a dish, plate 








Claare 

(gi^yr) 

Claddagh 


clar (a table) clar 




a water mea 
dow 
a stone 


- cladagh 


cladach 




Clagh 


clogh 


clagh 


clog 


Claghagh 


stony 


cloghach 


clachagh 




Cliwe (kletu) a sword 








Cloaie 


stony 








Close 


a paddock, 
close 


close 




(L. dausus) 


Coan 


a valley 


cuan (a bay] 






Coar 


pleasant 








Colbagh 
Collagh 


a heifer 


colbthach 




colbthac 


a stallion 


collach 






Conney 


gorse 


• 


conusg 




Conning 
(konin) 


a rabbit 


coinin 


coinean 


(L. cuni- 








culus) 


Cooil 


a corner, 
nook 


cuil, cul 


cuil 




Coon 


narrow 








Coonlagh 


straw 


conlach 


conlach 





21 



322 



Jxih^x 0T fiii0f IDmrta* 



Manx; 


English. 

a round hill 
a hollow 


Irish. 
, cor 


Gaelic. 


Welsh. 


Corkey 


oats 


coirce 


coirce 


ceirch 


Comail (kor 


- a comer 


ceama 


ceam 


cornel (L. 


niyl) 








comu) 


Cosnee 


profitable 








(kosny) 










Cragh 


slaughter, 
plunder 


creach 


creach 




Crammag 


a snail 








(skellit) 










Crane 


a bone 


cnaimh 


cnaimh 




Creagh 


a stack 


cruach 


cruach 


crug (Corn, 
cruc) 


Cree(kri) 


a heart 


cridhe 


cridhe 




Creel 


a basket 








Creen 


ripe, 
withered 


crion 


. 


crin 


Creg (kreg) 


a crag, rock 


creag 


creag 




Creggagh 
Creoi 


rocky 
hard 


craigeach 


creagach 


crcgiog 


Croa 


a pen 


cro 


cro 


crau 


Croit 


a croft 




croit 


(A.S. croft, 
Dan. kroft) 


Cronk 


ahiU 


crock 






Crosh 


a cross 


crois 


crois 


croes rCom. 
crows) 










Crout 


trick, craft 








Cruinn 


round 


cruinn 


cruinn 


crwn 


Cubeyr 


a cooper 


cubhair 


cubhair 




Cullion 


holly 


cuillion 


cuillionn 




Curragh 


a bog, fen 


cuirreach 


curach 




Dar, dar- 


an oak 


dair, darach 


darach 


dar 


ragh (geni 










tive) 


• 








Dhoan 


dun 


donn 


donn 




Dhoon 


a close, a 
fort 


dun, duin 


dun 


(Eng. town, 
O.H.G.zdn) 


Doariish 


a gap 


dorus 




(Eng. door, 


(dorlys) 








Ice. dyrr) 


Dooiney 


a man 


duine 


duine 


(A.S. dyn) 


(duyncy) 










Dowin 


deep, low 


domhain 


domhain 


dwfn 


Dreeym 


aback 


druim 


druim 


drum 


Drinc(drein; 


a thorn (tree) draoighean 


draoighan 


draen (Com. 
drain) 


Droghad 


a bridge 


droichead 


droichead 


Drughage 


dog-rose 









Jtii^tx 0f ]tii0i iOorte. 



323 



Manx, 


English, 


Irish, 


Gaelic, 


Welsh, 


Druiaght 


sorcery 
a pond 


druidheacht 


druideachd 




Dubbyr 


dobhar 

(water) 
duilliasg 


dobhar 


dwfr 


DuUish 


sea-weed 


duilleasg 


dilysg 


Each 


ahorse 


each 


each 




Eairkan 


a lapwing 








Eaim 


iron 


iarran 


iarunn 




Eary, or 


a moor 


airidh (hiU 


airidh 




aeree 




pasture) 






Eas 


a waterfall 


eas 


eas 




Eayn (yen) 


a lamb 


uan 


uan 




Eaynin 


a precipice 








Edd (sdd) 


a nest 


nead 


nead 


nyth (Corn. 


Eddin 


a face 


eadan 


eudan 


ncid) 


(aedyn) 










Elian 


an island 


oilean 


eilean 


(A.S.ealand) 


Euar 


a yew tree 


iubhar 


iubhar 




Faaie 


a paddock, i 


i, faithche 


faiche 




Faarkery 


the sea 


fairge 


fairge 




(farkey) 










Fannag 


a crow 


fannoge 


fannog 




Farrane 


a fountain, 
spring 


uaran 


fuaran 




Feayr 


cold 


fuar 


fuar 


oer 


Fedjag 


a feather 


iteog 


iteag 




Feeagh 


a raven 


fiach 


fitheach 




Feeaih 


a deer 


fiadh 


fiadh 




Fceyn 


wine, a vine 


fion 


fion 




Fess 


a spindle 








Fluigh 


moist, wet 


fliuch 


fliuch 




Foalley 


treacherous 








Foawr 


a giant 


famhair 


famhair 




Foddey 


long 


fada 


fada 




Foillan 


a sea-guU 


faeilean 


faoileann 


gwylan 


Freoagh 


heath 


fraoch 


fraoch 




Freoghane 


bilberry 


fraochan 


fraochan 




FuiU 


blood 


full 


fuil 




GAAUE 


a smith 


gobha 


gobhainn 


g6f (Com. 
and Bre. 
also) 


Garee 


sour land 








Carey 


a garden 


garadh 


garadh 




Garroo 


rough 


garbh 


garbh 


garw 
21—2 



3*4 


JtUritx 0f S00I SDmrtotf* 




Manx, 


English, 


Irish. 


Gaelic, 


Welsh. 


Garmin 


a weaver's 
beam 
wind 


garmain 


garman 




Geay (gyae) 


gaeth 


gaeth 




Geayllin 


a shoulder 


gualann 


gualainn 




Geinnagh 


sand 


gaineamh 


gaineamh 




(gennagh) 










Geinnee 


sandy 


gainneach 






Giare 


short 


gearr 


gearr 




Glaick 


a hollow (of glac 


glac 






the hand) 










a stream 


glaise 






Glass 


blue, grey, 
green 
a glen 


glas 


glas 


glas 


Glione 


gleann 


gleann 




Goayr (goer) a goat 


gabhar 


gabhar 


gafar (Com. 
gavar) 


Gob, gub 


a mouth 


gob 


gob 


Goggan 


a noggin 


noigin 


gogan 




Gorrym 


blue 


gorm 


gorm 




Gortagh 


hungry 


gortagh 


gortagh 




Heese 


lower 


sios 


shios 


is 


Heose 


upper 


suas 


shuas 


uwch 


INJEIG 


an enclosure 






Injil 


low 


iseal 


iosal 


isel 


Inneen 


a girl, 


inghean 


inghean 




(innin) 
Inn is 


daughter 
an island 


innis 


innis 


ynys 


AGHEE 


tithe 








" aghin 


a deacon 






(L.diaconus) 


ean 


darnel weed 






] eeragh 


straight 


direach 


direach 




Jerrey (jere 


) end 


deirid 


deireadh 




Jiarg 


red 


dearg 


dearg 




Joaree 


a stranger 


deoradh 


deoradh 




Keeill 


a cell, church cill 


cill 


(L. cella) 


Keeyll(kai 


I) a wood 


coill 


coill 




Keim 


a stile 


ceim 


ceum 




Kellag(kelli) a cock 


coileach 


coilleach 




Kemmyrk 


a refuge 








Kerroo 


a quarter 


ceathramh 


ceathramh 




Kesh 


foam 








Keyrr 


a sheep 


caera 


caora 




Kiark 


a hen 


cearc 


cearc 




Kiel 


narrow 


caol 


caol 


cul 


Kione (kian) head, end 


ceann 


ceann 





Jntftx 0f Siv0i tOvt^B^ 



325 



Manx, 


English. 


Irish. 


Gaelic. 


Welsh. 


Knock 


a hill 


cnoc 


cnoc 




Koir 


a chest 








(Kruit) 


a harp 


cruit(aharp), 








cruitire (a 










harper) 


cruiteir 




Laagh 


mire 


lathach 


lathach 




(laygh) 










Laare 


a floor 


lar 


lar 


Uawr 


Lag 


a ditch, 
hollow 


lag 


lag 




Laj^r 


strong 


laidir 


laidir 




Leigh (lyei) 


a law 


lagh 


lagh 




Leoaie 


lead 


luaidhe 


lin 




Lhean 


broad 


leathan 


luaidhe 




Lheanee 


a meadow 


leana 


leathan 


Uydan 


Lheeah 


gray 


liath 


liath 


llwyd . 


Lheeah-rio 


hoar-frost 


liath-reo 


liath-reo- 
dadh 


rheu (Com. 
reu) 


Lheim 


a leap 


leim 


leum 




Lhiack 


slate, slate- 


leac 


leac 


Ihechen 




rock,a stone 






Lhiaght 


a grave 


leacht 


leac 




Lhiattec 


aside 








Lhieh 


half 


leath 


leth 




Lhiey (lyi) 


a calf 


laegh 


laogh 


(Com. 
leaugh) 


Lhing 


a pool 


linn 


linne 




Liargagh 


a slope 


leargaidh 


leargan 




Liauyr 


long 


leabhar 






Logh 


a lake 


loch 


loch 


Uwch (Com. 
lo, Bre. 
louch) 


Loob 


a loop 


lub 


lub 




Losht 


burnt 


loisgthe 


loisgte 




Maarliagh a robber 


meirleach 


meirleach 




(merliagh) 










Maase 


cattle 








Maggie 


testicle 


magairle 


magairle 




Magher 


afield 


machair (a 
plain) 


machair 




Mair 


a finger 


meur 


meur 




Maynagh 


a monk 


manach 


manach 


(L. mona- 
chus) 


Mea 


fat, luxuriant 






Meanagh 


middle 


meadhonach meadhonach 


Meayl 


bald 


mael 


maol 


moel 



326 



Jtdnx Jtyf HiOfXft Vtnjpt^ 



Manx, 


English. 


Irish, 


Gaelic, 


Welsh. 


MeayU 


a bare bead- 
land 
z,moar* 


meall 


meall 


moel 


Meoir 








Moainee 


a turbary 


moin 


moine 


mawnog 


Moanagh 


boggy 








Moddey 


•a dog 


madadh 


madadh 




(moaddy) 










Mohlt 


a wether 


molt 


mult 


molJt (Com. 
mols) 


Mollee 


an eyebrow 


mala 


mala 




Mooar 


big, great 


mor 


mor 


mawr 


Mooarid 


greatness 


moralachd 


morachd 




Mooiragh 


a waste by 
the sea 


muirbhach 






Muc 


a pig 


muc 


muc 


moch (also 
Com. and 
Bre.) 


Mucaill 


a sow 


muc-ainidhe muc 




Mucklcy 


a hedgehog 








Muir 


the sea 


muir 


muir 


mor 


MuUagh 


a top, sum- 
mit 


mullach 


mullach 




Mwannal 
(muynal) 
Mwyllin 


a neck 


muineal 


muineal 


mwnwgll 


a mill 


muillean 


muillean 


melin (Com. 










belin, Bre. 










melin) 


NOA 


new 


nuadh 


nuadh 


newydd 


Oaie Gci) 


a grave 








Ooyl 


an apple 


ubhall 


ubhaU 


afal 


Or, ooirr 


a coast, 
verge, rim 


oir 


oir 




Oural 


a sacrifice 


offrail 


ofrail 




Ouyr 


dun 


odhar 


odhar 




Pairk 


a park 


pairc 


pairce 


park (L.L. 
parcus) 


Peel 


a fortress 






pill 


Pesson 


a parson 


pearsun 


person 




Ping 


a penny 


pinghin 


peighinn 




Pooyl 


a pool 


poll 


poU 


pwU (Ice, 
pollr, A.S. 
and Dan. 
poll) ^ 


Purt 


a port 


port 


port 


(L. portus) 



♦ The officer who collects the * Lord's Rent.' 



Inlrsx JOf JR00t Wmrtos* 



327 



Mcmx, 


English, 


Irish, 


Gaelic, 


Welsh, 


QUAIYL 


a court 








Quallian 


a whelp 


cuileann 


cuilein 


colwyn 


Quing 


a yoke 


cuing 


cuing 




Raad 


a road 


rod 


rathad 


(A.S. rid) 




a fort 


rath 


rath 


rhawd 


Raiin 


a seal 


ron 


ron 


(A.S. hron) 


Rea 


flat 


reidh 


reidh 




Ree 


a king 


righ 


righ 




Recast 


a waste 


riasg (a 
morass) 






Rennee 


ferny 


xaithneach 


rainich 


rhedynawg 


Renniagh 


fern 


raithneach 


raineach 




Rheynn 
Rinn 


a division 


rann 






a ridge 




roinn 




Roauyr 


fat, thick 


reamhar 


reamhar 




Roayrt 


springtide 
a wood 


robarta 
ros 




ryferthwg 


RuiUick 


a graveyard reilig (relic) 


reidhlic 


(L. reliquiae) 


Runt 


round 








Ruy 


red 


ruadh 


ruadh 


rhudd 


Saggart 


a priest 


sagart 


sagart 


(L. sacerdos) 


cleft, spilt 


sgoilt 


sgoilt 




Scrah 


a sod 


sgraith 


sgrath 




Scuit 


a spout 
(? corr. of 
spooyt) 








Seyir 


a carpenter 


saor 


saor 




Shag 


a cormorant 








Shamrag 


a shamrock 


seamrog 


seamrag 




Sharragh 


a foal 


searrach 


searach 




Shee 


peace 


sith 


sith 




Shecar 


the west 


iar 


siar 




Shellagh 


a willow 


saileach 


seiieach 


■^x)"-- 


Shellan 


a bee 


seillean 


seillein 




^shcUian) 










Shen 


old 


sean 


sean 




Shlig 


asheU 


slig 


' slige 




Shliggagh 


shelly 


sligach 


sligeach 




Shoggyl 


rye 


Seagal 


Seagal 




Shugiaig 


sorrel 




seolbhag 




Shynnagh 


a fox 


sionnach 


sionnagh 




(shinnagh) 










Skarrag 


a skate 








Skeaig 
Skeddan 


hawthorn 


sceach 


sgitheach 




a herring 


sgadan 


Sgadan 





3^8 



Jnti^ 0T IftxfVi 9D0rlto* 



Manx. 


Englisk. 


Irish. 


Gaelic. 


Welsh. 


Skeerey 


a parish 


sgire 


sgireachd 


(? English 
shire) 


Skceyley 


a parish 
church 








Skibbylt 


active, 
nimble 








Slaint 


health 


slainte 


slainte 




Slieau (slaeu) a mountain 


sliabh 


sliabh 




Sloat 


a pool, low 
water 


slod 


sloe 




Slogh 


a pit 


sloe 


slochd 




Soalt 


a bam 


sabhaU 


sabhall 




Soo 


juice, berry 


sugh 




sug 


Sooie 


soot 


suthaighe 


suithe 




Sooil (suil) 


an eye 


suil 


suil 




Spooyt 


a spout, a 
waterfall 


sput 


sput 


(L. sputare) 


Spuir 


a spur 


spor 


spor 




(spyryd) 


spirit 


spiorad 


spiorad 


yspryd (L. 








spiritus, 










Bre. speret) 


Sthowyr 


a staff 








Scroin 


a nose 


sron 


sron 


ffroen 


Strooan 


a stream 


sruthan 


sruthan 




(struan) 










Stuggey 


a piece 


stuaic (alittle stuc 




Sumark 


a primrose* 


aiii^ 






Taarnagh 


thunder 


tamach 


taimeach 




(tamiagh) 










Tarroo 


abuU 


Urbh 


tarbh 


(Gk. tauros) 


Tessyn 


athwart 


tarsna 


tarsuinn 


traws 


Thalleyr 


a taildr 


tailiur 


taillear 


tailur 


Thalloo 


land 


talamh 


talamh 




ThieVi) 




(earth) 






a house 


teach 


tigh 


ty(andCom^ 










L. tectum) 


Thunnag 
Tonnagh 


a duck 


tunnog 


tunnag 


3 


wavy 


tonnach 


tonnach 


tonnawg 


Towl 


a hole, cave 


toll 




twU 


Traagh 


hay 








Traie 


a strand, 
shore 


traigh 


traigh 




Tramman 


an elder tree tromn 


troman 




Treem 


(a division of trian 








land) 









Probably connected with Shamrag^ which see. 



JtUTj^x 0f fRir0i Vvnoi^* 



329 



Manx, 


English, 


Irish. 


Gaelic, 


Welsh. 


Troddan 
Tushtagh 


a contest 
sensible 


trodan 






Ughtagh 
UhUin 

Undin 
Unjin 
Urley 
Ushag 


an acclivity uchdach 
a stackyard id-lann 

(corn-en- 
closure) 
a foundation funn 
an ash tree fuinnseann 
an eagle iolar 
a bird fuiseog (a 


uchdach 

uinnsinn 
iolar 


(L. fundatio) 


Ushtey 


water 


uisge 


uisge 


(E. whisky) 


YlARN 


iron 


lam 


iarunn 


heym (A.S. 
iren) 



Abbreviations : A.S., Anglo-Saxon ; Bre., Breton : Corn., Cor- 
nish ; £., English ; Gk., Greek ; L., Latin ; L.L., Late Latin. 



INDEX OF SCANDINAVIAN ROOT WORDS. 



A, a river 
Alda, a wave 
Alfr, an elf, fairy 
Austr, the east 

Balli, a grassy bank 
Baer, byr, a farm 
Berr, bare 
Bora, a bore-hole 
Brattr, steep 
Brautr, a road 
Brekka, a slope 
Bru, a bridge 
Brun, an eyebrow 
Brunnr, a spring, well 

Dalr, a dale 

Djupr, deep 

Dyr, an animal, beast 

EgGj an edge 
Enni, the forehead 
Esja, clay 
Ey, an island 
Eyrr, a gravelly bank 

FiSKR, a fish 

Fjall, a fell, mountain 

Fjor^r, a firth 

Fles, a green spot 

among bare fells 
Folk, people, folk 

Galtr, a boar, pig 
Gandr, magic 



GarSr, a yard, an en- 
closure 

Gata, a way, path, 
road 

Gil, a deep, narrow 
glen 

Gja, a chasm, rift 

Gnipa, a peak 

Godi, a priest 

Gras, grass 

Grsenn, green 

Grjot, pebbles 

Grof, a pit 

Hagi, pasture 

Hamarr, a hammer 

Haugr, a how, mound 

HoU, a hill, hillock 

Holmr, an islet 

Holt, a wood, copse 

Hrafn, a raven 

Hris, shrubs, brush- 
wood 

Hross, a horse 

Hryggr, a ridge 

Hvammr, a grassy 
slope, a vale 

Hvltr, white 

JORFI, gravel 

Kambr, a crest, a 

comb 
Kapall, a nag, horse 
Kirkja, a church 



Klettr, a rock 
Kollr, a top, summit 
Korn, com, grain 
Kraka, a crow 
Kringla, a circle 
Krokr, a nook, any- 
thing crooked 

Lagr, low, low-lying 
Langr, long 
Lax, a salmon 
Lftill, little 
Lundr, a grove 

MiGRi, a border-land 
Me'Sal, middle 
Muli, a muzzle, snout 
Myrr, a moor, bog, 
swamp 

Nabbi, a knoll 
Nes, a nose 
Nor%, the north 

POLLR, a pool, pond 
Prestr, a priest 

RA, a comer, nook 
Rani, a hog's snout, 

a hog-shaped hill 
Ripr, a crag 



Saurr, mud 
Setr, a seat, 
dence 



resi- 



Inlnex nf ScatttirinaMim S00t tOioivihB. 



331 



Skali, a hut, shed 
Skat's, a notch, chink 
Skarfr, a cormorant 
Skaunn, a shield 
Skei^r, a war-ship 
Skel, a shell 
Sker, a skerry, a de- 
tached rock 
Skip, a ship 
Sk6gr, a shaw, wood 
Slakki, a slope 
Snaer, snow 
861, the sun 



Stakkr, a stack 
Steinn, a stone 
Strondi, a strand, 

coast, shore 
Sut$r, the south 
Svartr, black 

Toft, a knoll 

Uxi, an ox 

Vagr, a creek, bay 
Var«a, a beacon 



Va*, a wading-place, 

a ford 
Ve, a mansion, a 

house 
Vfk, a creek, bay 
V6llr, a field 
Vorr, a lip 

Ogr, an inlet 

piNG, a parliament 
porp, a hamlet, village 
promr, a brim, edge 




INDEX OF SURNAMES. 



Allen * 50 
Andrew^ 32 
Arinbiaur^* (S) 114 
Ascoughy* (S) 79 
Asrith*{S) 114 
Asihruth*{S) 115 
AMsI*{S) III 

Bacon * 102 
Bankes^ 102 
£asiiny% 222 
Bell, 223 

Berra^^ 221, 229 
Benjyi 223 
Birrag^% 221 
Bivaicunas^ 109, no 
Bivaiddonas^ no 
Bivatdonas, 109 
Bjarn* n3 
Boddaugh,'*' 67 
Boyd* 67 
Brew, 74 
Bridson, 55 



CiESAR,* 102 
Cain, 41 
Caii^e, 41 
Calcot, 102 
Calcott, 102 
Calcy, 59 
Callin, 41 
Callister, 35 
Callow, 60 



Calvin,'*' 61 
Cammaish, 26 
Cannan, 67 
Canned 43 
Cannell, 43 
Cannon,* 67 
Caralagky* lor 
Carberry.% 221 
Carine, 53 
Carmick^ 220 
Camaghan^ 58 
Carran, 53 
Casement, (S) 7;) 
Cashen, 58 
Cashin, 58 
Castell, 80 
Caistell, 80 
Caveen,^ 51 
Christian, (S) 87 
Christory, 102 
Clague, 76 
Clark, 72 
Clarke, 72 
Cleator, 104 
Cleg, 76 
Clegg, 76 
Clucas, 23 
Cogeen, 59 
Collister. 35 
Colvin^ 61 
Cornish, 26 
Conill* 44 
Conilt, 44 
Connelly,* 43 



Conroy,* 68 

Coobragh^ 31 

Cooil, 61 

Coole, 61 

Corjeag, 100 

Corkan,* 49 

Corkhill, (S) 82 

Corkish, 95 

Corlett, (S) 83 

Cormode, 41 
i Corooin, 52 
I Corran, 52 

Corrin, 52 

Corris, 94 

Corteen, 59 

CQsnahan,t 

Costain, 28 

Costeen, 28 

Cotteen,* 59 

Cotter, 81 

Cottier, 81 

Cottingham,* loi 

Cottle,^ 222 

Cowell, 61 

Cowen, 51 

Cowin, 51 

Cowle, 61 

Cowley,* 84 . 

Coyle, § 220 

Craig, 103 

Crain, 55 

Craine, 55 

Crebbin, 97 

Creen^ 64 



Jntr^ vf $urnant»« 



333 



Crecr, 97 
Crcetch, 78 
Cregeen,* 64 
Crellin, (S) 85 
CrenncU, (S) 85 
Crctney, 78 
Criggal,*t 
Criggard* 99 
Crinaas^ 115 
Cringle, (S) 86 
Cristalson, 102 
Croghan, 63 
Crow, 36 
Crowe,* 36 
Cry, 76 
Crye, 76 
Crystal, 102 
Cubbon, 98 
Cudd,*68 
Cunamagliy^ 1 10 
Cunava^ 109, no 
Cundre, 78 
Curphey, 57 
Custal^% 221 
Cutchaly^ 221 

Daley,§ 223 
Dougherty,* 45 
Dovaidona* no 
DowaHy 49 
Druian^ 115 
Dufgal* 1 1 5 
Duggan, 49 

Ellison, 103 

Faden, 33 
Fairbrother^* 103 
Faragher, 37 
Fargher, 37 
Farrant, 103 
Fayle, 33 
Fell, 34 
Fiac^ 36 
Fletcher^ 103 
Freer y 104 
Fritha* 114 
Froca* 116 
Fynlo* 78 



Gale, 94 
Garret, (S) 86, 94 
(7tf«/,* 113 
Gautr^ 133 
Gawn, 75 
Gawne, 75 
Cell, 74 
Gelling, 25 
Gick, 104 
Gilbeall* 32 
Gilcobraght* 31 
Gilhast*7% 
Gill, 74 
Gillowyey 64 
I GilpcUrick* 32 
Gilpeder^ 32 
Godred* (S) 88 
Gorree, 87 
Gorry. 87 
(7<w/,* 113 
Graves,* 104 
Grim* 113 
Gummery,* loi 

Halsall,§ 223 
Hampton, 105 
Harrison, 104 
Heywood^ 104 
Howlan, 66 
Howland,* 66 
Hromund^ 1 14 
Hudgeon, 105 
Hutchen, 105 
Hutchin, 105 

INNOW* 70 
Ivenawe^ 70 

JOUGHIN, 71 

Kaighan, 37 
Kaighin, 37 
Kaneen, 44 
Karran, 53 
Kay, 62 
Keareyf 63 
Kee, 62 
Kegeen, 38 



Kegg, 38 
Keig, 38 
Keigeen, 38 
Kellag, 68 
Kelly, 47 
Kenag, 44 
Kennaugb, 44 
Kennish, 57 
AVr</,* 77 
Kermeen, 60 
Kermode, 41 
Kerniish, 94 
Kew, 63 
Kewin, 24 
Kewish, 73 
Kewley,* 84 
Key, 62 
Kie, 62 
Killey, 47 
Killip, 26 
Ktnley, 49 
Kinnish, 57 
Kinred, 77 
Kinry, 98 
Kinvig, 77 
Kissack, 23 
Kneal, 46 
Kneale, 46 
Kneen, 45 
Knickell, 28 
Krickart^ 99 

Lace, (S) 90 
Leece, (S) 90 
Lewin, 25^ 
Uutwol/^ 114 
Looney,* 66 
Lowey^ 64 
Lucas,* 23 

Mac a DDE* 32 
Mac A /car* (S) 91 
Mac Arthure* (>% 
MacCaure*7Z 
Mac Claghelen, 68 
Mac Clenerent* 78 
Mac Corry* 68 
Mac Craue^* 78 
Mcu: Cray* 76 
Mac Crowiofty* 78 



334 



Jnlrix 0f $mtn«ms»» 



"Mac Cundre* 78 
Mac Cure* 78 
Mac Curry* 69 
il/iw Dowytt* 78 
MacEffe^iZ 
Mac Essas^ 78 
iJ/tf^ Fadetiy* 32 
J/a^ Fergus.* 37 
^rtr Finloe* 78 
A/Jflf^ Gilacosse* 35 
il/of Gilbeall* 32 
i!/iK: Gilcobraght* 31 
il/rtf Gilcolum* 35 
il/iw: Gilhast* 78 
il/flf Gillaws^* 35 
i1/fl^ Gillowye^ 64 
il/fl^ Gilpairick* 32 
il/rt^ GUpeder* 32 
il/a^ Hawe,* 78 
MacKellag*(iZ 
Mac Kerd* 77 
il/a^ Kimbe* 78 
il/a^: Knalytt* 78 
il/a^ A>w ,♦ 78 
il/^ Lolan* 78 
J/o^ Lynean* 'jZ 
Mac Mychell* 32 
Mac Namee^* 69 
^tf/T Nanteer^ 69 
^a^ Person^ 72 
J/a^ Pherson* 72 
Mac Quantiey* 78 
il/a^ Quartag* 78 
il/tf^ Quiddie* 55 
^tf^ Rory* 70 
i^a^ Sharry^ 99 
A/<w Sherry* 99 
il/<w Skealey^ 73 
A/^w Tereboy^* 75 
J/rff F^rnry,* 30 
J/£i^ Vrimyn* 78 
il/^K"^ Chlery* 72 
Maddrell, 105 
Mael'Lomchon^ 115 
Malachy\ 
Mal-Lumcun^* 1 1 5 
Martin, 27 
Mitchell* 223 
Moore, 48 
Morrey, 30 



Morrison, 30 
Morton,* 56 
Moughlin,* 56 
Mucaiy* 109, no 
Mucomael^ 1 1 1 
Mughtin, .56 
Murciolu,* 115 
Murray, 30, 57 
Mylchraine* 54 
Mylchreest,* 29 
Mylecharane,* 54 
Mylechrcest,* 29 
Mylrea, 65 
Mylroi, 65 
Mylroie, 65 
Mylvorrey, 30 

Nelson, 46, 104 
Nicholas,^ 225 
Nideraghy 76 
NorriSy 105 

Oates, 100 
Oats, 100 
aMaelguc: 
Onon* 115 
(?frj^,* (S) 88 

Parr,* 105 

QuAGGiN, 39 
Qualtrough, 95 
Quane, 25 
Quark, 26 
Quarry, 40 
2«a/f,» 78 
Quay, 63 
Quayle, 34 
Quiddie* 55 

Quiggin, 39 
Quill, 61 
Quilleash, 74 
Quilliam, 97 
Quillin, 48 
Quinc, 40 
Quinncy, 40 
Quirk, 52 
gi^^// ♦ 78 



III 



Radcliffe, ioi 
Ralfe,§ 225 
Ratcliff, IOI 
Roscil * {S) iiA 
Rumund* [S) 114 

Sandulf* {S) 114 
Sansbury, 106 
Sautharf 
Sayle, 34 
Scarf, (S) 91 
Sherlock, io8 
Shimmin, 26 
Silvester,% 225 
Skelly, 73 
Skillicorn,*9i 
Skillicorne,* 91 
Skinner,* 107 
Sontulf* 114 
Standish* 106 
Stanley, 106 
Stephen, 28 
Stephenson, 28 
Stevenson, 28 
Stole, 106 
Stowell, 106 

Taggart, 72 
Taubman, 107 
Tear, 75 
Teare, 75 
Thompson,* 107 
Thorbiaum* (S) 1 14 
Thorleifr* {S) 114 
Thorrid*{S) 115 
7>fc«r///Jr,*(S)ii4 
Thurul/s*(S) H4 
Thufvaldr* {S)y 114 
Trollag, 219 
Truian, 1 1 5 
Tyldesley* 107 

UciFAT, 115 



ViNCH, 107 
Vondy,* 107 
J^^^<r, 30 



ItiStftx 0f Siu^namcBu 335 



Ward, 72 ' Wattleworth, 108 1 Yvenb^* 70 

Waterson, 96 Whetstones ^% 219 ! Yvensf 70 

Watterson, 96 | Woods, io8 | 

i 

All names now obsolete in the Isle of Man as surnames are in 
italics. 

(S) » Scandinavian. 

* Not found compounded with balla^ or other local prefix or 
affix. 

t See Addenda. 

§ Rarely found except in connection with place-names. 




INDEX OF PLACE-NAMES. 



In addition to the names given in the index only, of which either no explanation has 
been attempted or none is required, there are names mariced *, which are suso not in the 
text as such, though their component parts will be found there from the references given. 

All the more important Celtic preidxes are given in small capitals, while all affixes 
which are not correctly spelled in the names to which they belong are given in italics, 
bracketed. When a name is partly Celtic and partly English or Scandinavian, the 
English and Scandinavian portions are in italics, and when a name is partly English and 
partly Scandinavian, the English portion is in italics. Scandinavian names are marked S, 
Scandio-Celtic names S C or C S, and Scandio-English names S £ or E S. 

Purely Celtic and purely English names have no distinguishing mark. 

Obsolete names are marked ob. 

When a name is given more than once, the modem form is placed first. 



Aah, ' a ford ' (see addenda). 
Aah-ny-lingey, ford of the pool, 176 
Awhallan '{'whuallian)^ whelp ford, 

195 
Abbey barony, 306 
,, lands of Male w 
„ ,, Onchan 

Agneash, S {e^'ar-rus), ridge ness, 
274 
Aeree, *a moor,* 133, 143 
Airey kellag, Kellag's moor, or 
{kellagh) cock moor, 68, 197 
Areman, ] p 
Arirody, \ 

Aristine, Steen's moor, 223 
Aristonick, aeree, ? 
Arybeg, little moor, 237 
,, horkell^ S, Corkell's moor, 223 
,, glass, green moor, 234 
„ kelly,* Kelly's moor, 197 
,, moar, big moor, 237 
Albert tower, 313 
Alchest, Alkest, S {alfa'SCc^r), 
elves' stead, 288 

'{pidu - hryggr)^ wave 

ridge, 257 
{oidu-vik)t wave bay, 
276 



Aldrick, S- 



Algar {Al/gars ? sMr\ Alfgar's 
(stead), 223 
Alia, Latin, 'other,* 317 
Alia begoad, S (? ve-godi)y other 
Godi's, or priest s hoase, 3CX3^ 

317 
„ colby, S {kolls^ or kolla-byr\ 
other Coil's, or summit farm, 

275.295.317 
,, dalby, S {dalar-byr\ other 

Dales* farm, 272, 317 
;, gnebe, S {pnpa)f other peak, 

251. 317 
„ gresby, S {gras-byr)^ other 

grass farm, 285, 317 
„ leodest, S (iiots-stadr)^ other 

Liot's stead, 296, 317 
,, raby, S {rdr-byr)^ other nook 

farm, 279, 317 
,, sulhy, S \solva-bvr), other 
Solvi's farm,- 298, 317 
Alt (see Olt), glenside or mountain 

stream, 136 
Altadale (ob.), S {alptar-dair), 

swan's dsde, 314 
Alt-ny-creggan {cregayn), moun- 
tain stream of the crags, 
167 



JtHftiX vf ipXact-tAam^ 



337 



Anu^riy, Asmogarry, S {Asmunds- 
gar^r\ Osmund's enclosure, 

255, 293 ^ 
Amulty Point ?, 316 
Andreas, Parish of, Skeeylley 
Andreas, Andrew's parish 
church, 20S, 213 
Annacur ? (modern), 317 
Antigua, 316 

Anvil, The (a detached rock), 312 
Arbory, Parish of, Skeeylley Cair- 
bre, Cairbre*s parish church 
Ard, ' a height,' or high,' 142, 240 
Archollagan (? chiollagh-een), little 
hearth height, or high little 
hearth, 182, 249 
Arderry {eary\ high moor, 249 
„ <?^, C S (? olaf), Olave's height 
„ onan, ? Donan's height, 217 
„ rank ? 
Aid, The, the height, x66 
Arduailey \lnvoaiUee\ fold height, or 
high fold, 171, 249 
,, valley, high farm, 249 
„ volley {voiIee)f eyebrow height, 

181 
,, whallan {whuallian), whelp 
height, 142 
Arnicarnigan, Carnigan's height, 

223 
Arrogan beg, ? ard, 

„ mooar, ? ard, 
Arrysey, Arracey* {arrey\ watch?, 

183 
Ashenmooar (? Balla - yn - atttin\ 

(farm of the) big {.^orse, 231 
Ash hill, 315 

Aust, S {ausir), east, 292, 293 
Atnaugh, ? 316 

AwiN, *a river,* 146 
Awin biaber^ C S, blcaberry river, 
300 
„ doo, black river, 232, 235 
n glass, gray, blue, or bright 

river, 232, 235 
,, VyWty* {keyil<y)i wood river, 

146, 199 
« Jag8f*» turf-hollow river, 169 
„ ny-darragh, river of the 

oak, 199 
„ ny-reeast, river of the waste, 

168 
,, ruy, red river, I46, 234 
„ vitchal, ? Gilchreest's river, 
223 



Ayre, The^ S X^y^)* the gravelly 

bank, 252 
„ 77ie Point of, S, the point of 

the gravelly bank, 254 
„ sheading, S {skeH^ar-^ing), 

Ayre ship-district, 268-271 

Baare, ' top, end,' 142 
Baredoo, black top, 142, 232 

„ mooar,* big top, 142, 236 
Baroole, Barroole, or Barrule, North 

and South Roole's top, 217, 

218, 225 (see Preface) 
Barrule beg*, little Roole's top, 217, 

218, 236 
Bahama Bank, 'Bahema bank, 

314 
Baih, ' a bay,' 144 
Bale doo, black bay, 233 
„ ny-breechyn, bay of the 

breeches, 304 
„ „ -carrickey, bay of the rocks, 

144, 170 
„ „ -ooigy C S, bay of the cave, 

144. 277 
„ st<uka^ C S, bay of the stack, 
260 
Bay Fine ? 
„ yn-owj C S*, bay of the how, 

144, 257 
Baillie Gullet, 315 
Balda/I, C S (ob.), dale farm, 254 
„ mill of dale farm, C S (ob.), 
254 
BaL/a//-Brew, C S, Brew's, or 

Judge's dale farm, 164, 254 
Bal<iiz// Criste, BalrfoZ-Christory, CS, 
Christory's dale farm, 164, 

254 
Baldwin \Boayldin {boayl-dmtnn\ 
Baldooin j. low-place, 240, 254 
Balicure (ob.)« now Bishop's Court, 
boggy farm, 242 
Balla, 163, 164 
Ballabane, white farm, 233 
beg, little farm, 236 
barna ) 

■{barney),^ip farm, 169 



benna 
bema j 

berrag 
birrag 

booie 

bouigh 

buiy 



'Berrag's farm, or 
{Hrragh) pointed 
farm, 221, 239 

{butgh), yellow fann, 
236 

22 



33^ 



Jntr^x 0f ipiat^-Bdmc«« 



Ballabrebbag? {brebag), kiln farm 

(see addenda) 
„ brooie (braoee), river banks' 

farm (see addenda) 
^, bunt, Balnybunt, end farm, 

or farm of the end, 171 
„ carkey\ {kiark^y), hens* farm, 
„ karka / 197 
„ carnane, cairn farm, 174 
>» I* beg, little cairn farm, 

174 
„ charree^jAarr^^),foals' farm, 194 
„ chirrym, Balytyrym, .dry farm, 
244 

, , claughbane {c/agh)^ white stone 

farm, 233 
„ clybane {cieigh), hedge farm, 

172, 233 
„ choan '\ 

„ coan I (^da»), valley farm, 
„ coine? | 169 
„ coyne?; 

„ coar, pleasant farm, 245 
,, colum, Columba's farm, 214 
„ conley, Ballacoonlagh {coon- 

lagh)^ straw farm, 202 
, , conna-moor {conney ffwoar)^ big 

gorse farm, 201 
„ conneh-bwee {conney), yellow 

gorse iarm, 2*^6 
,, cooiley ) {cooi/ey), nook farm, 
„ cooley ( 1.69 
„ corkey, oats farm, 202 
, , cosney (? cosnee) profitable farm 

(see addenda) 

» creggagh ) '*'^"' ^ 

,; creggan, rocky-hillock farm, 

„ cree, heart farm, 187 

„ croak (? cronk), hill farm, 167 

,, crosha | {crosA), • cross farm, 

„ cross $ 174 

„ crink I {cruifti), hills' farm, 

„ cruink ( 167 

„ crynanebeg •j''twire%ei 
" » ™«"*\ p. 174 

, gorse farm. 



cunney- 




Quinney's 



Ballacurn, cam* {cam), cairn farm, 

174 
„ „ kiel,cam-y-keil(i6tfff»/£r^), 
cairn of the cell farm, 

172, 174 
„ „ kiel-beg,cam-y.keil-beg, 
liitle cairn of the cell 
farm, 174 
,, „ kiel-mooar, cam-y-kiel- 
mooar, big cairn of the 
cell farm, 174 
„ curry {curree), boggy fiiirm, 242 
,, doo, black farm, 232 
,, doole, ? 226 

„ doyne {damn), low farm, 240 
,, duke, duke's farm, 312 
„ fadda {foddey\ long farm, 237 
„ fageen ? {fedjeen), weaver's- 
quill farm, 227 
, , fesson {pesson)^ parson's farm, 189 
i> .fo^W Balla/bAa^ntf, {fo- 
kaugr\ C S, under how farm, 
239. 257 
ll{purt\ port farm, 171 
„ furt - ? {fjordr), C S, firth farm, 
I 255 
gaie \{gaaue), smiths farm, 
gaue/ 191 
gawn, Ballacoan, valley farm, 

169. 191 
gawne, Gawne's farm, 
ghaw {ghaw), C S, cove farm, 
garaehyn (? garroo)^ 
gare] 
gyr Hgiare)y short farm, 238 

garee, stony-land farm, 168 

garey, garden farm, 168 

garman {gamtin), weaver's- 
beam farm, 192 

garroo Mgarroo), rough farm, 

garrow / 241 

gillty, Baly^;//,* C S, glen farm, 
256 

gilley, ? Killey's farm (or 
keeilley\ church farm, 172 

genny, sandy farm, 242 

glanny '\ 

clonev^^ .(^/w»«ry),glenfarm, 
lonna^ »^ 

lonney ] 

glass, green farm, 163, 234 
glashan,* ? {glais-een), little 
stream farm, 160^ 175 



Jxttftx 0f 1|^ltcct''Sismt^9^ 



339 



Ballagraney ^ 
„ graingey \ixruifuy), sunny 
>t grangee j farm, 242 
„ greney J 
,, graue {cratt^)^ bone farm, 180 

„ harra\*? {s^rreg)^ foals* farm, 

„ harry/ 194 

„ hasney ? {asney)^ rib farm, 180 

„ hawin ) 

„ ho win > (az&i»), river farm, 169 

„ hown ) 

„ hot, cott {cot\ cottage farm, 1 77 

,, hew, C S, {hau^), how farm, 

257 
„ huggal* (shoggyl)^ rye farm, 

202 
,', Jerai ) {jeeragh)^ straight farm, 
„ jireyj 238 

r, ji^rf }^^''^''^>' '^^ ^""' ^34 
„ jora {joaree\ stranger's farm, 

191 
,, juckley(^//(fd^ii), broom-plant 

farm, 201 
„ keeragh {keyrrey), sheep farm, 

193 
„ kellag, Kellag's farm, or {kel- 

lagh\ cock farm, 68, 197 
„ kerroo, quarter farm, 171 
„ kesh, foam fscrm, 178 
„ keyll, wood farm, 199 
„ kiel* (^«/), narrow farm, 238 
„ kiark,* hen farm, 197 

f(keei/Uyf) church farm, 
„ killey-^ 172 

[ [keylUyX wood farm, 199 
„ „ clieu, {5lieau\ church hill 

farm, 166, 172 
„ Killingan {Keeill-Lingan), 

Lingans*-cell farm, 214 
„ kilmane {mian), Matthew's cell 

farm. 215 
„ „ martin, Martin's cell farm, 

214 
„ ,,moirrey^ 

„ „ murray Umoirrey), Mary's 
„ „ vorrey | cell farm, 215 
„ „ worrey J 
„ „ patrick \ Patrick's cell 
„ „ pharic / farm, 214 
„ koig, ? 216 
„ lag, hollow, ditch, or turf-lag 

farm, 169 



„ leigh, law farm, 184 
„ Iheiy {iMey)^ calf farm, 193 
„ lig, hollows', ditches', or turf- 
lags* farm, 169 
„ ling, pool farm, 175 
„ lough, lake farm, 170 
„ leney \{/Aeeame)t meadow 
„ Iheaney/ farm, 169 
„ managh, Ballamanaugh, 

monk's farm, 189, 196 
„ meainagh^(meanagA\ middle 
„ menagh j farm, 189, 240 
„ meanagh beg,* little middle 

fann, 236, 240 
,9 „ moar,* big middle 

farm, 236, 240 

I! S^}<^^>» ^^"^^ ^^^^' 237 

„ megagh? 

., milaghyn ? ) {milchyn)^ trees' 

„ miljyn J farm, 199 

\\ mine}^'^^)» ^^^ ^*'^' *44 

,, moar (mooar), big farm, 236 

„ modda J 

,, moddey > dog or dogs farm,i94 

,, modha ) 

„ „ beg,* little dog or dogs 

farm, 194, 236 
„ H moar*, big dog or dogs 

farna, 194, 236 
„ mona,Ballam6aney(m0a/2a^A), 
turfy farm, 170, 243, 
260 
tt >» beg,* little turfy farm, 

I70» 237 
„ . ,, moar,* big turfy farm» 

170, 237 
„ myllin \{mwy//in), mill farm, 
„ wyllinj 173 
„ naa* H^'w-aa), farm of the ford/ 
„ nea*j 170 

,, na-hard\farm of the height^ 
„ nard / 166 
,, nahoughty {ny-u^Aia/^A), farm 

of the acclivity, 168 
,, nank? 
„ narran {yn-farrane^ farm of 

the spring, 176 
„ nass* (yn-ass), farm of the 

waterfall, 170 
, , nayre {yn-ayre), C S , farm of the 
gravelly bank, 254 
22 — 2 



340 



Intnex nf pUttti-Vitntttit. 



Ballaneagh (yn-eagh), farm of the 
horse, 192 
„ nearey {yn-eary)^ farm of the 

moor, 166 
„ neddin {yn-eddin), farm of the 

face, 
„ nimade, Balynemade ? 
„ /«<^fl5j,CE, paddock farm, 303 
„ phesson, parson's farm, 189 
,, rhenny {rmnee), ferns* or ferny 

farm, 243 
„ saig (? skeaig), hawthorn farm, 
200 

'Ballasallagh {sallagh)y 
^., dirty farm, 242 
»» saua- Ballasalley {shellagh), 

, willow farm, 201 
„ seyr {seyir)^ carpenter's farm, 

191 
„ shalghaige {shuglaig)^ sorrel 

farm, 201 
„ shamrock {shamrag)^ shamrock 

farm, 202 
,, sharragh, foal farm,' 194 
„ shellag, C S {skeljar-vik),! shell 

creek farm, 1S9 
„ shimmyrk {kimmyrk\ ? refuge 

farm, 230 
,, shiig, shell farm, 198 
„ shuggal {shoggyl), rye farm, 
202 

{shugiaig)^ sorrel 
farm, 201 
e-Cain, Cain's sorrel 

' farm, 201 
M-Quiggin»Qu»gg»n's 

sorrel farm, 201 
{skeaig\ hawthorn 
farm, 200 
^€^haig\(sceabag)y sheaf farm, 
skebbeg / 203 
skerroo ) p 
skirroo ( 

spur {spuir)t spur farm, 177 
steer, ? 

strange C E, Strange farm, 303 
stroan \(j/ra^aff), stream farm, 
strooanj 170 
stroke, ? 

sumark, primrose farm, 230 
taggart {saggyrt)y priest's farm, 
or Taggart's farm, 189 



shuglaig 



skeaig 
skeige 



^I'^t^^n [(/'"J-"), athwart fann. 
„ tesson J ^^ 

I bleach green 
farm, or farm 
of the bleach 
green, 192 
„ thonna {tonnagh\ wavy farm^ 

245 
„ thunnag, duck farm, 197 
„ vaaish, death farm, 186 
„ vaase, cattle farm, 192 
„ „ mooar, big cattle farm, 

192 
„ vagher, field farm, 171 
„ vale (mod.), C E, valley farm, 

303 
„ vane, white farm, 233 
„ varanagh, Balyvarynagh ? 
„ vair 1 

„ vare Y{bayr\ road farm, 174 
„ vcarj 

" va^n U^yr-^^')^ white 

.. ::rTnei -d farm, 174 

„ varrey, ? 

„ villey, tree farm, 199 

„ voar {fmeoir), Moar's farm, 190 

„ voddan, ? 

„ volly (? mollee), eyebrow farm, 

181 

„ vraarey ) (^aflr^7),prioryfarm, 

,, vrara \ 246 

„ vriew (drtw), judge's farm, 190 

„ yaghteragh (eaghteragh), upper 

farm, 239 

„ yeaman, ? 

„ yelse,? 

„ yolgane, ? 

Balla^ (with obsolete, uncommon 

or corrupt surnames). 
Ballacagin, Caigm's or Kaighin's 
farm, 219, 220 
„ camain, Kermeen's farm, 60 
„, carmick, carmyk, Carmick's 

farm, 220 
„ caroon, Corooin's farm, 221 
„ chleeree, Clark's farm, 72 
„ coarey, quarrys, Quarry's farm, 
219 



> > For other surnames with Bm/Ui fee Surnames. It is compounded with almost every 
surname in the island. 



Jxi^tx 0f pULte-THecm^B. 



341 



Ballacogeen, Cregeen's farm, 59 
::c~n'„^}Cundre'sfcrm.a,9 

,, corage, Corraige's farm, 221 
,, cotch, Cottier's farm, 219 
„ coyle, Coyle's farm, 220 
„ creetch, Creetch's farm, 219 
„ • crine, Green's or Crine's farm, 

219 
„ cricyrt, Krickart's farm, 99 
,, custal ^ 

„ catchal j-Gilchreest's faim, 231 
,, vitchalj 
„ cuberagh, coobragh, Coo- 

bragh's farm, 32 
,, cunney, Quinney*s farm, 220 
„ douraghan, ? Duggan's farm, 

„ Faden fFaden's farm, 221 
,, Fad in \ (see also p. 224) 
„ Fletcher, Fletcher's farm, 303 
„ Freer, Freer's farm, 221 
„ gennish, Kennish's farm, 57 
,, gilley, Killey's farm, 221 
,, gonnell \Conneirs or Can- 
„ whannell j nell's farm, 219 
„ gorra, gorry, Gorry's farm, 

221 
„ htfgg, Balyhigg, Higg's farm, 

105 
„ hestine, steen, Steen's farm, 

29 
„ himmin, Shimmin's farm, 27 

„ kerbery, Carbcrry's farm, 

221 
„ kewaigue* (? aeg), Young 

Kew's farm, 224 
„ killowiel Gillowy's farm, 219, 
„ killowy / 220 

„ koige, Keig's farm, 221 

„ Mac Skealley, Mac Skealey's 

farm, 2x9 
,, nickle, Knickle's farm, 221 

:: ^l\7JQuinne/s farm, 220 
„ Hegnelt, Jiegnylt.'BaXdall Bey^ 

nyU{Mgm/aldr), C S, Regi- 

nald's farm, Reginald's dale 

farm, 221, 300 
„ sherlogue, Sherlock's farm, 

220 



> Martin's farm, 219 



Ballaskelly, skealey, Skelly's farm, 

219 
„ stole. Stole's or Stowell's farm, 

219 
,, trollag, Trol lag's farm, 219 
„ varchein ) 
„ vartjsen 
,, vartin . 
„ varton ) 
„ vargher, Fargher's farm, 221 
„ vastin, Bastin's farm, 222 
„ veil. Bell's farm, 223 

„ wanton (modem), ? Wanton's 

farm 
„ whane, Quane's farm, 220 
„ whetstone, Whetstone's farm, 

219 
Balla (with Christian names) 
Balladha {adha), Hugh's farm, 224 
„ faden yvi phaideen), little Pat- 
,, fageen/ rick's farm, 224 
„ juanvark, John Quark's farm, 

225 
,, robin, Robin's farm, 224 
„ varkish, varkys (? Markys), 

Mark's farm, 224 
„ will. Will's farm, 224 
„ wille, Willy's farm, 224 
„ willy killey, Willy KiUcy's 

farm, 225 
„ worrey, Mary's farm, 216 
„ yack. Jack's farm, 224 
,, yemmy, Jemmy's farm, 224 
„ „ beg, little Jemmy's 

farm, 224 
„ yockey (nickname), ? Jockey's 

farm, 225 
„ yonaigue {aeg)^ Young John's 
farm, 224 
Bal for Balla. 
Baldoon, close farm, 172 
„ drine, thorn-tree farm, 200 
„ dromma {drommeyY (hill) back 

farm, 168 
„ „ heis, lower (hill) back 

farm, 168, 239 
„ „ heose, upper (hill) back 

farm, 168, 239 
„ jean, darnel -weed farm, 202 
,, larghey, slope £a.rm, 167 
„ laugh, Bal-ne-laaghey, Balla- 
lough {laaghey\ mire farm or 
town, or {logh)t lake farm, or 
town, 174, 176 



342 



Jxl^^x 0f piatt-WLatmjBL 



Ballaugh, Parish of, 213 
„ laughton» 303 
„ lister, Balyster, ? 
„ lie {iuh)t half farnii 171 
,, lig, hollows* farm, 169 
„ na-hard* {ny-ard), farm of the 

height, 166 
„ „ -hawiir* [ny-azoin), farm of the 

river, 169 
„ „ 'h<nv, Ba\neAow, C S {Aaugr), 

farm of the how, 257 
„ ny-Iaghey* {laa^A^y)^ farm of the 

mire, 176 
„ „-lerghyli(«y./wr^fl^//),farmof 
„ „ -IhergyJ the slope, 167 
„ „ -sloe, ? 
„ „ -dybflne {cleigh\ farm of the 

white hedge, 172, 233 
„ „ -craig, farm of the crag, 167 
>» fi/geay, farm of the wind, 187 
„ trim (? ckirrym), dry farm, 244 

Ball for Balla. 
Ballaspet \{asptck)y bishop's farm, 
„ aspick/ 189 

„ irey ? Heary), moor farm, 166 

„ yrey?J 

„ eigeragh {eaghteragh), upper 

farm, 239 
„ ellin, Ballellan, island £arm, 

170 
„ ingan* (St.) Lingan*s farm, 214 
„ injague [injeig\ paddock farm, 

172 
, , jiaree* {^joatee), stranger^s farm, 

191 
„ iMt'houghy* C S {Aaugr), farm of 

the how, 257 
„ ure (euar), Yew farm, 200 
Bailey - Cashtal (ob), Castletown, 

173. 229 
Banks*s how, S {^augr), Banks*s 

how or headland, 256 

Bannister (a corruption of Ballister), 

Bama-ellan-renny {damagA), Ferns' 

or Ferny Island gap, 171, 243 

Bamagh jiarg, (? Balla bamagh jiarg,) 

red limpet (farm), 181, 182 
Barony of Bangor and Sab^l, 306 
„ St. Bees, 306, 307 
„ St. Trinian's, 306 
„ the Hough, 307 
„ The, 307 
Barrick, S {^rr-Aryggr), bare ridge, 
257, 300 



Bastin's Close, 172, 222 

Bayr, *a road,' 155 
Baregarrow {garroo\ rough road, 241 
„ beg,* little rough road, 

236, 241 
„ moar,* big rough road 

236, 241 
Bamell, Nell's road, 224 
Barroose {Aeose), upper road, 239 
Bayr ny Ayra, S, road of the ayr, or 

gravelly bank, 254 
Bearey (? eafy)^ moor, 140 
Beary pairk* (? eary), moor park, 
140, 149 
Bbeall, * entrance, mouth,' 148 
Bealevayr {y-zfayr), entrance of the 

road, 174 
Beal-y-phurt, entrance of the port, 

148 
Beeal-feayn-ny-geay, wide entrance 

of the wind, 187, 238 
Bel^;awn {y-coaft)^ mouth or en- 
trance of the valley, 169 
Billowne, Belowne {y-aztdn), mouth 

of the river, 169 
Begoad, Begod, S {}ve-godt\ Godi's 

or priest's house, 281 
Beinn-y-phot, or Penny pot, ? top of 

the pot, 147 
Bemahague, Bemaghagg,S (?^va«»- 
ma-haugr)f slopes' or vales' 
how, 278 
Bellabbey ? 

Bemaccan, Bemecan, Bymaccan, 
Bimaken, Brimaken, Bow- 
maken, S (? ve-maccan^ Mac- 
can's or Magnus's house, 246, 
2S1, 282, 308 
Bendoyle. Bendoill, ? 148 
Berk east ? 
„ west ? 
Berrag,Birrag,BalIaberrag, Berrag's 
farm, or {birragh) pointed 
farm, 221, 239 
Bibaloe, Byballo, S (?tv-da//i), grassy- 
bank house, 253, 281 
»t beg,* S C, little grassy-bank 

house, 236, 253, 281 
, , mooar, ''^SC, big grassy bank 
house, 236, 253, 281 
Bingbuie J {binn) * yellow tops,' 148, 
Binnbuie ) 236 
Bishop's barony, 306 

„ court, 242 
Black fort, 310 



Jn^sx 0f ipXdt^-tAatn:!** 



343 



Black head, 305 
„ rocks, 305 
Blockeary, ? 166 
Blue point, 305 
Boal-na-muck {boayl\ place of the 

pig or pig's stye, 164, 193 
Boe Norris, Norris's cow (rock), 145 
„ The, the cow (rock), 139 
Boirrean, stony district, 140 
Borrane, or Boirane - creg - lieh, 
stony district, or rocky ground 
of the gray crag, 156, 167 
9, BaWi^, C S, stony district of 
^ Balelby, 156, 286 
Bohvia, 316 

Bow and arrow hedge, 229 
Bracka^i^^m, Brecka^r^^m, ? S E, 

(? brekka * a slope *), 272 
Bradda, Braddaugh, S {Bratt- 
haugr), steep how, 300, 301 
Braddan, Parish of, Ske^ley Vrad- 
dan, Braddan's parish church, 
211 
Braggan point ? 

Braid, * upland,' or * gorge,' 139 
Braid-ny-boshen {bwoaiUyn)^ up- 
land of the folds, 156, 171 
„ „ -gUonney, gorge of the 

glen, 156, 169 
,, „ -skarrag, upland of the 

skate, 156 
„ The, the upland, 139 
Braids, Ihe, the gorges, 139 
Braust, Brausta, Ballybruste, S 
(? drautar-s/a^r)f roadstead, 
roadstead farm, 279 
BreekbooWey, S C {h'ekJka)^ slope 

of the fold,' 272 
Brerick, Breryk, S {bruar-hryggr)^ 

bridge ridge, 257, 280 
Bretney, Bretby, S {bratt-byr\ steep 

farm, 301 
Bride, Parish of, Skeeylley Vridey 
or Vreeshey, Brigit's parish 
church, 210 
Brither clip gut ? 315 

({Brufts, Brun, or Brunna- 
dalr)i Brown's, brown, 
or springs' dale, 274, 
278, 293 
Broogh, ' a brow ' (of a hill), 132 
Broogh, jiarg mooar, big red brow, 
143, 234 
„ ny-soo, brow of the berry, 
203 



Broogh, Tfut the brow, 132 
Brough brisht, broken brow, 244 
Buggane, The, ? 
Bulgum Bay, ? 316 
Bully's Quarter, 224, 315 
Bunghey (? bun * end'), 148 
Burntmill hill, 312 
Bushel's house, 313 

„ grave, 313 
Burrow moar, * big burrow ? 240 

„ meanagh, middle burrow, 

240 

Burrow Ned, Burrow ZT^od {boru-ey), 

S E, bore-island head, 276 

i5«rr«rsodjey, further burrow?, 241 

BWOAILLEE, (plu. BwOAILTYN), 

•a fold,' 138, 150 
Balthane ) Byulthan (? bwoaiUyn\ 
Boltane \ folds, 138 
Boilevell, Bell's fold, 223 
Bole shoggil {sAoggyf), rye fold, 202 
Boleewillin (wz£jy//t«), mill fold, 173 
Bol reiy {ree)^ king's fold, 188 
Bolrenny, Bulrenny {renmg), ferny 

or ferns* fold, 243, 315 
Booil tramman, elder-tree fold, 199 
Booiley Corage, Coraige's fold, 223 
„ freoie (frtoaU), heather fold, 

201 
„ bane, white fold, 233 
Booldoholly (? bivoailUt-doo-keylUy), 

black fold of the wood, 232 
Booleyvelt, ? 

Bouldaley, Daley's fold, 223 
Builtchyn renny {rennee), ferny, or 

ferns' folds, 150 
Bultroan (strooan), stream fold, 170 
Buthin vane* (? bwoaiUyn)^ white 

folds, 138, 233 
Bwoaillee Cowle,* Cowle's fold, 
138, 150 
„ downe, deep fold, 240 

„ losht, burnt fold, 150 

Cabbal, * a chapel,' 152 
Cabbal druiaght, druid's or sorcery 
chapel, 190 
„ Lingan, (St.) Lingan's 

chapel, 214 
„ ny-Lord* Chapel of the 

Lord, 152 
„ rullicky, churchyard chapel, 
173 



344 



JTittex 0f IjfiUcct'WisiintB* 



Cabbal-yn-oural-losht, chapel of the 
burnt sacrifice, 152, 184, 

243 
Caigher point, ? 316 
Calf of Man, The, Manar kalfr, S, 

258 
California, 316 

Camlork, ? S {kamba}\ Ridges?, 
275 
„ ? C {cam)^ ? crooked, 249 
Cammal, S {kamba-fjall)^ Ridges 

fell, 275 
Cardie, Cardale, Cardal, S {kjarra' 

da/r), brushwood dale, 285 
CarJ/e veg, S C, little brushwood 
dale, 285 - 
„ voar, S C, big brushwood 
dale, 285 
Carlane, 7}4^ (see Kirlane),lhe sheep- 
fold, 174 
Carn, 'a cairn,' 138, 155 
Cairn, TAe, the cairn, 138 

Carmo^& b^,*C S C, little cairn of 

the dale, 138, 236,254 

„ moar,* CSC, big cairn 

of the dale, 138, 236, 

Camageay i^-^ay), cairn of the 
wind, 187 
„ geijoil, joyful cairn, 155, 247 
„ lea* {Iheeah), gray cairn, 138 

235 
, , sharragh vane, white foal cairn, 

194 
„ Th€t the cairn, 134 
„ va«I ) Michael's caini, 138, 
„ vial* ( 215, 216 
„ vreid, hood cairn, (see addenda) 
„ y greie ? ) cairn of the sun, 
„ ygreineyj 186 
Carnank, 'a cairn ' (diminutive), 
158 
Camane-breck, speckled cairn, 158, 
236 
„ bedn, vedn. (t/an^), white 

cairn, 233 
„ Tke^ the cairn, 158 
Camanes, Thcy* the cairns, 158 
Carrick, ' a rock,' 134, 144 
Cam'ck, rock, 134 
Carrick-a-feeaih {y\ rock of the 
deer 193 



Carrick doan, dun rock, 234 

,4 ' lea {Ifueah)^ gray rock, 235 
„ nay,* S (yn-ey), rock of the 

island, 134, 254 
„ Philip,* Philip's rock, 134 
„ roayrt, spriiig-tide rock, 1 77 
,, rock, ro<;k rock, 144 
„ Th€, The Rock, 134 
„ y-voddy, rock of the dog or 
dogs, 194 
Carrigraun, seal rock, 195 
Carrin (see Karrin and Mount 

Karrin) 
Carthure Rocks ? 

Cass, 'a foot,' 148 
Cassnahowin {ny'awtn)^ foot of the 
river, 169 
„ ny-hawin, 148 
„ „ -strooan, foot of the stream, 

„ „ -stroan, stream foot, 170 
Cassan kiel, narrow path, 155 
Cashtal, * a castle,' 152 
Cashtal lajer, strong castle, 244 
„ logh, lake castle, 170 
, , ree Goree^ C S, King Gorree's 

castle, 152, 166, 188 
„ vooar, big castle, 152, 236 
„ yn-ard, castle of the height, 
166 
Cashtall-y-Vare-vane, castle of the 

white road, 174 
Castle Mona (modern), 303 
,, Rushen (see Rushen), 212, 

229 
„ town, 304 

„ Ward, Castell McWade, 
Ward's or MacWade's 
castle, 222 
Castles, The, 312 
Chasms, The, 312 
Chester, Chestou's Croft 
Chibbanagh ? 

Chibbyr, * a well, spring,' 153-4 
Chibberbrott, broth well, 192 
„ feayr, cold well, 244 
„ glass, bright or clear 

spring, 235 
„ harree {^sharree), foal's well, 

194 
„ Katreeney, Katherine's well, 

216 
„ lansh, 154 ? 
„ boghtyn* {boght), poors' 
well, 153, 185 



ivin^ 0f 1l^iiat-1i$M^jeu 



345 



Chibber Maghal, Maughold's well, 
216 
„ Niglas, Nicholas's well, 216 
„ ny-cree-baney, well of the 

white heart, 187 
„ ny-ushag, well of the bird, 

196 
„ oney, Roney's or Maroo- 

ney*s welC 216 
„ Pherick, Patrick's well, 216 
„ roll in, DoUin's well, 224 
„ undin, fouodation well, 

181 
„ unjin, ash tree well, 200 
„ vaill {vayl), Michael's well, 

216 
„ vainnagh (? vainney or 
varney)t well of the milk 
or gap, 230 
„ vastee, well of the baptism, 

18s 
,, voirrcy, Marys well, 153, 

216 
,, Treeshey, Bridget's well, 

216 
„ y-chiam, well of the Lord, 

188 
„ y-geay, well of the wind, 

187 
,, y-slaint, well of the health, 
169, 184, 230 
Chibbyrt balthane* (? bwoailtyn), 
folds' well, 138, 153 
„ chtog8L {} cregffag^k), rocky 
well, 241 
Chickens rock, The, 3x2 

Chleigh or Cleiy, * a hedge ' 
Chleig-ny-cuilleig, hedge of the 
nook, 177 
„ „ -flieeiney, hedge of the 
wine, 203 
Chleijrrourl ^ 
Clyrour / ^ 
Clybane, white hedge, 151 
Cleigh-yn-arragb, hedge of the 
arrow, 229 

c}yc"^u?'}(?-^-)'b^J^<^^g^ 

237 
Clychur beg,* little big-hedge, 236*7 
„ moar,* big big-hedge, 236-7 
Clyclough, stone hedge, 160 
„ een, litCle hedge, x6o 
„ na-mona, hedge of the tur- 
, bary, 170 



Christianas barony, 307 

Citten, The city (modern) 

Claare-our {ouyr\ dun dish, 146 

Claberry, ? 3^17 

Claddagh, Tlu^ the water meadow, 

135 

Clagh, 'a stone,' 143, 155 
Claghard, high stone, 155, 240 
„ bane, white stone, 143, 233 
„ glass,* gray stone, 235 
„ ny-dooiney-marroo, stone of 

the dead man, 246 
„ ouyr, dun stone*, 235 
Claughbane, white stone, 233 
„ vane, 233 

„ Willey,* Willey's stone, 224 
Clannei ) Glannagh (? Bulla- 
Cleanagh { glionney)^ farm of the 

glen, 230 
Claram, ? 316 
Clay head (see Eschenes and Kione 

cloaie), 286, 305 
Clenaige ? 

Cleps or Clypse, S (? Clepps-by), 
Clepps's (farm), 

293 

„ „ S C, e-creer,* 

Creer's Clepps's 

(farm), 293 

„ vejr,* SC, ? 

Clepps's little 

(farm), 236, 

293 
„ „ voar,* S C, ? 

Clepps's big 
(farm), 236, 

293 
act elby, S {kldtr-eldabyr), Elby 
rock, or fires' place rock, 
277 
Cloaie head, C E, Kione cloaie, stony 
head, 241 
Close, * a paddock, close,' 149 
Close- an-ellan [yn)y close of the 
island, 149, 170 
„ beg,* little close, 149, 236 
„ buigh,* yellow close, 149, 236 
„ chabbach (cabbag), sourdock 

close, 201 
„ chiarn, Lord's close, 188 
„ chirrym, dry close, 244 
„ conley, straw close, 202 
„ conning, rabbit close, 195 
„ eiark, hen close, 197 
n lake* C £, lake close, 149 



346 



Jniwx 0f f^latt'tUim^B. 



Close iliam, William's close, 224 
,1 Leece,* Leece's close, 90, 149 
„ managh, monk's close, 189 
„ mooar,* big close, 149, 236 
„ ny-cholbagn, close of the 

heifer, 193 
y» fi 'g^rey, close of the stony 

land, 168 
»» n -gonning,* close of the 

rabbit, 195 
„ „ -Iheaney, close of the 

meadow, 169 
„ „ -veaynee, close of the 

reaper, 191 
„ rei, reigh, king's close, 188 
„ tunnag, duck close, 197 
„ vark, Quark's close, 222 
„ yn-argyt, close of the silver, 

or money, 204 
„ y-chiarn, close of the Lord, 

188 
„ ,,-gaur (goayr)t close of the 
goat, 195 
Cloven stones, The (see addenda) 
Cluggid, The ? 
Clyne moar ? 
Clypston ? 

Qytts, TAp, S {kUitar), ITu rocks, 
252 

COAN, *a valley,* 145 
Coan bwec {buigh)y yellow valley, 
236 
„ rennee, ferns' (or ferny) valley, 

Con-garey (? coan-garey)^ garden 

valley, 145, 149 
„ shella^h, willow valley, 201 
Colby, S {koiU, or kolla-byr), KoU's 

or summits' farm, 275, 295 
Colden, Coldran, S {kuldi-ram)^ cold 

Wll, 259, 301 
Colloo, calf island, 141 
Collooway, ? S or S E, calf-way, or 

calf-bay, 304 
Commissary, S (? gar^r), ? enclo- 
sure 
Conchan, Parish of, Skeeylley Con- 

naghyn, Connaghan's Parish 

Church, 207 
Connehbwee (? balla-coHMiy-bwu)^ 

yellow gorse (farm), 230 
Connister, ? 312 
Conocan (see Knockan), hillock 
Contrary Head (? kionetraie)^ shore 

end, 174 



CooiL, * a corner, nook,' 135, 146 
Cold clay (? caoii-cloau), stony nook, 

241 
Coloonys, cooil-«/iJ/, CS {Ulls- 
stdiSr), Ull's stead nook, 300 
Cooilbane, white nook, 233 

cam, winding nqok, 146, 238 
croft, C E, croft nook, 172 
darry, oaks' nook, 199 
doo, black nook, 232 
injil, low nook, 240 
Nicical, Nickal's nook, 223 
shellagh, willow nook, 201 
slieau, mountain nook, 166 
taarnagh, thunder nook, 187 
7'Ae, the nook, 135 
voddy, dog or dogs nook, 194 
Cooll)egad ? 

Cor, I ? 'a round hill or cup-like 

hollow,' (Coar) pleasant, or S 

personal name. 

Corbrick ) S (J^ora-drekka), Cori's 

„ breck { or Kori's slope, 253, 296 

„ lea {Iheeah), round gray hillock, 

156, 235 
„ monagh {moanagk)^ round turfy 

hollow, 156 
„ valley {coar)^ pleasant farm, 171 
Cordeman, Comama, S {kam- 

hamarr), 256, 2)86 
Corna, Cornaa, or Comay, S, 
{koTft-dy corfu-a)f corn water 
or Corne's water, 285, 293 
„ beg,* little Corne's water, 

236, 285, 293 
, , moar, * big Corne's water, 236, 

2«5. 293 
Corneil-y-killagh {keeilley), comer 

of the church, 148 
Corrady, ? 156 
Corrin's folly, 313 
Corrony, Corna, b {kom-df come-a)^ 

corn water, or, Corne's water, 

156, 28s 
Cor stack, S {kcra-stakkr\ Cori's 

or Kori's stack, 296 
Cow harbour, 313 
Crammag {cromoge), little cliflf, 



159 

Lall,r 



Cranstall, Kranstall, S (krauns-^alr)^ 

Kraun's dale, 296 
Cranstall Lough, Kraun's-dale lake, 

296 
Crawyn«* (? Balla-crawyn^ bones 

(farm), 180 



Jntn[x 0f |9liit]Q-Stdi]tt0# 



347 



Creg, Craig, 'a rock, crag,' 134, 

143 
Craig-bane-y-Bill-Villy, Willy Bill 
son's white crag, 224, 233 
„ e-Cowin,* Cowia's crag, 51, 

134 
„ The, the crag, 134 
„ The east* the east crag, 134 
„ The Tvesty* the west crag, 

134 
*» y-ghenny, crag of the sand, 

204 
Cregacable (y-cadda/), crag of the 

chapel, 172 
„ adha, Hugh's crag, 224 
,, bane, bedn {dane), white crag, 

233 
„ cniinn, round crag, 239 
„ custane, Costain's crag, 223 
„ harlot (? Corleod), Corlett's 

crag, 223 
„ lea (iheeah), gray crag, 143, 

235 
, , Iheeah-rio, ? hoar-frost crag,.226 
„ liauyr, long crag, 237 
„ Malin (? Afa/ane), Magdalen's 

crag, 224 
,, mill, or Cregg mill, rock mill, 

304 
„ moar* {maoar), big crag, 236 
'{hraia'nes)t Kra- 



Cregneish, Crok- 
nes, S, 



ki's ness, 296 
(krSks-nes,) nook 

ness, 278 
{kraku - nes), 

crow'sness,284 



I 

Creg-ny-baa, crag of the cows, 192 
„ „ -crock {cMoc), crag of the 

hill, 167 
„ „ -ineen, crag of the girl, 187 
,, „ „ thalhear, crag of the 
tailor's daughter, 
187 
„ „ -molt, crag of the wether, 193 
„ snaal* {snttfell), snowfell crag, 

141, 142 
„ venagh {meanagh), middle 

crag, 240 
„ voillan,* seagull crag, 197 
„ voUan, carp crag, i^ 
„ WiUysill, Willy Sell, Willy 
Silvester's crag, or Willy 
Sayle's crag, 225 
„ wine* (? Quine), Quine's crag, 
40, 134 



Cregyn-arran J (/^^^j, crag of 
,, y-arran \ ^-^ /» s 

the spring, 177 
„ „ -chreel, crag of the basket, 

182 
»> 1) -jaghee, crag of the tithe, 184 
,, „ -ieech^ crag of the doctor, 304 
„ „ -vaare, crag of the summit, 

166 
,y „ -whuallian, crag' of the whelp, 

195 

Creggyn doo, black crags, 233 
Cregby, S {hryggjar-byr), ridge farm, 

273 
Creggan, 'a crag, rock' (diminu- 
tive), used of rocky hillocks, 158 
Creggan Ashen (? Cashen), Cashen*s 
rocky hillock, 223 
9> If Cregganatten, gorse 

rocky hillock, 200 
,, doo, black rocky hillock, 
232, 233 
moar {mooar\ big rocky 
hillock, 158 
„ y-annag {fannag), rocky 
hillock of the crow, 196 
Cregganyn, Ny, the rocky hillocks, 

158 
Cr^^ans, The, the locky hillocks, 

158 
Crogga, Ballacregga, rocky farm, 

248 
Cringle, S| (kringla), a circle, or 

(surname) Cringle, 251, 298 
Crocreen, ripe or Mrithered pen or 

fence, 151, 243, 281 
Croggane [creggan), rocky hillock, 
158 
Croit, * a croft,* 138, 149 
Croft, The, 138 
Croit-e-Charran,* Carran's croft, 53, 

138 
„ e-phesson, parson's croft, 189 
,„ Freer, Freer's croft, 222 
,, gonning, rabbit croft, 195 
, , Horn lUlfe, Tom Ralfe's croft, 

225 
„ liannag* {leeanag), little 

meadow croft, 138, 159 
,, ny-cooiUey, croft of the nook, 

169 
„ „ -killagh* (>&^«i/<y), croft of 

the church, 138, 151 
„ „ -moght(^^A/), croft of the 
poor (man), 185 



343 



Jnirex 0f f^lsan-Heimsfi. 



Croit ny-mona {mo€UMee\ croft of 
the turbary, 170 

(? quill {e). Quill's 
croft. 237 
{Icooil), croft of the 
nook, 227 
„ pingey, penny croft, 185 
Crot-e-Caley, Caley's croft, 149 
„ y-quill (? cAuill), croft of the 
quill, 226 (see croit-ny-quill) 
„ „ -phurt Callow, croft of Cal- 
low's port, 171 
„ „ -vear {dayr) croft of the road 
174 
Crott-ny-gonning, croft of the rabbit, 

195 ^ 
, , y-vedn Bredjen, croft of widow 

Bridson, 222 
„ „ -daa-tiag {fiea^A), croft of 
the two ravens, 196 
Cromwell's walk, 314 

Cronk, * a hill,' 132, 143 
Cronaback, Cronkbrecic, speckled 

hill, 236 
Cronaberry (^), Cronk -e- berry. 

Berry's hill, 273, 305 
Cronkaittin, gorse hill, 200 
„ airey (aeree)^ moor hill, 166 
„ ard, high hill, 240 
,, armyn, \yeapons' hill, 179 
„ arrey,* watch hill, 183 
„ arroiv^ ? C E, arrow hill, 
„ aust^ C S* {auslr), east hill, 

292, 293 
„ ballaqueeney, Quinney's farm 

hill, 220 
,, ballavarry, ? 
„ bane, white hill, 233 
,, beg, little hill, 236 
„ bounUi C £, burn hill, 304 
„ bouyr, ? deaf hill, 246 
„ breck, speckled hill, 236 
„ coar, pleasant hill. 245 
„ coUach, stallion hill, 193 
,, darragh, oak hill, 199 
,« derree, oaks' hill, 199 
„ doo, black hill, 232 
,, e-dooiney, man's hill, 155, 

180 
„ garrow {garroo)^ rough hill, 

241 
„ geayee, windy hill, 245 
„ glass, green hill, 312 
„ hcwet mooar, C S C, big how 
hill, 257,311 



Cronkinjil, low hill, 240 

„ juckley {gutlcagh\ broom 

plant hill, 201 
„ keeill-abban, hill of the abbey 

church, 246 
„ keeillown (eoin), John's church 

hil}, 215 
„ koir, chest hill, 180 
„ losht, burnt hill, 243 
„ moar {mooar)^ big hill, 236, 

311 
„ murran ? 

„ mwyllin,* mill hill, 132, 173 
„ ned (yn-edd), hill of the nest, 

197 
„ ne-mona(9f^-m0a«ff^^), 143,170 
„ ny-arrey, hill of the watdi, 

182 
„ „ -arrey-lhaa, hill of the day 

watch, 172, 183 
„ „ -bing, hill of the jury, 184 
„ „ -fannag, hill of the crow, 

196 
., „ -fedjag, hill of the feather, 

197 
» f> -guiy, hill of the goose, 

197 
„ „ -hey {oaie\ hill of the 

grave, 173 
„ „ -killane* {keeill-&an\ bill 

of John's church, 215 
„ „ -Ihergy [Uargagh)^ hill of 

the slope, 167 
„ „ -mona (moatnea), hill of 

the turbary, 143, 170 
„ „ -merriu, hill of the dead 

(men), 180 
„ „ •mucaillyn,hillofthesows, 

193 
„ „ -mwyllin, hill of the mill, 

173 
„ „ -shee, hill of the peace, 187 
„ „ -vowlan ? 
, , renny* (tyw w«), ferny or ferns* 

hill, 242, 243 
„ ruy, red hill, 234 

:: :l;;s^h I f- •>'».'« 

„ shimmyrk {kemmyrk)^ refuge 

hill, 229 

„ skealt {skeilt), split hill, 238 

„ skibbylt, ? active hill, 247 

„ sumark, ? primrose hill, 229 

„ unjin, ash tree hill, 200 

„ urley, eagle hill, 196 



Jtitf^x 0f )9Ia£it-Aatt»0* 



349 



Cronk-y-catt, hill of the cat, 195 

,, „ -chuill, (? coct/)f hill of the 

nook ; (? e-quili). Quill's 

hill; {}cAui//)y hill of the 

quill, 226, 227 

n »> -claghbane, hill of the white 

stone, 233 
„ ,, -cliwe, hill of the sword, 

197 
„ „ -cree, hill of the heart, 187 
„ „ -croghe, Cronk - crore, 

Crore's hill, 217 
„ „ -keilleig \Jieeilleig\ hill of 

the church enclosure, 177 
„ „ .kjlley*(i««VZcy),hillofthe 

church, 172 
„ „ -leannag, hill of the little 

meadow, 169 
„ „ -marroo, hill of the dead 

(man), 180 
„ „ -scolley, ? hill of the split, 

226 
„ „. -sthowyr, hill of the stafi^ 

184 
„ „ -voddy (»i«Wp;'), hillofthe 

dog, or dogs, 194 
„ „ ^waUh,* C E, hill of the 
watch, 183 
Cronks, 7^, the hills, 132 
Cronnag (cronk-ae^y little hill, 159 
Cronnagyn, Ny, the little hills, 159 

Cronkan, * a hillock,' 158 
Cronkan garrow* {garroo\ rough 

hillock, 158, 241 
Cronkan renny \remue\ ferny or 

ferns' hillock, 158 
Cronnan mooar {frtmkan\ big hil- 
lock, 158 
Cront-e-Caley \cronk\ Caley's hill, 

223 
Crosby, S {kro5sa-byr\ cross farm, 
253» 280, 281 
„ moar, S C,* big cross farm, 

236.253' 
„ beg, S C,* little cross farm, 
236, 253 
Crosh, 'across,' 154 
Crosh-mooar, big cross, 154 

„ Sulby^ C S, Sulby cross, 154 
Crossag Bridge^ 7 hi {crosh'€ug\ the 
little cross bridge, 159, 267, 
280 ; or formerly Cros-Ivar, 
Ivar's cross ; Crosyvor, ob., 
S {krossa-vorr)^ weir cross, 
267, 280, 281 



Culbcrry Point, ? 316 

CURRAGH, *bog, fen,' 136, 147 
Curragh-an-aspick iyn\ bog of the 

bishop, 189 
Curragh-beg,* little curragh, 136, 
236 
„ feeagh,* raven curragh, 

136, 196 
„ feeheh, deer curragh, 193 
„ glass, green curragh, 147, 

234 
„ moar* {mooar\ big curragh, 

136, 236 
,, The, the curragh, 136 
Cushington, ? 

Dalby, S {deUar-byt), dales' farm, 

272 
Dalenra (modem), ? 316 
Daleveitch (modern), ? 316 
Dalliott, S (dalar-hoU)^ dales' cop- 
pice, 257, 272 
Derby Castle, 311 
Derby Fort, 311 
Derby Haven, 297, 31 1 
Dhoor, The (? doo-ar)^ the black 

water, 140 
Dhrynane, ? 

Dollaugh ) beg {doo-logh), little 
DoUough ( black lake, 170 
Dollaugh mooar {doO'hgh\ big 
Dolloui^h \ black lake, 170, 249 
Doarlish-Cashen, Cashen's gap, 146 
Dorlish ard (dooarlish\ high gap, 

240 
Dhoon* {doon)y close, 138 
Doon, The {dom), the close, 138 
Douglas {doo-glaise)t black stream, 

i75» 249 
Down, Balladowan, Dowan's farm, 

220 
Dowse, ? 
Dray, ? 

Dreeym, • back ' (of hill), 133, 143 
Dreem beary (? eary\ ? moor (hill)- 
back, 230 
„ faaie, paddock (hill)-back, 

171 
,, froy i/reoaie), heath (hill)- 

back, 201 
„ gell, Cell's (hill)-back, 74, 

133 
„ iang, C E, long (hill).back 
„ ny-lhergy, (hill)-back of the 

slope, 168 



350 



Jnlr^x Df f^Iane-Aamctf* 



Dreemreagh, Drumreloagh (? ny- 
logh), ? (hill)-back of the 
liOce, 230 
„ ruy, red (hill).bfl^ck, 143 
„ scarrey \{skeerey), parish 
„ skeerey / (hill)-back, 271 
„ y-jees-kaig {jees-skeaig), hill- 
back of the two haw- 
thorns, 200 
Drim reiy, ob. {red), flat (hill) back 

(now St. Mark's), 244 
Drum, Ihe, the (hill)-back, 133 
Dreswick, S (? prestS'Vik)^ priest's 

creek, 287 
Droghad bane, ob., white bridge, 

30s 
„ Fayle, Fayle's bridge, 153 
Dniidale (modem), 315 
Dubbyr veg,* little pond, 147, 236 

„ vooar, big pond, 147 
Dulushtey, ? water 
DuppoUa, ob., S {dJHp-pollr)y deep 
pool, 258, 301 

Eairn yerrey {jerrey), iron end, 

203 
Eary, Aereb, * a moor,' 133, 143 
Eairy Kellee, or Kelly, cocks' moor 
or Kelly's moor, 197 
„ jora, Eairy joarey, stranger's 

moor, 191 
„ braid, upland moor, 230 
Eary bane, white moor, 233 
„ Cusblin, Cosnahan's moor, 222 
„ glass, green moor, 234 
„ kellagh, cock moor, 143, 197 
„ Kelly, Kelly's moor, 197 
„ Ihane y M^a//), broad moor, 
„ Ihean ] 238 

„ ny-kione, moor of the end of 
the hill (1.^. of the moun- 
tain), 168 
„ „ -sooie, moor of the soot, 204 
„ vane > [bane), white moor, 
„ vednS 233.234 
,, voar {mooar)y big moor, 236 
Eirey ween ? 
Edd feeagh vooar, big raven's nest, 

196, 197 
Edremony, ob. [eddyr-daa-moainee), 
between the two marshes or 
turbaries, 249 
Elby, S [elda-byr), Fires' farm, 286 
El by Point, S E, Fires' farm point, 
286 



Ellan, * Island,' 137, 145 
EUan-ny-foiJIan, island of the gull, 

197 
„ „ -Maughol («), Maughold's 

island, 216 
„ vannin, Mannan's Isle, 145 
„ vretin {Bre/in), Britain's Isle, 

226 
„ y-vodee | isle of the dog or 
„ y-voddey ( dogs 
Enjaigyn (see Injaigyn) 
Ennaug, S (? enna-guag), cave crag, 

274 
Ennym-moar, Enin-mooar {eanin- 

mcoar), big precipice, 142 
Ennemona (? moanagh), ? boggy 
Esehedalr, ob., S {esju-dal^, clay 

dale, 286 
Eschenes, nb., S {esju-nes), clay 

ness, 286 
Eye, The, S {ey), the island, 252, 276 
Eyreton Castle, 315 

Faaie, ' a close, paddock,' 138, 149 
Faaie-ny-cabbal, paddock of the 
chapel, 149 
„ ,, -cabbyl,* paddock of the 

horse, 138, 194 
» veg,* little paddock, 236, 138 
„ voar,* big paddock, 236, 138 
„ The, the paddock, 138 
Fairy Hill, 311 
Farm Hill, 315 

Fheustal ? (high land by shore) 
Fiddler's Green 
Fildraw ? 

Fire Point, or Gob-y-deigan, 227 
Fisgarth, S {/sh'-^ar^r), fishes* 

enclosure, 255, 2S4 
Fistard, S (? fiski gaf^r), fishes' 

enclosure, 255, 284 
Fleswick, S {JUsar-vik), green spot 

creek, 278 
Fochronk (fo-yn-cronk), under the 

hill, 249 
Folieu {/o-yn-hiicau), under the 

mountain, 166, 249 
Follit-ny-vannin, ? 
Forester's Lodge, The, 313 
Fort Caishtal. Castle Fort. 173 
Foxdale, Folksdale. S {folks-dalr), 

Folksdale, 287 
Friary, The, 308 

Gansey, S {gands-ey)^ magic isle, 288 



3t(titix 0f Ij^tatt'THamxiB. 



35^ 



Garee, 'a stony place/ 'sour 
land/ 135, 146 
Garey ashen, gorsc stony place, 201 
chea-heese, lower-side stony 

place, 239 
cheu-heose, upper-side stony 

place, 239 
fluigh, moist stony place, 243 
meen, or Garee meen, soft 

stony place, 146, 244 
moar {mooar\ big stony 

place, 236 
The^ the stony place, 135 
Garey, 'a garden ' 
Gara-na-chibberaugh, garden of the 

wells, 17s 
Garey feeyney, wine garden, 149, 
203 
„ noa, new garden, 245 
Garf sheading, ? 268-271 
Garraghan, ? 

Gartedale, Galtedale, ob., S {galta- 
dalr) ox galtar-dalr\ Galte*s 
dale, or hog- back dale, 274 

293 
Garth, The^ S {gar'&r)^ the en- 
closure, 253, 255 
Garwick,S [geira or ^eirS'Vik),'sptBiT 
creek, or Geirr's creek, 261, 
292, 293 
CKrf-e- whing, S C igofUt S, wking^ C), 

yoke of the gate, 2S0 
Geayllin-ny-creggyn, shoulder of 
the rocks or crags, 143, 167 
Geinnagh, 'sand,' 231 
Geinnagh doo, black sand, 231 

„ vane, white sand, 233 
German, Parish of, Skeeyley Char- 
mane, German's parish 
church, x6i, 210 
Giant's Fingers, 311 
GjA, S, ' a chasm, rifl,' in the Manx 
dictionaries, GiAU, or Ghaw, 
* cove, or creek,* 276 - 
Ghaw, or Giau cabbyl, horse cove, 
S C, 276 
„ ,, cam, S C, winding 

cove, 276 
, , „ doo, S C, black cove, 

233. 276 
»• u gortagh, S C, ? 

Phungry cove, 246, 
276 
„ „ jceragh, S C, straight 

cove, 238, 276 



GhaWt or Giau long, S E, long cove, 
276, 304 
„ „ ny-cabby 1,* S C, cove 

of the horse, 276 
„ n If -kirree,S C, cove 

of the sheep, 193, 
276 
„ ft )> -mooarid, S C, 

Pcoveofthegreat- 
ness, 226, 276 
„ „ „ -Pharick (*), Pat- 

rick's cove, 216, 
276 
,, „ Roole, Roole's cove, 

218, 276 
„ „ spyrryd, S C, spirit 

cove, 226, 276 
„ „ veg, S C, little cove, 

276 
„ „ wooar, S C.big cove, 

236,276 
,, ,, jiarn, S C, iron cove, 

203, 276 
, , , , yn-^K',S C S {kaugr\ 

cove of the how, 
256-7 
Gibdale, ? 316 
„ Bay, ? 316 
„ Pointy ? 316 
Gill, The* S {gil)^ the ravine, 256 

(addenda) 
Gilgal, Guilcagh, broom, 3x6 
Glaick, The, the hollow, 135 
Glascoe (modern) ? 
Glashen, Gylozen ? 
Gleton ? 

Glione, ' a glen,' 145 
Glen altyn, mountain streams' glen, 
170 



„ beg, little glen, 237 
„ bele 



egawn {beeal'y-coan\ mouth 

o? the vale glen,* 145, 169 
broigh, dirty glen, 242 
cam, winding glen, 238 
chattan {} cassan)* path glen, 

155. 176 
chass (? chiass), heat glen, 226 
cherry* C E (modern) ? 
cooileen {cullion\ holly glen, 200 
corragh (curragh ), bog glen, 1 70 
crutchery, Glencruttery (crui- 

fire), harper's glen, 190 
darragh, oak glen, 199 
doo, black glen, 232 
downe {dcwin), low glen, 240 



352 



JniitiX 0f '^lexB-'heimasu 



Glen drink (? crinJ^), hills' glen, 167 
„ duff (? doo), black glen, 232 

„ „ sheading, C S (?), 268-271 

„ fessan (? fessyn), spindles' 

glen, 227 

f f i^i C S, ravine glen, 256 

„ glass, green glen, 234 

„ greenaugh ) (grianagh) sunny 

„ grenagh { glen, 242 

„ //glen (modem), Helen's glen, 

313 
„ lough, lake glen, 170 
„ may, Glenmeay (? mea), luxu- 
riant glen, 247 
„ medal, C S, * middle glen, 301 
„ moQXf{fnooar), big glen, 237 
„ moij (see Glen may), 247 
,, mona (modern), Mona glen, 

243 ^ 
„ ny-braid,* glen of the upland, 

139. 156 
„ roy {ruy), red glen, 234 
„ Rushen* (name of sheading), 

Rushen glen, 160, 212, 22iS, 

229, 268, 271, 285 
,, shellan, bee glen, i^ 
„ tragh (traagh), hay glen, 203 
„ tnian, ? Druian's glen, 218 
,, trunk {cronk)f hill glen, 167 
,, ville ? (modern). 
„ y-mult, glen of the' wethers, 

193 
Glione auldyn {altyn) mountam 
streams* glen, 170 
,, crammag {cromoge), little 

cliff glen, 168 
„ darragh, oak glen, 199 
,, feeagh, raven's glen, 145, 196 
,, glass, green glen, 234 
„ Keeill Crore, Crore's Cell 

glen, 217 
„ kerrad, S C, Garrett*sglen,222 
„ kiark, hen glen, 197 
,, maarliaph, thief glen, 191 
„ ny-brack, glen of the trout, 

198 
>i >» -goayr, glen of the goat, 

195 
„ shoggyl, rye glen, 202 
„ thoar {tuar), bleach-green 

glen, 192 
„ tramman, elder-tree glen, 199 
,, y-killey [keeilley\ glen of the 

church, 172 



Gnebe, S (see Kneebe), 251 

Goayr, Iht, the goat, 139 

Gob, Gub, * mouth, beak, point' 
(used of a spit of land running 
into the sea)i 134, 144 

Gob ago, ? point 
„ breac, speckled point, 144 
„ cr^gagh, rocky point, 241 
,, doo, black point, 233 
,, gorrym, blue point, 235 
„ Ihiack, slate p|oint, 204 
,, na-roinna, point of the seal, 

195 

„ ny-callin, point of the body, 

187 
„ „ -caashey, point of the cheese, 

198 
,, „ -Cally {e\ Cally's or Caley's 

pomt, 223 
„ ,, -cassan, point of the path, 

176 
,, ,, -creg, point of the crag, 167 
„ „ -creggyn glassey, point of the 

gray crags, 235 
,, ,, -daa-slieau, point of the two 

mountains, 166, 
„ „ -gameran ? 
11 *) -garvain (? hc^r vane), point 

of the white road, 174 
>i n -gee ^geay\ point of the 

wind, 187 
„ „ -Halsall [e\ Halsall's point, 

223 
„ „ -kione, point of the head, 

168 
,, ,, -port mooar, point of the 

big port, 171 
„ „ -schoot ) ? {scuit) point of 
,, „ -skeate ( the spout, 227 
„ ,^ -sharrey {sharree\ point of 

the foals, 194 
„ „ -Silvas (tf ), ? Silvester's point, 

224 
„ „ 'Sker, C S,* point of the 

skerry, 134, 277 
„ , , -sloat, point of the low water, 

178 
,, ,, -strona {strooan\ point of 

the current, 148, 170 
„ „ -traie-ruy, point of the red 

strand, 234 
„ „ -voillan {foillan), point of 

the sea-gull, 197 
„ „ -veinny {beinnee), point of 

the summits, 166 



ixttf^X 0f f^UtJO^'f^iCOXtB* 



353 



Gob ny-Uainaigue {ean-aeg^ Young 
John s point, 223 
I, 7^, the point, 134 
„ y-Deigan {? doagan), point of 

the firebrand (now called 

Fire Point), 227 
,y „ Rheynn, point of the ridge 

or division, 167, 168 
' „ „ skeddan, point of the herring, 

198 
„ „ Stowcll {g), Stoweirs Point, 

106, 134 
„ „ volley {mollee\ point of the 

eyebrow, 181 
„ yn-Cashtal, point of the castle, 

173 
„ „ -^w, C S* {haugr), point of 

the how, 256, 257 
„ „ -ushtey, pomt of the water, 
178 
Godred Crovan's Stone, 310 
Gordon, 315 
Granane ? 
Grange ? 

Granite mountain, 312 
Grauff, S tf^), a pit, 251 
Grave gullet, 312 
Grawe, S {gr6f), a pit, 251 
Greeba, Kreevey, S {gnipa^a peak, 

251 
Greenland, 305 
Greenock, Greenwyk, S {gntnrt' 

vik)j green creek, 301 
Grenaby, Grenby S, {gretftn-byr)^ 

green farm, 301 
Grenea, S {grann'ey)^ green island, 

301 
Gresby, Grasby, S {gras-byr), grass 

farm, 285 
Grcst f ^'^**^'» S {greia- oxgrjSta- 
n ,-#«K \ sta'iSr)t Grettir*s or stones' 
G««*\ stead. 259, 294 
GreUh heose, S C (p^g/a- or grjSta- 
sta^r), upper Grettir's, or 
stones* stead, 294 
„ heis, S C [greta- or grjdta- 
siafSr), lower Grettir s, or 
stones' stead, 294 
„ vane, S C* {greia- ox grfSia- 
stot^r\ white Grettir's, 
or stones' stead, 233, 
294 
>. veg, S C {greta- or grySta- 
stct^r), little Grettir's, or 
stones' stead, 294 



Gretch voar, S C {greta- or grjStO' 
sia6r), big Grettir's, or 
stones' stead, 259, 29^ 
Groudle, Crowdale, Crawdall, 

? Crowdale, 286, 305 
Gryseth, ob., S {jpy^tasetf^, stones' 

seat, 259, 286 
Guilcagh, Tke, . the broom plant, 

139 
Gu/lel buigh, £ C, yellow gullet, 
236, 304 
„ chreagh moainee, EC, turbary 

stack gullet, 170, 176 
' n ny-guiy, gullet of the goose, 
197 

Halland-Town (ob.), S, town of the 

isle, 137 
Hampton's Crofk, 315 
liango Broogh, S C [fianga-hroogk), 
brow of the hanged, 292 
„ Hill, S [hSlt), hill of the 
hanged, 292, 311 
Hague, The^ \haugr\ the how, or 

the mound, 253, 256 
Head gullet, 312 

Hegnes \ ^ \^'^^ ^' haga-nes\ 
w^nle^ Hogni's, or pasture 
«~°«| nesr,285,294 

Iob., S {Harings- 
sia'^r), Haering's 
stead, now Kirk 
Michael, 294 
Hillberry, Cronk-e-berry, 223, 305 
Highton, Ballanard, 305 
Holm {ob.),S {Ao/mr), islet, 252, 253 
Holm Town, Holme Town, Holm- 
Tun (ob.), S, or ?S E {koima- 
ttln), town of the isle, 137, 
260 
Horalett, Haraldre, S (? Harolds- 
std^r), Harald's (stead), 294 
Hp<^ leap, 313 
-^^^ gullet, .313 
Hough, The^ S* {haugr), theliow, or 

the mound, 253, 256 
How, S*, how, 253, 256 
Howstrake {ketugr ?), how ? 273 

* Im Leodan, or " The Heifers " ' ? 

(as in Ordnance Map)* 
Innis-sheeant, ob.. Holy Isle, 145 
„ Patrick ? Patrick's Isle, 205 
Injeig, The* {injeig^ 0» the paddock, 
172, (addenda) 

23 



354 



Jntex 0f f^lntie-Sames* 



Injaigyn* {inJHg, f)} paddocks, 172, 

(addenda) 
Intack, 318 
Ippney ? 
Island Close,* Close-aii- Elian, Close 

of the Island, 170 
Island, The, 305 ^ 

Ivy Cottage, 315 

Johneioes, Johnnies, Johnny's, 224 
Jon's Quarter, John's Quarter, 224, 

315 

Jurby, Jourby, Joreby, S, Jorfa, 
dyra, Ivor^ ox jure (eyrt) byr^ 
S, gravel, beasts', Ivar's, or 
gravelly bank farm, 205, 273, 
282, 286, 295 

jurby Pointy 205 

Kallow Point, Callow Point, 315 
Karrin, see Carrin (name of moun- 
tain) 
Keeill, 'cell, church,' 151, 152 
Keeill abban, abbey cell, 246 
„ Bal thane, Byulthan (? Bwoa- 
. x7(ry«), Folds' cell, 138, 151, 

152 
,. Bragga "j 

„ Breeshy Bridget's cell, 151, 
„ Brickey " 214 
„ brieshy J 

„ cairbre, Cairbre's cell, 208 
,t casherick, holy cell, 245 
„ coonlagh, straw cell, 202 
„ columb, Columba's cell, 

208 
„ colum, Columba's cell, 214 
„ cragh, slaughter cell, 179 
„ cronk, church hill, or hill 

cell, 167 
,, Crore, Crore's cell, 210 
„ crout, ? craft cell, 227 
„ Katreeney,* Katbrine's cell, 

216, 251, 252 
„ Lingan, Lingan's cell, 214 
,, Moirrey"! 
„ boirrey 
„ vorrey 
„ woirrey J 
„ ny-hawn* («z£/i«), cell of the 

river, 146, 169 
,, own, John's cell, 215 



Mary'5 cell, 215 



Keeill Pherick a-Drummaty-Z)r»w- 
mey), Patrick's 
cell, of the back 
(of the hill). 168, 
214 
„ Pharlane, Bartholomew's 

cell, 215 
„ Ronan, Ronan's cell, 214 
», tushtagh, ? 248 
„ vael ) Michael's cell, 185, 
„ vail ( 215 
„ vane,* white cell, 233, 251, 

252 
„ vian, Matthew's cell, 215 
„ vout ? 

„ yn-chiam, cell of the Lord, 
188, 215 
Killane {can), John's cell, 215 
Kilcrast, ob. {Ckrgesi), Christ's cell, 

213 

„ Kellan? 

,, Martin, Martin's cell, 214 

{{BallaluUagh), cock (farm) 
{BaUakeylUy), wood (farm), 
231 
Kenna, or Kmna (? kioru-aa), ford 

head, 230, 231 
Kentraugh, Kentraie {kiom-frai^), 

shore end, 171 
Keppell Gate, S (kapai-gata\ horse 

road, 256, 283 
Keristal, S (see Skeristal), 277 
Kerlaine (see Carlane and Kirlane) 
Kerroo, 'a quarter,' 164*165 
Kerroo claghagh, stony quarter 
„ cottle, Cottle's quarter, 222 
„ chord ? 

„ coar ) {coar)f pleasant quar- 
„ coare { ter, 245 
„ creen, withered quarter, 243 
„ creoie | {creoi), hard quarter, 
„ croie ( 243 
„ cruinn, round quarter, 239 
„ doo, black quarter, 232 
„ garroo, rough quarter, 164 
„ glass, green quarter, 234 
„ kiel, narrow quarter, 238 
„ kneale, Kneale's quarter, 

46 
„ na-ard (ny-ard), quarter of 

the height, 166 
„ ny-clough {clitgA), quarter 

of the stone, 168 
» tf -genny {^einnee), quarter 
of the sand, 204 



Jnlritx 0f puvcsi'limiteiti* 



355 



Kerroo-ny-gronk, quarter of the 
hill, 167 
M quirk, Quirk's quarter, 52 

ifarm quarter or 
quarter-land, 164- 
165 
Kew (? BcUlakew), Kew's (farm), 185 
Kewaigue (? Balla-kew-aeg)^ Young 

Kew's (farm), 221 
Kilkenny (mod.), 316, 317 
Kimmeragh, East? 
West? 
King Orry's Grave, 310 
King William's Bank, 314 
„ „ College, 313 

KiONE, < head, end,' 144, 148 
Keon dowag, ? head 
n slew curragh {slieau)^ hill end 
bog 
Kian-ny-lhane, end of the Lhen- 

trench, 173 
kione veg, little head, 237 

,, cloaie (ob.) stony head (see 

Clay Head), 305 
,, danit* dam head, 144 
„ dhoohe ? 

,, doolish (ob.) (doo-glaise)^ 
black stream head (now 
Douglas Head), 144, 175 
„ droghad, bridge end, 173 
„ lough,* lake end, 147, 170 
„ meanagh, middle head, 239, 

240 
f> ny-garee, end of the stony 

• place, 168 
„ „ -halby? 

„ „ -henin, end of the pre- 
cipice, 168 
„ roauyr, broad or fat head, 244 
„ slieau, mountain end, 166 
„ traie (ob.) shore end, 174 

(now Contrary Head) 
» » y-gh<^gan, end of the noggin, 
182 - 
KiRi^JA, S, 'a kirk, church,' 280 
Kirby, S {kirkju-byr)^ church farm, 

28b 
Kirk Andreas, Andrew's church, 
213, 280 
„ Arbory, Karbery, Cairbre's 

church, 208, 209, 280 
„ Braddan, Bradan, ? Brandan's 

church, 211, 2iSo 
„ Bride, Brigide, Bridget's 
church, 210, 2i8o 



Kirk Christ Ijszayre, Kirk Criste, 
Christ's church of the Ayre, 
212, 213, 280 
, , Christ Rushen, Kirk Christe in 
Sheding, ? Christ Rushen 
Church, or Christ's church 
of the little wood, 211, 

212, 280 

, , German, ? Coemanus's church, 

210, 280 
,, Lonan ) Lonnan's church, 
,, Lonnan ( 207, 280 
„ Malew, Molipa's or Lupus's 

church, 212, 280 
„ Marown, Marooney's or 

Runius's church, 208, 280 
„ Maughold, Maugbold's 

church, 205, 280 
„ Michael, Michael's church, 

213. 280 

„ Patrick, Patrick's church, 

205, 280 

,, Patrick of Turby, Patrick's 

church of Jurby, 205, 280 

„ Onchan, Kirk Conchan, Con- 

naghan's church, 207, 2S0 

„ Santon, San tan, Sanctan's 

church, 209, 280 
,, Suasan, ? 280 
Kirlane, The {keyrr-lann)^ the sheep 

fold, 175 
Kitterland, S, Kitter's land, 258, 295 
Kneebe, Knebe, Gnebe, S ignipa), a 
peak, 251 
Cnoc, or Kncx:k, * a hill,' 142 
Knockaloe, Knockaley, ? Caley's 
hill, 223 
99 it beg, Caley's little hill, 

223 
„ „ moar {maoar), Caley's 

big hill, 223 
„ a-loughan (y), Knokloughan 

hill of the pond, 170 
,, bane, white nill, 233 
„ beg,* little hill, 142, 236 
„ doo, black hill, 232 
„ „ moar* {mooar), big 
black hill, 142, 236 
„ e-berry* (or Cronk-e- 
bcrry). Berry's hill, 305 
„ „ -dooiney, Man's hiU, 

142, 155, 180 
„ ,, vriew, Judge's hill, 190 
„ freiy ) (y9v^i>), heather lull, 
„ froy 1 201 

23—2 



356 



Jnbtx 0f ^t^^'JUsfMSSL 



Knock glass,* green hill, 234 
„ ould, olcj ? S, {Ola/r), 

Olave's hill, 300 
„ rule (ob.) (see Mount Rule), 

Rule's hill, 218 
,, Rushen,* Rushen hill, 160, 
211, 212, 228, 229, 268, 
285 
„ sharry (sharree), foals* hill, 

194 
„ shema^ ? 
„ sheweuT? 
„ y-nean {yn-ean), hill of the 

lamb, 193 
„ „ -killey* {keeiliey), hill of 

the church, 151, 172 
„ „ -tholt {soait), hill of the 

barn, 173 
„ „ -troddan,hillofthecontest 
(now Castleward), 179 
Knockan, hillock (now Ravensdale), 
158 
„ aalin ) beautiful hillock, 
„ aUn J 158, 242 

Lag, ' a ditch hollow,' also Laggey, 

^ , i35» I4S 

Lagbane, white hollow, 145 
,, birragh,* pointed hollow, 135, 

239 
„ dhoan, dun hollow, 234 
,, ny-awin, hollow of the river, 169 
„ „ -chibbyr, hollow of the well, 

175 
,, „ -keeilley or keilley, hollow 

of the church, 172, 311 
,, ,, -traie, hollow of the shore, 

171 
„ Z//tf, 135 
,, y-votchin (bwoailyn), hollow 

of the folds, 171 
Lagagh moar* {iaggey\ big hollow, 

I35» 235 
„ The, the hollow, 135 
Lagavollough, ? hollow 

Laggan (diminutive of lag), 158 
Laggan agneash, C S,* Agneash 
little hollow, 285 
„ doo, black little hollow, 

158 
„ y-dromma(</fVOT0f<r;/), little 
hollow of the (hill) back, 
168 
„ Th^ I "the little hollow, 
Largan, The \ 158 



Lammall, Lambfell, S {lamba-fjall)^ 
lambs' fell, or Lambes fell, 
283, 296 
Langness, S {langa-nes), long nose 

or ness, 258, 301 
Lanjaghin (? lann)^ Deacon's en- 
closure, 155 
Larivane, Laare vane (mwyllin 
laare vane) (laare), white 
floor (mill), 231 
Laxey, S {lax-d), salmon water or 

river, 253, 284 
Leakerroo {lieh), half quarter, 164 
Leodan, The ? 

Leodest, S {liois-sic^r),lAoi*s stead, 
296 
„ e cowle,* Cowle*s Leodest, 

61, 296 
,, „ kie,* Kie's Leodest, 62, 
296 
Lewaigue, Lewai^e (? Balla-hlieau- 

aeg), little hill (farm), 231 
Leyr i 

Lezayre, Parish of, Le Ayre, C S, 
Skeeyley-Ch reest-ny--fi^iryfiffy, 
Chrbt's parish church of the 
Ayre, 213, 254 
Lez Sulfyy Le Soulliy, C S (ny 
Sulby)* ? of the Sulby, 213, 
254,298 
Lhane mooar, The (? lane), the big 
trench, 157 
Lhebaneb, * a meadow,' 146 
Lheeaney veg, little meadow, 237 
„ vooar, big meadow, 237 
Lheaney, The, the meadow, 

146 (and addenda) 
Lheany gibby, Gibby's meadow, 
224 
„ runt, round meadow (ad- 
denda) 
„ toiaby, C S,* Totaby mea- 
dow, 146, 299 

J;^"* jr>i.. the little meadow, 

Lhiannag \ ^^ 

Lheim-feeaih, deer's leap, 193 
Lhen, The (? lane), the trench, 157 

and addenda 
Lhen mooar, The {?lane), the big 

trench, 157 
Lhiaght-ny-foawr, grave of the 
giant, 185 
„ -y-Kinry {e), Kinry's grave, 
152, 223 



Jnb)^ Df Ij^lAte-ltsim^m, 



357 



Lhiattee-ny-beinnee, side of the 

summits, 148, 166 
LlARGAGH, 'slope* (of hill), 132, 

143 
Large beg/ little slope, 143, 236 

Largee doo, 232 
Largy, slope, 132 

„ doo, black slope, 232 

t, rhea* {rfo), smooth slope, 

132,244 
„ rhenny, or Lhergy renny, 
ferns*, or ferny slope, 132, 
243 
Lhargee ruy, red slope, 234 
Lherghy clagh willey, Willey's stone 

slope, 168, 224 
Lhergy colvin, Colvin's slope, 222 
„ grcmxy S, Grawe slope, 251 
„ rhaa, Rhaa or fort slope, 173 
„ The, the slope, 132 
Liaigey-ny-houne (awin), slope of 

the river, 169 
Liggca, S {lag-ey), low island, 254, 

301 • 
Lingage ? 

Little London, S, {lUtill'lundr), 
little grove, 258 
,t ness, S {littill'ftes)^ little ness, 
304 
LoGH, * a lake,* 147 
Loch Skillicore, ? S ? 
Lochfield ned (? modern), 317 
hoghmo/h, C S, ma/ar\ogh, S C, 

pebbles lake, 286 
Lough eranstall, C S, or Cranstall 
Lough, S C, Cranstal lake, 
296 
„ croute {kruU\ harp lake, 182 
„ doo, black lake, 147, 232 
„ drughaig {drugha^), dog- 
rose lake, 200 
„ Ca^-e-whin^ * (farm name), 
Gate-whmg lake, 147, 280 
„ na-baa* {ny), lake of the 

cows, 147, 192 
„ ny-greeagh {creagh\ lake of 
the stack, 176 
LOGHAN (diminutive of logh\ 158 
Loughan-keeill-vael,* Michael's cell 
pond, 158, 215 
„ ny-maidjey, ny-mashey, 
(? m€uise\ pond of the 
cattle, 192 



Loughan-y-eiy or y-guiy, pond of the 

goose, 158, 197 
Lonnan, Parish of, Skeeylley 
Lonnan, Lonnan*s parish 
church, 207 , 

LooB, 'a loop,' used of 'a guUey,' 

146 
Lhoob doo, black gulley, 232 
„ y-charran (tf), CsLrran's gully, 

223 
„ M -rcast, gulley of the waste, 
146, 168 
Lord Henry's well, 312 

Maase moar | {baUa vcuLse mooar\ 
Mace moore ( big cattle (farm), 230 
Madeira, 315 

Magher, * a field,' 149 
Magher-a-fuill {y\ field of the 
blood, 179 
„ breck,* speckled field, 149, 

236 
„ . cabbal, chapel field, 172 
„ e-kew,* Kew's field, 63, 149 
„ glass,* green field, 149, 234, 

235 
„ kiel, narrow field, 238 
„ liauyr, long field, 237 
„ vane, white field, 233 
„ yn-ullin, field of the stack- 
yard, 151 
„ y-broogh, field of the brow, 

>t ft -ca^ey, field of the battle, 

„ „ -chiam, field of the lord, 

149. 188 
„ „ -keim, field of the stile, 

177 
„ „ -ruillic, field of the grave 

yard, 173 
„ „ -traie, field of the shore, 

171 
Malar Logh, S C (ob.) (S, m6l^ gen. 

maiar), see Logh Afoi/o 
Malew, Parish of, Skeeylley 

Malew, Molipa's, or (Ma) 

Lupus' parish church, 212 
Man, Isle of, 130 
Manusan rocks, 317 
Marowo, Parish of, Skeeylley Ma- 

rooney, Marooney's parish 

church, 208 
Martland ? 
Martha gullet, 315 



358 



JiUn^x 0f f^latie-Aatniesu 



Mary vcg, S C, Medrey vcg {man^ 

S), little border land, 277 
Mary Toar, Mearey voar, big border 

land, 277 
Maughold Head^ 216 

„ Parish of, Skeeylley 

Maf^hal, Maughold's 

parish church, 205, 

207 

Maun (ob.) (now Isle of Man), 131, 

251 
Meayll, The, Mull, Thi^ C {tnaol), 
S [m^i)f the bare headland, 
or the headland, 140, 251 
Mexr-ny-foawr, fingers of the giant, 

185 
Michael, Parish of, Skeeyley Mayl, 
Michael's parish church, 213 
Michael Sheading, S, 2x3, 268-71 
Middle Sheading, S, Medal {M^al), 

301 
Milner Tower, 314 
Milntown, Milltown, 314 
Minorca, 3x6 
Mirescoge (ob.), S {Myrar'skdgar)^ 

wood bog, 259, 260, 278 
MOAINEE, or MoANEYy * turbary, 

turf bog/ 137, 147 
Moanamoght {y-moght), turbary of 

the poor, 185 
Moainee moUagh, rough turbary, 147 
Moaney beg, little turbary, 237 
„ doo, black turbary, 232 
„ moar (mooar)^ big turbary, 

237 
moUagh, rough turbary, 241 
turbary, 



(• ? Quill's t 
bary, 137, 



q"'^*l?*(ftf««V), comer tur- 
146 
„ The, 137 
Mooragh, The, the sea waste or 
sand bank, 134 
, Mon, S, Isle of Man, 131, 231 
Mona, Isle of Man, 131 
Mont Pelier, 317 

Morest, S {rnvrar-stt^r), moor stead 
Mount Karrin, or Carrin, Karrin's 

Mount, 305 
Mount Murray, 312 
Mount Rule, Knock Rule, Rule's 

hill, 218, 305 
Mount Strange, 311 
Mull, The, S {Mtiit), the headland 
or crag, 140, 251 



MuLLAGH, 'top, summit,' 142, 148 
MuUagh-ouyr, grey or dun top, 142 
„ y-Sniaul, C S, top of Snse- 
fell, 148 
Mwannal-y-guiy, neck of the goose. 
150, 197 
MwYLLiN, *a mill,' 153 
Mullen aragher, Faragher's mill, 222 
beg,* little mill, 153, 236 
doway (ob.) (? Soo-aa)^ 
black ford mill (now 
Union Mills), 170, 232 
e-Corran, Corran's mill, 

153. 223 
e-Cowle,* Cowle's mill, 

61. 153 
lawne, Mullin-ny-hawin, mill 

of the river, 169 
reneash(ri»ff-tfaj),mil] of the 

waterfall ridge, 167, 170 
Mwyllin-ny-cleiy, mill of the hedge, 

172 
„ y-quinney (^),* Quinncy^s 

mUl, 40, 153 

Nab, The, S {nabbi\, th^ knoll, 251 
Naish {?yn-aash), the rest, 141 
Nappin, The {cnappan), the little 
hillock, 140 
„ The East, the east little 

hillock, 140 
„ The West, the west little 
hillock, 140 
Narradale, S (Narfa-dair), Narfi's 

dale, 254, 29(6 
Nary (yn-aeree), the moor, 1 33 
Nearey [yn-eary), the moor, 133 
Nascoin, Nascoan {yft'eas-coan), the 

narrow waterfall, 146, 238 
Nassau, 316 

Nay, The,* C S {yn-ey), the Isle, 252 
Neb (R) (see Kneebe), 251 
Nellan {yn-elian), the isle, 137 
„ renny, the ferny, or ferns' 
isle, 242 
Nerlough {yn-neear), the west lake, 

241 
Newtown, 315 
Niarbyl, The {yn-arbyl), the tail 

(addenda) 
Northop, S {nof^'\>orp), the north 

village, 267, 292 
Nunnery, The, 306 
Nuns' chairs, The, 314 
Nuns' well, The, 314 



Inbtx 0f |^Iats4Etam»« 



3S9 



Oaie-ny-foawr, •grave of the giant,* 

152, 186 
Oatlands, 305 
Ohio, 316 

Olt (see Alt), mountain stream, 135 
OoiG, ' a cave,' originally Ogr, S, 

adopted into Manx, 277 
Ooig doo, S C, black cave, 233, 277 
„ ny pheastul ? 

„ ny-seyr, S C, cave of the car- 
penter, 277 
„ veg, S C, little cave, 277 
„ y-vceal, SC, cave of the en- 
trance, 170, 277 
Ooigfd doo, S C, black caves, ?77 
Or vooar, big verge, 144, 145 
Orrisdale, m)rrisdale, Orestal, S 

(eyri^ gravelly bank dale, 272, 
273 
ore (Danish), forest dale, 273 
Orrysy Orry's dale, 299 
Ormeshan (Ormc*s), ? 297 
Orm's house (ob. ), S E, 14, 296 
Oxwath (ob.) {uxa-vc^)^ ox ford, 

Pairk-ny-earkan, pork of the Lap- 
wing, 149, 196 
Park Llewellyn,* Llewellyn's park, 

149 
Particles, Partical (a land division). 

Portions, 317, 318 
Patrick, Parish of, Skeeylley Pha- 

rick, Patrick's parish church, 

20s 
Peel, fortress, 137 
Peel/<m/«, C E, 137 
Perwick, S {petrs-vik)^ Peter's creek, 

297 
Pigeon's cove. The, 314 
Piscoe ? 

Pollock rock. The, 314 
Poortown, 314, 315 

PCX)YL, • a pool,' 147 
Pooil dhooie, ? kind pool, 248 
Pool hilley \ 

;: :! tree pool. 199 

Pooyl bremn, stagnant pool, 24I 
„ therriu, bulls' pool, 192 
„ vaaish, death pool, 147, 186 

Pulrose, Poolroish, wood pool, 170, 
228 

Priory of Douglas, 306 



PURT, <a port, harbour,' 144 
Port Bravag ? 
„ Comah^ C S, Comah port, 144, 

285, 293 
„ Cranstal, C S* Cranstal port, 

144,296 
„ e-chee {y-shee), port of the 

peace, 187 
„ e-vada {baatey)^ port of the 

boat, or boat port 
„ erin, Port Iron, Phurt yiarn 

(yiam)^ iron port, 203 
„ greenaugh {Igrtanagh)^ sunny 
port, 242 

or 
„ greenock, greemvyk^ S {gran- 

vlk\ Green creek port, 301 
„ groudle, eroudale, crowdale, 

CrowdaTe port, 305 
„ Jack, Jack's port, 315 
„ Lewaigue,* Lewaigue port, 144, 

231 
„ ny-ding [kin^^ port of the 

heads, 168 
„ (or Puirt) ny-mwyllin, port of 

the mill, 173 
„ St. Mary, Purt-le-Morrough, 

Purt-noo-Moirrey, St. Mary's 

port, 216, 305 
n skilleig, narrow strip port, 227 
„ skillion (?) 
„ y-vullen {mwyllin)^ port of the 

mill, 173 
Puirt Ceabsigh, cloddy port, 247 
Purt Mooar, big port, 144, 237 
Purt-ny-Coan, port of the valley, 169 
Purt-ny-Hinshey (ob.) {innis), port 

of the isle, 171 
Purt-ny-shee, port of the peace, 187 
„ veg, Utde port, 237 

Quarter bridge 
Quarterland (see Kerroo) 
Qnine's hill 

Rath (I), ? Raa (Manx), 'a fort ' 
Raa Mooar, or 77ie Raa Mooar, big 

fort, or the big fort, 153 
Rhaa, 7he^ the fort, 138 
Rah,* fort, ? 138 
Raad-jiarg, red road, 155 
Raby, S {rdr-byr)^ nook farm, 279 
Raclay, S {rdr- ? ), nook ? 
Raggatt, S {rdr-gata), nook path, 

279 



36o 



Ittlrtx 0f f^tAt^'WiAmAB* 



Raggey, or Racky, ? 

Ramsey, Ramessay, Ramsa, Ram- 
so, S {Aramns- d or ey). 
Raven's .water, or Raven's 
isle, 281,284, 294, 29s 

Rarick, S {rdr-vik^ nook creek, 
279 

Rauff, S {Hrolfs ? j/<rt$r), Ralfs 
(stead). 29s 

Ravensdale (modem)' 

Redgap 
Rerast, 'a waste, desert/ 133, 

143 
Reash,* ? waste, 133 
Reeast bwee, yellow waste, 23i6 
„ marshy The^* the marsh 

waste, 133 
„ mooar, big waste, 143 
„ mooar, The^ the big waste, 
133 
R<^by, Regby, S {hryggjar-byr), 

ridge farm, 273 
Renny, Ballarenny, ferns* or ferny 

farm, 248 
Rheboeg? 
Rheynn, * a division or ridge,' see 

RiNN 

Rheyn, 77ie\^, .... 
Rhine, Th€ \ ^^^ division, 133 
Rhullick, 'a graveyard, a church- 
yard,' 152 
Rhullick-keeill-vael, Michael's cell 

graveyard, 216 
Rhullick-ny -Quackeryn , graveyard of 
the Quakers, 152, 184 
»» y-lagg-shliggagh, graveyard 
of the shelly hollow, 169, 
242 
Richmond hill (modem), 315 
Rig, S (Ao'/jr), ridge, 253, 257 

RiNN, * a ridge,' 143 
Renab, abbot's ridge, 189 
„ as, Rheneash (axj), waterfall 

ridge, 170 
„ cheiry, ? 

„ cullen {cullion), holly ridge, 200 
„ doo, black ridge, 232 
„ shent {skeant)t holy ridge, 143, 

245 
„ skault, Renskelt {sceilt)^ cleft 

ridge, 238 
„ uriing (ob.) {urUy), eagle ridge, 

196 
RhenwyUin {mttfyi/in), mill ridge, 

173 



Ronaldsway, Ranaldwath, S {J^ogn- 
valds- vagr or va%\ Regi- 
nald's bay, or ford, 260, 261, 
297 
Ronnag (? Ron-og, see Marffum) 
Round Table, The, 312 
Rowany, Edremoney {eddyr-daO' 
moaine€)t between two tur- 
baries, 249 
Rozefell(ob.), S (hross-fjaU), horse- 
fell, 282 
Rue Point, 305 
Rushen Abbey, 304 
Rushen, Parish of, yn skeerey 
Rushen, Skeeyllcy Chreest 
Rushen, Christ's Rushen 
parish church, 160, 211, 
212, 229 
„. sheadings S, Russein's shead- 
ing, sheading of the little 
wood, 160, 212, 228, 229, 
268, 285 

Saddle road, 310 

St. Anne's Head ) {Sanctan\ Sane- 

Santon Head ( tan's Head, 304 

St. Germain's\- ^, , . 

St, German's /C*t^e^'^»l» 210 

St. John's, 306 

St. Luke's, ?St. Lcoc, 172, 311 

St. Mary's rock, 312 

St. Maughold's chair, 311 

St. Michael's isle, 315 

St. Patrick's chair, 314 

St, Trinian's church, Ninnian's or 

Ringan's church, 214, 215 
Sandbrick, Saurebreck, S {saura- 
brekka)f sour land slope, 279 
Sandall, S {sand-t/alr), sand dale, 

275, 286 
Sandwick, S {sand-vik^ sand creek, 
286 
„ Boe, S C, sand creek cow 
(rock), 170, 286 
Santon, Parish -of, Skeeylley Ston- 
dane, Sanctan's parish 
church, 209 
„ bum^* C E, Sanctan's river, 
209 
Santwat \(ob.), S {stmd'VeX), sand 
Santway/ ford, 286 
Sartell, Sartfell, S (xwflff -^Vi//), black 

fell, 302 
Scant, Skara, S {skor^ gen. skara)^ 
edge, 252 



Mtdftpc nf T^lecCB-Wtaimsu 



361 



Scarista, S {skauris^stadr), Skauri's 
stead, 298 

Scarlet, Scarclowtc, S {Skar/a- 
kluft). Cormorant cleft, 297 ; 
(Skarfi-klufi), Skarfs cleft, 
258, 274 ; {Skarar-kluft), 
cleft edge, or edign cleft, 284 

Scolaby, Scaleby, S {skala-lyr), shed 
farm, 281 

Scottean, ? 

Scravorley (? scrah-vaalley)^^ fence, 

151, 177 
Scrondall, S, ? 
Seal rock 
Shag rock. The, the Cormorant rock, 

284 
Sharragh vane, or vedn. The, the 

white foal, 194, 233 
Sheading, Shedding, S, 268-271 
Shellag, S {skeljar-vik), shell creek, 

261, 284 
Shenmyllin {muyllin), old mill, 
249 
„ rollick {ruillu), old church- 
yard, 173, 249 
,, thalloo, old plot or land, 249 
„ valla {ball^), old farm, 171, 
249, 275 
Shonest, S (skauns-std^r), Skaun*s 
stead, or meadow-land stead, 
279. 298 
Silver Burn, The, 305 
Sir George's bridge, 313 
Skard, S {skafb), mountain pass, 

252 
Skarsdale, S {skat^s-dalr\ mountain 

pass dale, 273 
Skeerey, 161 

Skerrisdale, Skerristal, Skaristal, S 
{Skauris'dalr ?), Skauri's 
dale, 298; {skers'dalr, or 
skerriiS'dair) skerry dale, or 
-skerries dale, 277 
Skerristal beg,* S C, Little Skauri's- 
dale, 236, 277, 298 
M mooar,* S C, Big Skauri's- 
dale, 236, 277, 298 
Skeirripl S (sker-ripr), skerry crag, 
Skerrip / 259, 277 
Sker lea,* S C, gray skerry, 235, 277 
Skerrznes, S C, small skerries, 277 
Sker Yre&cy, S C, speckled skerry, 

277 
Skibrick, S ? {ski^hrygp'), ships' 
ridge, 281 



Skinscoe, Skynneskor, S {Skinnis- 

skffr), Skinni's edge, 260, 

298 
Skoryn, The, S {7 skor), the edge, 

252 
Skybright, ? 
Skyehill,Skyall, Scaccafel, S (skoffur- 

fjall), wood fell, 180, 273, 



Sleckby 1 o ^{jslakka - byr\ slope 



274. 30s 

- Is V- - 

Slegaby / "^ \ farm, 275 

Slirau, ' a mountain,' 142 
' Slieau, or Slieu, cairn, cum, ciam or 
cam {earn), cairn moun- 
tain, 174 
„ chiarn. Lord's mountain, 

188 
„ coar, pleasant mountain, 

245 
„ doo,* black mountain, 142, 

236 
„ eary Stane, Steen's moorland 

mountain, 223 
,, Ihean, broad mountain, 238 
,, Lewaigue,* Lewaigue moun- 
tain, 231 
„ losht, bumt mountain, 243 
„ maggle Kmaggyl), testicles 

mountain, 195 
„ meanagh, middle mountain, 

240 
„ meayl, bare mountain, 244 
„ monagh {moanagh\ turfy 

mountain, 243 
„ ny-caraane,* mountain of the 

caim, 142, 158 
„ ,, -clogh, mountain of the 

stone, 168 
„ „ -frenghan,ny-farrane, moun- 
tain of the spring, 176 
,, ouyr, gray or dun mountain, 

235 
,, rea,* smooth mountain, 142, 

244 
„ ree \ (?rir«), king's mountain, 
„ reii ] 142, 188 
„ whuallian {qualltan)^ whelp 
mountain, 194 
Sloe, T^e islogh), the gully, 136 
Sloc-na-cabbyl-screevagh, pit orally 
of the scabby horse, 146, 194, 
246 
Smeale, S, ? {smala-stadr), small 

cattle (stead), 283 
Smelt, The, 313 



362 



Jnb^x i»f ^lat^'Vi^vxtsu 



Snsefell, S (Sna-ffall), snow-fell, 

142, 256, 288 
Sniaul, ob., S (see Snsefell), 141 
Soderick, S (sU^r-vik), the south 

creek, 289 

SodorandMaiij^^-^92 

Soldrick, S {solar-vlk^ solar-hryggr^ 

sun-creek, 257, 288 
Sound, The, 312 
Southampton, Southampton, 315 
Spaldrick, S (? Pall-vik), Paul's 

creek, 257 
Spanbh Head, 312 
Spire Gullet, 315 

Spoo)rt vane, white spout, 146, 233 
Squeen, ? 

Stack indigo, S £ (stakkr\ indigo 
stack, 274 
„ mooar {stakkr), big stack, 

274 
, , Th£t the stack, or the detached 
rock, 253, 260 
Staflaand, The, 308-310 
Staiden, The ? 
Starve/, ? 

Staward (modem), 316 
Staynarhea, S, ob. (steina - haugr), 

stones* how, 275 
Stockhill, (modem) 
Stockfield, 

Stoyl-ny-Mannanan (e\ Mannanan's 

seat or stool, now usually 

called Mannanan's chair, 185 

Strand hall, S {strandar-holl), strand 

hill, 257, 278 
Strang, The, 312 
Streneby, S (? strenjar-byr), narrow- 

diannel farm, 279 
Stroin-vuigh, yellow nose, 144, 236 
Strooan, 'a stream, current,' 158 
Soman Barowle,* Baroole stream, 
158, 217 
„ Rowany,* Kowany stream, 
158, 249 
Stroan fasnee, winnowing stream, 
191 
„ ny - carlane {keyrr - lafu), 
stream of the sheepfold, 

171. 174 
„ „ -craue, stream of the bone, 
158, 180 
Strooan reagh, laughing stream, 244 
Straan crammag,* Crammag stream, 
158, 159 



Stnian keeill-Crore, Crore's cell 
stream, 217 
„ Kerry Nicholas, Kate Nicho- 
las s stream, 225 
„ ny- quill {cooi/u stream of the 

nook, 158, 169 
„ snail, ? snail stream, 158 
Stuckeydoo, Stuggadoo {siuggey\ 

black piece, 150, 232 
Sugarloaf Rock, The, 312 
Sulby, Solbce, Solvcby, S {Solva- 

byr), Solva's farm, 298 
Sulbrick, S (Solva-brekka), Solvi's 

slope, 298 
Surby, Saureby, S {saurabrekka\ 
sourland slope, 279 
„ beg,*S C, little sourland slope, 
236, 279 , ^ 

„ mooar,* S C, big sour land 
slope, 236, 279 
Swarthawe, S (svart-haugr), black 
how, 256, 302 

Tarrastack, S (? Tarans-stakkr), 

Taran's stack, 217 
Testraw, Testro, ? 

Th ALLOC, * land * or 'plot,' 149 
Thalloo-a-peishteig, land of the little 
worm, 198 
„ Caragher,* Faragher*s plot, 

37. 149 
„ drine, thorn-tree plot, 200 
... >* ^gt litUe thora-tree 

plot, 200 
„ kiel, narrow plot, 238 
„ losht, burnt land, 243 
„ Mitchal,* ? Mitchell's plot, 

149, 223 
„ Quaylc,* Quayle s plot, 34, 

149 
„ Queen, ? Quine s plot, 222 
„ Veil, Bell's plot, 149, 223 
„ voanagh, turfy ploi, 243 
Thie Juan Ned, John Ned's house, 

153 
„ ny-tidder, house of the weaver, 

191 

Tholt-e-Will {sixili). Will's bam, 

153 
Thorkclsbser, ob., S {^orkels-bar)^ 

Thorkell's farm, 
Thorkclstad, ob., {\>Aorke/s-staiSr)f 

Thorkell's stead, 298 
Thousla Rocks, ? ^04 
Tobacco Gullet, 313 



Jntinex xif ^latie-Aattt^au 



363 



Tosbay, S, Totaby, Totnamby 
{Toftar-as-mund or Toftar- 
mana-6/r), Osmund's or 
Manias knoll farm, 274, 299 
Tower of Refuge, The, 314 
Towl Dick, Dick's hole, 
»» Assy* C S {fihhaugr), under 

how hole, 239, 257 
Traie, ' a shore, strand,' 144 
Traie bane, white shore, 144 
„ brisht, broken shore, 243 
„ cabbage {cabbag\ sourdock 

shore, 201 
„ coon, narrow shore, 238 
,t cronkan,* hillock shore, 144, 

,, cum, crmn,* {cruinn), round 

shore, 144, 239 
„ dullish, seaweed shore, 202 
„ foalley, treacherous shore, 248 
» fiS^gi C S* {fO'kaugr), under 

how shore, 239, 257 
» lagagh*(/d^^^), hollow shore, 

US* 144 

,, By-earkan, shore of the lap- 
wing, 196 

„ „ -feayney, shore of the wine, 
203 

„ „ -foillan, shore of the sea- 
gull, 197 

„ „ -fuilley, shore of the blood, 
179 

»> i> -g^^* S, shore of the ravine, 
256 

„ „ .Halsall»(«),Halsairs shore, 
223 

„ „ -sloat, shore of the small 
pool, 178 

„ „ -uainaigue* (ean-aeg) {e\ 
Young John's shore, 144, 
224 

4, „ -vollan, shore of the carp, 
198 

,1 vaaish, death shore, 186 

„ vane, white shore, 233 
Treein, treen (a land division), 161, 

162 
Treljey, Treljea, ? 
Tremmissary,Tremesare, S {}^amar- 
setr)f seat edge, 276 



Trinian's, St., St. Ninnian's, 214 
Trollaby, S {trolla-byr), trolls' 

farm, 288 
TroUatoft, S {irolla-toft), trolls* 

knoll, 260, 288 
Tromode, Tremott {Wamar-hoU)^ 

wood edge, 275, 276 
Tynwald, Tinwald, S 0>ing-voi/r), 

Parliament-field, 261-266 
Tinwald Hi//, S E, Parliament-field 

hill, 261-266 

Ughtagh-breesh-my-chree {brishey)^ 
Break-my-heart hill, 143, 188 
Ulican, Oolican* (? u//a\ 298 
Uiist, S {U//s'Stadr\ Ull's stead, 

2^ 
Union Mills, 170, 232, 314 
Ushstairs ? (small rocks in the sea) 



Vzx^l {ba//a-va€Lse)t cattle (farm), 

230 
Virginia, 316 
Voney ? {b<i//a - voaney), turbary 

(farm), 230 

Walberry, ? 

Warfield, Wardfell, S {vat^a-ffa//). 
Beacon Fell (now South Bar- 
rule), 287 

Whalhxg, Thel , 

Wollag, The / ^ 

Whing, The {quing\ the yoke, 141 

White Bridge, 305 

White Hoe, S (? hvit-hau^r)^ white 
how, 301 

White House, The 

White Strand, 305 

Wigan, 316 

Yn <w,* C S {yn-haugr), the how, 

253. 256 
Yiam jerrey. Iron End, 186 
Yn scregganagh, the rocky place, 

141 
Yons quarter, John's quarter, 224 
Y slogh, the pit, or the gulley, 

136 




LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



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Glos. 

Backhouse, Thos. J., York Cliff, Blackburn. 

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Court, LO.M. 
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Black, Dr. Ernest, Sydney Mount, Douglas, LO.M. 
Black, Geo. F., Museum pf Antiquities, Edinburgh. 
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Bayswater, London, W. 
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1tt0f 0f infmtViih^xiB^ 367 

Browne, Rev. G. F. (B.D.), St. Catherine's College, Cambridge. 
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copies). 
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Christian, Edward, Glendale, Queen's Co., New York, U.S.A. 

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Christian, Robert, „ „ „ 

Christian, Mrs. J. H., 18, Mansfield Street, Portland Place, London, 

W. 
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3^8 Ctef iof itxft0tf^in(i^ 

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castle, Staffs. 
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Drinkwater, G. (M.A.), (H.M. Crown Receiver), Kirby, I.O.M. 
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Ellison, T. P., Bucks Road, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Faraker, W. Cregeen, 71, Wickham Road, Brockley, London, S.£. 
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George, Rev. Beauchamp(M.A.), Maycroft, Douglas, I.O.M. 
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Godlee, J. Lister, 3, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 
Goldie-Taubman, J. S. (S.H.K., J.P.), The Nunnery, I.O.M. 
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Hall, Rev. J. W. (M.A.), South Baddesley Vicarage, Lymington, 
Hants. 

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Haviland, Dr. Alfred (M.R.C.S.E.), Clarence Terrace, Douglas, 
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Hcyes, Charles B., Hawarden Avenue, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Holmes, Mrs. Annie, Sea View Villa, Port Soderick, I.O.M. 

Howland, John T. (C.E.), Mona Cottage, Laundry Road, Fulham, 
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Andreas, I.O.M. 

Hutchinson, W. A., Castle Fields, Rastrick, Near Brighouse, 
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Inglis, Rev. David (M.A.), 39, Derby Square, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, P.M.C., 
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Karran, J. J., Thornton, Douglas, I.O.M. 

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Kermode, Rev. W. (M.A.), Ballaugh Rectory, I.O.M. 

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Ramsey. 
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Kerruish, W. S., Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
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Kneale, Wm. (Bookseller), Victoria Street, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Kneen, Thos,, The Glencrutchey, Nr. Douglas, I.O.M. (2 copies). 

24 



37^ Ctef nf iviff0CKifftV0* 

Laughton, Mrs., Ballaquane, Peel, I.O.M. 
Leece, Rev. C H., Ballamona, Port Soderic, I.O.M. 
Leece, Thos., Stanley Villa, Derby Road, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Lewis, W. E. (M.A.), King William's College, I.O.M. 
Library, The, Jesus College, Oxford. 
Library, The, King William's College, I.O.M. 
Little, James W. (J. P.), Strand, Barrow-in-Furness. 
Lupton, Rev. B. J. S. (M.A.), St. Mark's Parsonage, Ballasalla, 
I.O.M. 

Mackinnon, Prof. Don, i, Merchiston Place, Edinburgh. 

Maclagan, R. C, 5, Coate's Crescent, Edinburgh. 

Macnish, Rev. Dr. Neil (M.A., LL.D.), Cornwall, Ontario, Canada. 

Macqueen, Capt. Alexander, i, Taubman Terrace, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Maitland, Dalrymple, Brook Mooar, Union Mills, I.O.M. 

March, Dr. H. Colley, 2, West Road, Rochdale. 

Marsden, Joseph T., 50, Belgrave Road, Darwen, Lancashire. 

Maxwell, Sir Herbert, Bart., M.P., Monreith, Whauphill, N.B. 

Moore, James, Victoria Street, Douglas, I.O."M. 

Moore, Mrs. W. F., Cronkbourne, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Moore, W. F. Q.P.), 

Moore, Miss E. E., „ „ „ 

Moore, Rev. F. J. (BA.), Kirk Braddan Vicarage, I.O.M. 

Moore, Miss S., 9, Belmont Terrace, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Moore, Lucas E., New Orleans, U.S.A. 

Moore, Thos. H., Andreas, Kingsmead Road, Birkenhead. 

Moore, James, Bombay. 

Morfill, W. R. (M.A.), 4, Clarendon Villas, Oxford. 

Morris, Rev. W. (M.A.), Ramsey, I.O.M. 

Morrison, Miss, Athol Street, Peel, I.O.M. 

Mylrea and Allen, Duke Street, Douglas, I.O.M. (2 copies). 

Mylrca, J. A. (H.K., J.P.), Crescent, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Newton, Rev. A. S. (MA.), Grammar School, Ramsey, I.O.M. 
Nicholson, C, Well Road Hill. Douglas, I.O.M. 
Nicholson, J. M., 2, St. Thomas' Walk, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Okell, W. H., Glen Falcon, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Patterson, Geo., The Studio, Ramsey, I.O.M. 

Pearson, J. L. (R.A.), 13, Mansfield Street, Portland Place, 

London, W. 
Pearson, F. L., 13, Mansfield Street, Portland Place, London, W. 



Pearson, Rev. Henry, Lambley Vicarage, Nottingham. 
Penfoid, Rev. J. B. (M.A.), King William's College, I.O.M. 

Quayle, Mrs., Bridge House, Castletown, I.O.M. (5 copies). 

Quayle, G. H. (H.K.), „ 

Quayle, Miss, „ „ „ 

Quayle, Miss E. „ „ „ 

Quayle, T. C, Erie Street, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Quine, Rev. John (M.A.), Grammar School, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Quirk, Jos.; Braddan School House, I.O.M. 

Radcliffe, E., Kingswood Grove, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Radford, Mrs., Farm Hill, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Ralfe, P., 8, Woodbum Square, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Ready, Col. J. T., EUerslie, Hawkhurst, Kent. 
Reynolds, Llywarch, Old Church Place, Merthyr Tydfil. 
Richman, Alfred L., 9, School Lane, Liverpool. 
Ring, G. A., Alexander Road, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Rixon, A. W., 10, Austin Friars, London, E.C. 
Robinson, Joseph, 5, Falkner Square, Liverpool. 
Roddam, R. J., Roddam Hall, Wooperton, R.S.O., Northumber- 
land. 
Roney, Richard, Frances Villa, Laureston Road, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Saunderson, F., 9, Earl Terrace, Douglas, I.O.M. ' 

Savage, Rev. Ernest B. (M.A., F.S.A.), St. Thomas Vicarage 

Douglas, I.O.M. (2 copies). 
Seckham, Mrs. B. T., Thorpelands, Moulton, Nr., Northampton. 
Sherwen, Rev. Canon William, Dean Rectory, Cockermouth. 
Stephen, R. S. (M.A., H.K., J.P.), Spring Valley, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Stowell, Thos., 132, Buck's Road, Douglas, I.O.M. 
Sutherland, James M., Clifton, Nr. Douglas, I.O.M. 
Sutton, Charles W., for Free Public Libraries, Manchester. 
Swinnerton, Charles, The Studio, Port St. Mary, I.O.M. 
Swinnerton, Fred, „ „ „ „ „ 

Swinnerton, Robert, Selbourne Road, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Tarbet, Thomas, 804, Wilson Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Taylor, Rev. Canon (Litt D.), Settrington Rectory, York. 
Teare, William, 24, Mona Street, Liverpool. 
Tellet, Dr. F. S. (F.G.S., C.P.), Ramsey, I.O.M. 
Tupper, William, New Road, Laxey, I.O.M. 
Tyson, F. and E., Mona Cottage, Crescent, Douglas, I.O.M. 

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372 Itef 0f 3nff0CtihtVi^ 

Walpole, Spencer, Dr. (LL.D., His Excellency the Lieutenant- 
Governor), Government House, I.O.M. (5 copies). 

Walsh, the Rev. Father Edmund, St. Mary's Rectory, Douglas, 
I.O.M. 

Walters, the Rev. F. B. (M.A.), Principal of King Willi,am's 
College, I.O.M. 

Ward, the Hon. James Kewley, Box 1818, P.O., Montreal, Canada. 

Whiteside, R., Brunswick Road, Douglas, I.O.M. 

Wood, G. W., Ballagawne, Riggindale Road, Streatham, London, 
S.W. 

Woodd, Mrs. Robert B., Woodlands, Hampstead, London, N.W. 

Wren, A. P., Messrs. Wren and Sons, 7, Fen Court, Lbndon, E.C. 

Young and Sons, Henry, 12, South Castle Street, Liverpool (2 
copies). 



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